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The Implementation GameThe TRIPS Agreement and the Global Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries$
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Carolyn Deere

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199550616

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550616.001.0001

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International Pressures on Developing Countries

International Pressures on Developing Countries

(p.150) 5 International Pressures on Developing Countries
The Implementation Game

Carolyn Deere (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

Chapter 5 explores how international pressures on developing countries contributed to variation in TRIPS implementation, describing the kinds of power at play, the players involved, and the tools they deployed. Trade threats and new trade deals served as vehicles for economic power. Alongside, ideational power was asserted through efforts to shape political environment for TRIPS implementation. The chapter shows that there were ‘compliance‐plus’ pressures from the pro‐IP team, and countervailing pro‐development pressures. These included competing efforts to dominate the framing and discourse of global IP debates through monitoring initiatives, research, support for knowledge communities, and media campaigns. Capacity‐building also had a decisive impact on developing country actions and combined both kinds of power. The chapter highlights that the intensity and focus of international pressures varied by country, as did the timing. Even after developing countries had drafted and implemented TRIPS‐related reforms, many faced pressures to repeal, modify, or strengthen their IP laws. They also faced pressures regarding the administration and enforcement of laws, particularly where these related to the practical use of TRIPS flexibilities.

Keywords:   power, international pressure, free trade agreements, sanctions, trade disputes, monitoring, framing, capacity building, media, ideational, competition, TRIPS‐plus

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