Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
What's Wrong with the British Constitution?$

Iain McLean

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199546954

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546954.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 18 October 2017

(p.357) References

(p.357) References

What's Wrong with the British Constitution?
Oxford University Press

Unpublished sources

Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast

Carson Papers, PRONI D1507.

Fred Crawford, ‘Diary of the gunrunning’ PRONI D1700/5/17/2/4.

Churchill College, Cambridge

Sir William Bull Papers. MSS Bull.

National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Papers on dismissal of Prime Minister by Governor‐General 1975. Attorney‐General's Department, Governor General–Prime Minister: Whether the Governor General has the power to dismiss a Prime Minister. A432, A1975/7778.


The Dismissal–Advice–Opinion of Solicitor General and Attorney General regarding exercise of the Governor General's powers in constitutional crisis. (The ‘Byers–Enderby memorandum’ and associated papers). M4081/1. http://naa12.naa.gov.au/scripts/ItemDetail.asp?M=0&B=5450308

National Archives of Scotland, Edinburgh

Scottish Office, Needs Assessments Studies. 1984–5. SOE6/1/1708–9.

National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh

Rosebery MSS, NLS MS 10049.

National Archives, Kew

Cabinet papers CAB 37 (1909–14).

British Library, London

Walter Long MSS, British Library Add mss 62406.

HM Treasury, London

1976–9 Needs Assessment: background and service‐by‐service papers released to me under a Freedom of Information request 2005.

Imperial War Museum, London

Diaries of (Sir) Henry Wilson. HHW 1.

Parliamentary Archives, London

Bonar Law Papers. MSS BL.

Bodleian Library, Oxford

H. H. Asquith Papers, MSS. Asquith.

Letters of H. H. Asquith to Venetia Stanley. MSS. Eng. c. 7091–8.

A perfect list of the several persons residenters in Scotland, who have subscribed as adventurers in the joynt‐stock of the Company of Scotland trading to Africa and the Indies. Edinburgh, 1696. (5 Delta 277 (4)).

(p.358) Scottish Parliament 1703–7. Voting list of 6 May 1703.

Nuffield College, Oxford.

Mottistone (J.E.B. Seely) Papers. MSS Mottistone

Royal Archives, Windsor

Correspondence of George V and of Lord Stamfordham with various politicians, 1913–14. PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2553.

Correspondence about the Army in Ireland, 1914. PS/PSO/GV/C/F/674.

Published sources

Ackerman B (1991) We the People I: Foundations. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press).

—— (1998) We the People II: Transformations. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press).

Adair D (1974) Fame and the Founding Fathers, edited by T. Colburn. (New York: Norton).

Adhar R and Leigh I D (2005) Religious Freedom in the Liberal State. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Adonis A (1993) Making Aristocracy Work: The Peerage and the Political System in Britain, 1884–1914. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Anson W (1914) ‘Resistance of Ulster: A Comparison and an Analysis’, letter to The Times, 31 March. From the Times Online database.

Austin J (1832/1999) The Province of Jurisprudence Determined. (London: John Murray; facsimile reprint by Lawbook Exchange Ltd, Union, NJ).

Avis P (2000) Church, State and Establishment. (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge).

Balinski M L and Young H P (2001) Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man, One Vote, 2nd edn. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press).

Barbour J S (1907) A History of William Paterson and the Darien Company. (London: William Blackwood and Sons).

Bayly C A (2000) ‘Ireland, India and the Empire: 1780–1914’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 10: 377–97.

Beckett I W F (1986) The Army and the Curragh Incident, 1914. (London: Bodley Head for the Army Records Society).

Beckett J C (1966) The Making of Modern Ireland 1603–1923. (London: Faber & Faber).

Bellamy R (2007) Political Constitutionalism: A Republican Defence of the Constitutionality of Democracy. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Bentley M (2001) Lord Salisbury's World: Conservative Environments in Late‐Victorian Britain. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Bickel A (1962) The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics, 2nd edn. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).

Black D (1958) The Theory of Committees and Elections. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Blackstone W (1765–9) Commentaries on the Laws of England. (Oxford: Printed at the Clarendon Press). Quoted from the scanned version at http://www.yale.edu/ (p.359) lawweb/avalon/blackstone/blacksto.htm#intro. The scanning introduces errors, particularly reading long ‘s’ as ‘f’, which I have silently corrected.

Blake G (1995) ‘Some Lessons from the 1924–25 Irish Boundary Commission’, IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin, Winter 1995–1996. At http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/ibru/publications/full/bsb3–4_blake.pdf.

Blake R (1955) The Unknown Prime Minister: The Life and Times of Andrew Bonar Law 1858–1923. (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode).

Bogdanor V (1985) ‘Dicey and the Reform of the Constitution’, Public Law, 1985: 652–72.

—— (1995) The Monarchy and the Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (1996) Politics and the Constitution: Essays on British Government. (Aldershot: Dartmouth).

—— (2003). The British Constitution in the 20th Century. (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy).

—— (2006) The Conflict Between Government and the Judges. Oxford: Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Available at http://www.fljs.org/uploads/documents/Bogdanor_Policy_Brief%231%23.pdf, consulted 12.01.09.

—— (2007) Review of Robert Hazell ‘The English Question’, Public Law, 2007: 169.

—— (2008) ‘The Consistency of Dicey: A Reply to McLean and McMillan’, Public Law, 2008: 19–20.

Bolton G C (1966) The Passing of the Irish Act of Union: A Study of Parliamentary Politics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Bowers P (2005) The Sewel Convention. House of Commons Library Standard Note: SN/PC/2084. At http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/notes/snpc‐02084.pdf, accessed 15.12.2008.

Bowring J (ed.) (1843) The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 2. (Edinburgh: William Tait).

Braithwaite W J (1957) Lloyd George's Ambulance Wagon. (London: Methuen).

Brown K M (1992) Kingdom or Province? Scotland and the Regal Union 1603–1715. (Basingstoke: Macmillan).

—— Geoghegan P, and Kelly J (2003) The Irish Act of Union, 1800: Bicentennial Essays. (Dublin: Irish Academic Press).

Budge I, Klingemann H D, Volkens A, Bara J, and Tanenbaum E (2001) Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945–1998. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Butler D E and Kavanagh D (1974) The British General Election of February 1974. (London: Macmillan).

—— and Kavanagh D (1980) The British General Election of 1979. (London: Macmillan).

—— and Kitzinger U (1976) The 1975 Referendum. (London: Macmillan).

—— Adonis A, and Travers T (1994) Failure in British Government: The Politics of the Poll Tax. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Butt Philip A (1975) The Welsh Question. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).

(p.360) Calman Sir Kenneth (chairman) (2008) The Future of Scottish Devolution within the Union: A First Report. Edinburgh: Commission on Scottish Devolution. At http://www.commissiononscottishdevolution.org.uk/uploads/2008–12–01‐vol‐1‐final‐‐bm.pdf, consulted 15.12.2008.

Calvert H (1968) Constitutional Law in Northern Ireland: A Study in Regional Government. (London: Stevens).

Campbell J (1993) Edward Heath: A Biography. (London: Jonathan Cape).

Ceadel M (2004) ‘Cecil (Edgar Algernon) Robert Gascoyne [Lord Robert Cecil], Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (1864–1958)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/32335, accessed 10 Oct 2008].

Cecil Lady Gwendolen (1921–32). Life of Robert, Marquis of Salisbury, 4 vols (London: Hodder & Stoughton).

Charity Commission (2008a). Charities and Public Benefit: The Charity Commission's General Guidance on Public Benefit. (Liverpool: Charity Commission).

—— (2008b). Public Benefit and the Advancement of Religion: Draft Supplementary Guidance for Consultation. At http://www.charitycommission.gov.uk/Library/publicbenefit/pdfs/pbarsum.pdf

Chhibber P and Kollman K (2004) The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).

Claim of Right (1989) ‘The Claim of Right of 1988’. Edinburgh: Scottish Constitutional Convention. At http://www.alba.org.uk/devolution/claimofright.html. Publication date given as 1989 because it was then that the Claim was formally signed.

Clerk J (1892) Memoirs of the Life of Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, Baronet, Baron of the Exchequer, Extracted by Himself from His Own Journals 1676–1755, edited by John M Gray. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Cockfield Francis Arthur, Baron The European Union: creating the single market (London: Wiley Chancery Law).

Colomer J M (1995) Game Theory and the Transition to Democracy: The Spanish Model. (Aldershot: Edward Elgar).

Constitution Unit (2007) Monitor 36, May. At http://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution‐unit/files/publications/monitor/Monitor_36.pdf.

Cox A (1981) Review of Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review by John Hart Ely. Harvard Law Review 94:3, pp. 700–16.

Cox G W (1997) Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World's Electoral Systems. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Command Papers (all published by HMSO, London):

Cmnd 3301 (1967) Legal and Constitutional Implications of United Kingdom Membership of the European Communities.

Cmnd 4715 (1971) The United Kingdom and the European Communities.

Cmnd 5999 (1975) Membership of the European Community.

Complaynt of Scotland (c.1549) Probably by Robert Wedderburn. Available at http://www.scotsindependent.org/features/scots/complaynt/index.htm.

(p.361) Conservative Party (2001) Time for Common Sense: 2001 Conservative Party General Election Manifesto at http://www.conservative‐party.net/manifestos/2001/2001‐conservative‐manifesto.shtml#democracy.

Craig F W S (1974) ‘British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918. (London:  Macmillan).

Craig P (2007) ‘Britain in the European Union’, in J Jowell and D Oliver (2007 eds),  The Changing Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 84–107.

Cranmer F and Peterson S (2006) ‘Employment, Sex Discrimination and the  Churches: The Percy Case’, Ecclesiastical Law Journal 8, 392–405.

Crockett A and Crockett R (2006) ‘Consequences of Data Heaping in the British Religious Census of 1851’, Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 39:(1): 24–46.

Crowson N J (2007) The Conservative Party and European Integration Since 1945: At the Heart of Europe? (Abingdon: Routledge).

Cullen L M (1968) Anglo‐Irish Trade 1660–1800. (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

—— (2000) ‘Alliances and Misalliances in the Politics of the Union’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 10: 221–41.

Dáil Eireann (1972) Private Sessions of the Second Dail. Minutes of Proceedings 18.8.1921 to 14.9.1921 and Report of Debates 14.12.1921 to 6.1.1922. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Dalrymple, J 1st Viscount Stair (1681) The Institutions of the Law of Scotland, 2 vols. (Edinburgh).

Dangerfield G (1970) The Strange Death of Liberal England. (London: Paladin). Originally published 1936.

Devine T M (2003) Scotland's Empire, 1600–1815. (London: Allen Lane).

Dicey A V (1885/1915) Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. London: Macmillan. Citations in text are to the 8th (1915) ed., the last edited by Dicey, republished in facsimile Indianapolis: Liberty Classics (1982).

—— (1886) England's Case Against Home Rule. (London: John Murray).

—— (1887) Letters on Unionist Delusions. (London: Spectator).

—— (1890) The Verdict: A Tract on the Political Significance of the Report of the Parnell Commission, 2nd edn. (London: Cassell).

—— (1893/1911) A Leap in the Dark: A Criticism of the Principles of Home Rule as Illustrated by the Bill of 1893, 2nd edn. (London: John Murray).

—— (1905) Lectures on the Relation Between Law and Public Opinion in England During the Nineteenth Century. (London: Macmillan).

—— (1913) A Fool's Paradise: Being a Constitutionalist's Criticism on [sic] the Home Rule Bill of 1912. (London: John Murray).

—— and Rait R S (1920) Thoughts on the Union Between England and Scotland. (London: Macmillan).

Dickson P G M (1967) The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit 1688–1756. (London: Macmillan).

(p.362) Ditchfield G M, Hayton D, and Jones C (eds) (1995) British Parliamentary Lists, 1660–1800: A Register. (London: Hambledon Press).

Dorey P (2008) ‘Stumbling Through “Stage Two”: New Labour and House of Lords Reform’, British Politics 3: 22–44.

Doyle W (2000) ‘The British‐Irish Union of 1801: The Union in a European Context’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 10: 165–80.

Dunlop A I (1967) William Carstares and the Kirk by Law Established. (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press).

Duverger M (1954) Political Parties. (New York: Wiley).

Dymond G and Deadman H (2006) The Salisbury Doctrine. House of Lords Library Note LLN 2006/006, 30 June. At http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/HLLSalisburyDoctrine.pdf.

Ehrman J (1969) The Younger Pitt: The Years of Acclaim. (London: Constable).

Electoral Commission (2003) Distribution Between Electoral Regions of UK MEPs. London: Electoral Commission.

—— (2007) Distribution Between Electoral Regions of UK MEPs: Recommendation July 2007. London: Electoral Commission. At http://www.electoralcommission. org.uk/__data/assets/electoral_commission_pdf_file/0017/16073/MEPs‐Report‐Web‐Final_27140–20067__E__N__S__W__.pdf.

Ely J H (1980) Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Ensor R C K (1936) England 1870–1914. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Fair J D (1971) ‘The King, the Constitution, and Ulster: Interparty Negotiations of 1913 and 1914’, Eire‐Ireland 6(1): 35–52.

Felsenthal D S and Machover M (1998) The Measurement of Voting Power. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar).

Ferguson W (1968) Scotland, 1689 to the Present. (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd).

—— (1977) Scotland's Relations with England: A Survey to 1707. (Edinburgh: John Donald).

Fletcher of Saltoun, Andrew (1698). ‘Two Discourses Concerning the Affairs of Scotland’ in J Robertson (ed., 1997), Andrew Fletcher: Political Works. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 33–81.

—— (1703) ‘Speeches by a Member of the Parliament which Began at Edinburgh the 6th of May, 1703’, in J Robertson (ed., 1997), Andrew Fletcher: Political Works. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 129–73.

Fortescue J W (1914) Military History. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Foster R F (1989) Modern Ireland 1600–1972. (Harmondsworth: Penguin). Originally published by Allen Lane in 1988.

—— (1995) Paddy & Mr Punch: Connections in Irish and English History. (London: Penguin).

Freedom House (annual since 1972) Freedom in the World. Washington DC: Freedom House. At http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/FIWAllScores.xls.

Fry M (2001) The Scottish Empire. (Edinburgh: Tuckwell Press and Birlinn).

(p.363) Galligan B (1995) A Federal Republic: Australia's constitutional system of government. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Geoghegan P M (1999) The Irish Act of Union: A Study in High Politics 1798–1801. (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan).

George H (1882/1911) Progress and Poverty. (London: Dent/Everyman).

Gilbert B B (1978) ‘David Lloyd George: The Reform of British Landholding and the Budget of 1914’, Historical Journal 22: 117–41.

Gilbert W S (1882) Iolanthe: Or the Peer and the Peri. (London: Chappell). Available at: http://math.boisestate.edu/gas/iolanthe/iollib.pdf.

Gillingham J (2003) European Integration, 1950–2003: Superstate or New Market Economy? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Goldie M (1996) ‘Divergence and Union: Scotland and England, 1660–1707’, in B Bradshaw and J Morill (eds), The British Problem, c.1534–1707: State Formation in the Atlantic Archipelago. (London: Macmillan), pp. 220–45.

Griffith J A G (1977) The Politics of the Judiciary. (Glasgow: Fontana/Collins).

Gwynn D (1950) The History of Partition (1912–1925). (Dublin: Browne & Nolan).

Hadfield B (1989) The Constitution of Northern Ireland. (Belfast: SLS Legal).

Hague W (2004) William Pitt the Younger. (London: HarperCollins).

Hailsham Lord (Quintin Hogg) (1976). ‘Elective Dictatorship’. The Richard Dimbleby Lecture. At http://law.uts.edu.au/~chriscl/hailsham.html.

Halévy E (1961) A History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 5: Imperialism and the Rise of Labour, paperback edn. (London: Ernest Benn).

Hall F G (1949) The Bank of Ireland 1783–1946. (Dublin: Hodges Figgis).

Hallerberg M (2004) Domestic Budgets in a United Europe: Fiscal Governance from the End of Bretton Woods to EMU. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

—— and Maier P (2004) ‘Executive Authority, the Personal Vote, and Budget Discipline in Latin American and Caribbean Countries’, American Journal of Political Science 48(3): 57–187.

Hand G (ed.) (1969) Report of the Irish Boundary Commission 1925. (Dublin: Irish University Press).

Hardin G (1968) ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, vol. 162. no. 3859, pp. 1243–8, 13 December.

Hart H L A (1961) The Concept of Law. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Hayton D (1996) ‘Traces of Party Politics in early Eighteenth‐Century Scottish Elections’ in C Jones (ed.), The Scots and Parliament. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 74–99.

—— (2008) ‘Adjustment and Integration: The Scottish Representation in the British House of Commons, 1707–14’, Parliamentary History 27: 410–35.

Hazell R (ed.) (1999) Constitutional Futures: A History of the Next Ten Years. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (2008a) ‘The Acts of Union – the Next Thirty Years’. Sunningdale Accountability Lecture 29 January. At https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/files/staff/Accountability_Lecture.pdf, consulted 21.05.08.

(p.364) —— (ed.) (2008b) Constitutional Futures Revisited: Britain's Constitution to 2020. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

Heald D (1980) ‘Territorial Equity and Public Finances: Concepts and Confusion’. University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, Studies in Public Policy no. 75.

HM Government (1975) Britain's New Deal in Europe. (London: HMSO).

—— (2007) The Governance of Britain, Cm 7170. Norwich: HMSO. Available online at http://www.official‐documents.gov.uk/document/cm71/7170/7170.pdf.

—— (2008) The Governance of Britain – Constitutional Renewal, Cm 7342. Norwich: HMSO. Available online at http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/constitutional-renewal‐white‐paper.pdf.

HM Government Scotland Office (2008). Government Evidence to the Commission on Scottish Devolution. Available at http://www.commissiononscottishdevolution.org.uk/uploads/2008–11–10‐hmg.pdf.

HM Treasury (1979) Needs Assessment Study – Report. (London: HM Treasury).

Hiebert J (1996) Limiting Rights: The Dilemma of Judicial Review. (Montreal: McGill‐Queens University Press).

—— (2002) Charter Conflicts: What Is Parliament's Role? (Montreal: McGill University Press).

Hopkinson M (2002) The Irish War of Independence. (Dubliln: Gill and Macmillan).

Horowitz D L (1991) A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).

Howe G (1973) ‘The European Communities Act 1972’, International Affairs 49(1): 1–13.

Ickes H L (1953) The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes: The First Thousand Days 1933–1936, edited by J. D. Ickes. (New York: Simon & Schuster).

Insh G P (1932) The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies. (London: Charles Scribner's Sons).

Iversen T and Soskice D (2006) ‘Electoral Institutions and the Politics of Coalitions: Why Some Democracies Distribute More Than Others’, American Political Science Review, 100: 165–81.

Jackson A (1989) The Ulster Party: Irish Unionists in the House of Commons, 1884–1911. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1999) Ireland 1798–1998: Politics and War. (Oxford: Blackwell).

—— (2003) Home Rule: An Irish History 1800–2000. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).

Jalland P (1980) The Liberals and Ireland: The Ulster Question in British Politics to 1914. (Brighton: Harvester).

Jay D (1937) The Socialist Case. (London: Faber & Faber).

Jenkins R (1964). Asquith. (London: Collins).

—— (1968) Mr Balfour's Poodle, 2nd edn. (London: Collins).

—— (1992) A Life at the Centre. (London: Pan Books).

Jennings W I (1933/1965) The Law and the Constitution, 5th edn. (London: University of London Press).

—— (1941) The British Constitution. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.365) —— (1959) Cabinet Government, 3rd edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Originally published in 1936.

Johnston E M (1963) Great Britain and Ireland 1760–1800: A Study in Public Administration. (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd).

Johnston‐liik E M (2002) History of the Irish Parliament 1692–1800. (Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation).

Joint Committee On Human Rights (2008) Thirty‐First Report, Session 2007–08. At http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200708/jtselect/jtrights/173/17302.htm.

Jones W D (2001) ‘“Bold Adventurers”: A Quantitative Analysis of the Darien Subscription List (1696)’, Scottish Economic and Social History, 21(1): 22–42.

Jowell J (2007) ‘The Rule of Law and Its Underlying Values’, in J Jowell and D Oliver (eds), The Changing Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 5–24.

—— And Oliver D (eds) (1985, 1989, 2000, 2007) The Changing Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press). 2nd edn. 1989. 4th edn. 2000, 6th edn. 2007.

Jupp P (2000) ‘Britain and the Union, 1797–1801’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 10: 197–219.

Justice (2007) A British Bill of Rights: Informing the Debate. (London: Justice). Available at http://www.justice.org.uk/publication/listofpublications/index.html

Kernell S (2003) ‘Introduction and The True Principles of Republican Government: Reassessing James Madison's Political Science’, in S Kernell (ed.), James Madison: The Theory and Practice of Republican Government (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press): 1–13 and 92–125.

King A (2007) The British Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Kyvig D E (1996) Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776–1995. (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas).

Labour Party (1997) New Labour Because Britain Deserves Better: Britain Will Be Better with New Labour. London: Labour Party. At http://www.bbc.co.uk/election97/background/parties/manlab/labman.html.

—— (1999) Reforming the House of Lords for the New Millennium: Submission by the Labour Party to the Royal Commission on the reform of the House of Lords. (London: Labour Party).

Latham J (1952) ‘Interpretation of the Constitution’ in R Else-Mitchell (ed.), Essays on the Australian Constitution. (Sydney: Law Book Co. of Australia), pp. 1–50).

Lawson P (1993) The East India Company: A History. (London: Longman).

Lecky W E H (1902) A History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, vol. 2. (London: Longmans).

Leigh I D (2004) ‘By Law Established? The Church of England and Constitutional Reform’, Public Law, 266–73.

Lester A and Beattie K (2007) ‘Human Rights and the British Constitution’ in J Jowell and D Oliver (eds), The Changing Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 59–83.

Locke J (1690/1988) Two Treatises of Government edited by Peter Laslett. (Student edn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.366) Loughlin J (2007) The British Monarchy and Ireland: 1800 to the Present. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Loughlin M (2007) ‘The Constitutional Thought of the Levellers’, Current Legal Problems, 60: 1–39.

Low S (1904) The Governance of England. (London: T. Fisher Unwin).

Maccormick N (1998) ‘The English Constitution, the British State, and the Scottish Anomaly’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 101: 289–306.

Madison J (1787/1987) Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention, edited by A Koch. (New York: W. W. Norton).

—— Hamilton A, and Jay J (1788/1987) The Federalist, edited by Isaac Kramnick. (New York: Viking Penguin).

Mallet B (1913) British Budgets 1887–8 to 1912–13. (London: Macmillan).

Marquand D (2008a) Britain since 1918: The Strange Career of British Democracy. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).

—— (2008b). ‘The Democratic Republican Tradition in Britain’ in S White and D Leighton (eds) Building a Citizen Society: The Emerging Politics of Republican Democracy. (London: Lawrence & Wishart), pp. 23–32.

Mathieson W L (1905) Scotland and the Union: A History of Scotland from 1695 to 1747. (Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons).

Matthew H C G (1995) The Gladstone Diaries xi. 1883–1886. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1999) Gladstone 1809–1898. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Marx K (1852) ‘The elections in England – Tories and Whigs’, New York Daily Tribune August 21. In Karl Marx and Frederick Engels on Britain (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1962), pp. 351–7.

McCavery T (2000) ‘Politics, Public Finance and the British–Irish Act of Union of 1801’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 10: 353–75.

McCrudden C (2007) ‘Northern Ireland and the British Constitution under the Belfast Agreement’, in J Jowell and D Oliver (eds), The Changing Constitution. (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 227–70.

McDowell R B (1943) Irish Public Opinion 1750–1800. (London: Faber and Faber).

—— (1979) Ireland in the Age of Imperialism and Revolution 1760–1801. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Macinnes A I (1990) ‘Influencing the Vote: The Scottish Estates and the Treaty of Union, 1706–1707’, History Microcomputer Review, 11–25.

Mackay of Clashfern, Lord (chairman) (1999) Report of the Constitutional Commission. (London: Mackay Commission).

McKenzie R T and Silver A (1968) Angels in Marble: Working‐Class Conservatives in Urban England. (London: Heinemann).

McKinstry L (2005) Rosebery: Statesman in Turmoil. (London: John Murray).

McLean I (1969) Scottish Nationalism: Its Growth and Development, with Particular Reference to the Period since 1961. Oxford University B. Phil Thesis in Politics.

—— (1995) ‘Are Scotland and Wales Over‐represented in the House of Commons?’, Political Quarterly 66: 250–68.

(p.367) —— (1996) ‘E.J. Nanson, Social Choice and Electoral Reform’, Australian Journal of Political Science 31(3): 369–85.

—— (2001a) Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (2001b) ‘The national question’, in A. Seldon (ed.), The Blair Effect: The Blair Government 1997–2001. (London: Little, Brown), pp. 429–47.

—— (2003a) ‘Two Analytical Narratives about the History of the EU’, European Union Politics 4(4): 499–506.

—— (2003b) ‘Before and After Publius: The Sources and Influence of Madison's Political Thought’ in S Kernell (ed.), James Madison: The Theory and Practice of Republican Government (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press), pp. 14–40.

—— (2004) ‘Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and the Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen' in R Fatton Jr and R K Ramazani (eds), The Future of Liberal Democracy: Thomas Jefferson and the Contemporary World (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 13–30.

—— (2005) The Fiscal Crisis of the United Kingdom. (Basingstoke: Palgrave).

—— (2006) Adam Smith, Radical and Egalitarian: An Interpretation for the 21st Century. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

—— (2008) ‘Climate Change and UK Politics: From Brynle Williams to Sir Nicholas Stern’, Political Quarterly, 79: 184–93.

—— (2009) ‘Lessons from the Aberfan Disaster and Its Aftermath’, British Academy Review, 12: 49–52.

—— and Foster C D (1992) ‘The Political Economy of Regulation: Interests, Ideology, Voters and the UK Regulation of Railways Act 1844’, Public Administration 70: 313–31.

—— and Johnes M (2000) Aberfan: Government and Disasters. (Cardiff: Welsh Academic Press).

—— and Linsley B (2004) The Church of England and the State: Reforming Establishment for a Multi‐faith Britain. (London: New Politics Network).

—— and McMillan A (2005) State of the Union: Unionism and the Alternatives in the United Kingdom since 1707. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— and Shephard N (2004) A Program to Implement the Condorcet and Borda Rules in a Small‐n Election. Nuffield College Working Papers in Politics, 2004‐W11. At: http://www.nuffield.ox.ac.uk/Politics/papers/2004/McLean%20and%20Shephard.pdf.

—— Spirling A, and Russell M (2003) ‘None of the Above: The UK House of Commons Votes on Reforming the House of Lords, February 2003’, Political Quarterly, 74(3): 298–310.

—— Lodge G, and Schmuecker K (2008) Fair Shares? Barnett and the Politics of Public Expenditure. (London and Newcastle‐upon‐Tyne: IPPR and IPPR North).

McNeill P G B and MacQueen H L (eds) (1996). Atlas of Scottish History to 1707. (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press).

McNeill R (1922) Ulster's Stand for Union. (London: John Murray).

Mill J S (1859/1910) On Liberty. (London: Dent/Everyman).

Ministry of Justice (2008) An Elected Second Chamber: Further reform of the House of Lords. Cm 7438. (London: TSO). Available online at http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/elected‐second‐chamber.pdf.

(p.368) —— (2009) Responding to Human Rights Judgments: Government Response to the Joint Committee on Human Rights' Thirty‐first Report of Session 2007–08. Cm 7524. (London: TSO). At http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/responding‐human‐rights‐judgments.pdf.

Mitchell J (2006) ‘Undignified and Inefficient: Financial Relations Between London and Stormont’, Contemporary British History, 20/1: 57–73.

Mitchison R (1983) Lordship to Patronage: Scotland 1603–1745. (London: Edward Arnold).

Moravcsik A (1998) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

Morgan K O (1963/1991) Wales in British Politics, 4th edn. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).

—— and Morgan J (1980) Portrait of a Progressive: The Political Career of Christopher, Viscount Addison. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Morris‐Jones W H (1948) ‘Parliament Bill, 1947: Agreed Statement on Conclusion of Conference of Party Leaders, February–April, 1948. (Cmd. 7380)’, The Modern Law Review, 11(3): 332–5.

Murray B K (1980) The People's Budget 1909/10. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Muscatelli A (Chairman) (2008) First Evidence from the Independent Expert Group to the Commission on Scottish Devolution. Edinburgh: Heriot‐Watt University. At http://www.hw.ac.uk/reference/ieg‐first‐evidence.pdf, consulted 15.12.2008.

Nairn T (2000) ‘Ukania under Blair’, New Left Review, January–February. Available online at http://www.newleftreview.org/?view=2095, consulted 14.01.09.

Namier Sir L and Brooke J (eds) (1964) The House of Commons, 1754–1790, 3 vols. (London: Published for the History of Parliament Trust by HMSO).

Nelson W E (1988) The Fourteenth Amendment: From Political Principle to Judicial Doctrine. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Nicolson H (1952) King George V: His Life and Reign. (London: Constable).

Oates W (1972) Fiscal Federalism. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).

O'Brien P K (1988) ‘The Political Economy of British Taxation, 1660–1815’, Economic History Review, 2nd series, 41(1): 1–32.

O'Domhnaill R (2004) ‘Curragh Mutiny in Historical, Legal and Constitutional Perspective’, Royal United Services Institute Journal 149(1): 80–4.

O'Donnell G (2005) ‘The Economy and the State’ in Office of the Civil Service Commissioners, Changing Times: Leading Perspectives on the Civil Service in the 21st Century and Its Enduring Values (London: OCSC, n.d., c.2005), pp. 76–87.

Offer A (1981) Property and Politics 1870–1914: Landownership, Law, Ideology and Urban Development in England. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1983) ‘Empire and Social Reform: British Overseas Investment and Domestic Politics’, Historical Journal, 26: 119–38.

Olson M (2000) Power and Prosperity: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships. (New York: Basic Books).

(p.369) ONS (Office for National Statistics) (2007) UK Electoral Statistics—Local Government and Parliamentary Electors 2007. At http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/Product.asp?vlnk=319.

Parliament Bill: Agreed Statement on Conclusion of Conference of Party Leaders, February–April 1948 Cmd 7380. (London: HMSO).

Penrose L S (1946) ‘The Elementary Statistics of Majority Voting’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 109: 53–7.

Persson T and Tabellini G (2002) ‘Do Constitutions Cause Large Governments? Quasi‐experimental Evidence’, European Economic Review, 46: 908–18.

—— (2005) The Economic Effects of Constitutions, MIT Paperback edn. (Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press).

Peterson, M (ed.) (1984) Thomas Jefferson: Writings. (New York: Library of America).

Peterson S and Mclean I (2007) ‘Of Wheat, the Church in Wales and the West Lothian Question’, Welsh History Review 23(3): 151–74.

Powell E (1977) Joseph Chamberlain. (London: Thames & Hudson).

Prochaska F (2004) ‘Lascelles, Sir Alan Frederick (1887–1981)’, in H C G Matthew and B Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Online edn, edited by Lawrence Goldman, January 2008. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/31334 (accessed September 11, 2008).

Pryde G S (1950) The Treaty of Union of Scotland and England. (London: Nelson).

Pugh M (1985) The Tories and the People 1880–1935. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).

Rait R S (1901) The Scottish Parliament before the Union of the Crowns. (London: Blackie and Son).

Rakove J N (1999) ‘The Super‐Legality of the Constitution, or, a Federalist Critique of Bruce Ackerman's Neo‐Federalism’, Yale Law Journal 108: 1931–58.

Reilly B (2001) Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Reilly R (1979) William Pitt the Younger. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons).

Riker W H (1986) The Art of Political Manipulation. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).

Riker W H (1996) The Strategy of Rhetoric: Campaigning for the American Constitution. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).

Riley P W J (1964) The English Ministers and Scotland 1707–1727. (London: Athlone Press).

—— (1968) ‘The Scottish Parliament of 1703’, Scottish Historical Review 47(143): 129–50.

—— (1978) The Union of England and Scotland: A Study in Anglo‐Scottish Politics of the 18th Century. (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

Rivers J (2000) ‘From Toleration to Pluralism: Religious Liberty and Religious Establishment under the United Kingdom's Human Rights Act’ in R J Adhar (ed.) Law and Religion (Aldershot: Ashgate), pp. 133–61.

Robertson J (1995) ‘An Elusive Sovereignty: The Course of the Union Debate in Scotland 1698–1707’ in J Robertson (ed.), A Union for Empire: Political (p.370) Thought and the British Union of 1707 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 198–227.

—— (ed.) (1997) Andrew Fletcher: Political Works. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Robson W A (1928) Justice and Administrative Law: A Study of the British Constitution. (London: Macmillan).

Rodger of Earlsferry, Lord (2008) The Courts, the Church and the Constitution: Aspects of the Disruption of 1843. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Rose K (1983) King George V. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).

Rossiter D J, Johnston R J, Pattie C J, Dorling D F L, Macallister I and Tunstall H (1999) ‘Changing Biases in the Operation of the UK's Electoral System, 1950–97’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 1: 133–164.

Russell M (2007) ‘Peers’ and Public Attitudes to the Contemporary House of Lords: Briefing for a seminar in the House of Lords, 12 December 2007', London: Constitution Unit. At http://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution‐unit/files/research/parliament/lords/survey‐results2007.pdf.

—— (2009) ‘House of Lords Reform: Are We Nearly There Yet?’, Political Quarterly, 80(1): 119–25.

—— and Sciara M (2007) ‘The Policy Impact of Defeats in the House of Lords’. Paper presented to the Political Studies Association Conference, University of Bath, 11–13 April 2007.

Saville R (1996) Bank of Scotland: A History 1695–1995. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Schofield P (2006) Utility and Democracy: The Political Thought of Jeremy Bentham. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Schumpeter J A (1943/1954) Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, 4th edn. (London: Unwin University Books).

Scott P H (1992) Andrew Fletcher and the Treaty of Union. (Edinburgh: John Donald).

Scott W R (1911) The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint‐Stock Companies to 1720: Vol. III, Water Supply, Postal, Street‐Lighting, Manufacturing, Banking, Finance and Insurance Companies. Also Statements Relating to the Crown Finances. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Shachar A (2001) Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women's Rights. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Sedley S (2008) ‘The Spark in the Ashes: The Constitutional Ideas of the Levellers in the English Civil War’ in C Geiringer and D Knight (eds), Seeing the World Whole: Essays in Honour of Sir Kenneth Keith (Wellington: Victoria University Press).

Senex [said to be Sir A. F. Lascelles] (1950) ‘Dissolution of Parliament: Factors in Crown's Choice’, letter to The Times, 2 May. From the Times Online database.

Sharp A (1998) The English Levellers. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Smith A (1776/1981) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund).

Smith J (1993) ‘Bluff, Bluster and Brinkmanship: Andrew Bonar Law and the Third Home Rule Bill’, Historical Journal, 36: 161–78.

(p.371) Smith Sir David (2005) Head of State: The Governor‐General, the Monarchy, the Republic and the Dismissal. (Sydney: Macleay Press).

Smout T C (1963) Scottish Trade on the Eve of Union 1603–1707. (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd).

—— (1964) ‘The Anglo‐Scottish Union of 1707: I. The Economic Background’, Economic History Review 41(3): 439–67.

—— (1969) A History of the Scottish People 1560–1830. (London: Collins).

Sorabjee S J (2004) ‘Rights and Human Rights in the Modern World: the experience of working the Bill of Rights in the Indian Constitution' in R Fatton Jr and R K Ramazani (eds), The Future of Liberal Democracy: Thomas Jefferson and the Contemporary World (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2004), pp. 115–21.

Speck W A (1994) The Birth of Britain: A New Nation 1700–1710. (Oxford: Blackwell).

Spender J A and Asquith C (1932) Life of Herbert Henry Asquith, Lord Oxford and Asquith. 2 vols. (London: Hutchinson).

Stair: see Dalrymple.

Stephen J (2007) Scottish Presbyterians and the Act of Union 1707. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Stewart A T Q (1967) The Ulster Crisis. (London: Faber & Faber).

—— (1993) A Deeper Silence: The Hidden Roots of the United Irish Movement. (London: Faber & Faber).

Stone Sweet A (2000) Governing with Judges: Constitutional Politics in Europe. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Strachan H (1997) The Politics of the British Army. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Strauss E (1951) Irish Nationalism and British Democracy. (London: Methuen).

Surridge K (1997) All You Soldiers Are What We Call Pro‐Boer: The Military Critique of the South African War, 1899–1902', History, 82: 582–600.

The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland: 1424–1707 (2nd edn, 1966). (London: HMSO).

Times (1951) The Times House of Commons 1951. (London: Times Books).

—— (1974) The Times Guide to the House of Commons February 1974. (London: Times Books).

—— (1983) The Times Guide to the House of Commons June 1983. (London: Times Books).

Tomkins A (2005) Our Republican Constitution. (Oxford: Hart Publishing).

—— (2008) ‘Republican Constitutionalism and Constitutional Reform’ in S White and D Leighton (2008) Building a Citizen Society: The Emerging Politics of Republican Democracy. (London: Lawrence & Wishart), pp. 33–43.

Tsebelis G (1995) ‘Decision‐making in Political Systems—Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism’, British Journal of Political Science 25(3): 289–325.

Tsebelis G (2002) Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).

Wakeham Lord (Chairman) (2000a) A House for the Future: Report of the Royal Commission on the Reform of the House of Lords, Cm 4534. (London: The Stationery (p.372) Office). Part I Report. Part II Evidence. Available at: http://www.archive.official‐documents.co.uk/document/cm45/4534/4534.htm

—— (2000b) A House for the Future: A Summary. (London: The Stationery Office).

Waldron J (1999) Law and Disagreement. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (2006) ‘The Core of the Case Against Judicial Review’, Yale Law Journal, 115: 1346–406.

Weill R (2003) ‘Dicey Was Not Diceyan’, Cambridge Law Journal, 62(2): 474–94.

Whatley C A (1989) ‘Economic Causes and Consequences of the Union of 1707: A Survey’, Scottish Historical Review, 68(2): 150–81.

—— with Patrick D J (2006) The Scots and the Union. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

White S and Leighton D (2008) Building a Citizen Society: The Emerging Politics of Republican Democracy. (London: Lawrence & Wishart).

Whitlam G (1979) The Truth of the Matter. (Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin).

Wicks E (2006) The Evolution of a Constitution: Eight Key Moments in British Constitutional History. (Oxford: Hart Publishing).

Witte J Jr (2008) ‘The Archbishop and Marital Pluralism: An American Perspective’. Ecclesiastical Law Journal, 10: 344–7.

Young A (2006) ‘Hunting Sovereignty: Jackson v. Her Majesty's Attorney‐General’, Public Law, 187–196.

—— (2009) Parliamentary Sovereignty and the Human Rights Act. (Oxford: Hart Publishing).

All UK statutes and court judgements are cited from the versions to be found in either the Justis or the Westlaw databases, except that pre‐1707 Scottish Acts are cited from the Acts of the Parliament of Scotland.

Hansard (reports of debates in the House of Commons and the House of Lords) is quoted where possible from the wonderful online version being developed on behalf of the UK Parliament at http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/. This (currently a beta version) aims to put the entire content of Hansard since 1803 on the Web. Modern citations, from the online current versions produced by the House authorities at www.publications.parliament.uk, are given slightly differently.