Consequences of Ant Invasions
Solenopsis invicta and Linepithema humile are among the most studied invasive insects but there are several other invasive ants with adverse ecological consequences. The displacement of native ants is the best documented consequence of ant invasions, though recent research calls into question the long‐term effects of monogyne S. invicta. Other invertebrates are also affected by invasive ants, though interactions with the same taxa can vary across different parts of an invasive ant's introduced range. Stinging invasive ants, particularly S. invicta, have the greatest documented effects on vertebrates, including birds, mammals, and herpetofauna. On plants, invasive ants may displace pollinators or other floral arthropods, deter or facilitate herbivores, or affect natural enemies. Invasive ants are often poor seed dispersers relative to native ants. S. invicta nesting habits alter many soil properties, though it is unclear how extensive these changes are relative to those caused by the displaced native ants.
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