First Language Education in Multilingual Contexts in the Philippines
This chapter investigates whether bilingual and transitional literacy programmes can effectively be developed in multilingual and culturally diverse social contexts, such as the Philippines and other Asian nations. It argues that educational policies play a critical role in recognising the place of languages in Indigenous identity. The chapter describes current innovations in first language education in the elementary years in the Philippines. It draws on examples from Manobo and Kalagan language communities in Mindanao and the Kalinga languages of northern Luzon.
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