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R.J. Crampton

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199541584

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541584.001.0001

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Post-Communist Bulgaria, 1989–2005

Post-Communist Bulgaria, 1989–2005

(p.389) 14 Post-Communist Bulgaria, 1989–2005

R. J. Crampton (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

Seven years after the fall of Todor Zhivkov, like the seven decades after the liberation of 1878, Bulgaria experienced political development without effective structural change. For both internal and external reasons, the new Bulgaria failed to make the deep, macroeconomic adjustments that the new ruling ideology of the market demanded. It was the financial collapse of 1996–1997 that brought about real structural change just as it had been the communist assumption of power in the late 1940s that forced Bulgaria into its modernizing phase. After 1997, a succession of governments pushed a not-always-willing population towards membership of the Euro–Atlantic structures, and thus provided another answer to the age-old question of which way Bulgaria should face, east or west.

Keywords:   Bulgaria, politics, constitution, elections, foreign policy, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European Union, economic policy

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