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R.J. Crampton

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199541584

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541584.001.0001

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Social and Economic Factors, 1878–1944

Social and Economic Factors, 1878–1944

(p.282) 10 Social and Economic Factors, 1878–1944

R. J. Crampton (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

From the liberation to the end of the Second World War, Bulgaria saw growth without structural change. From 1878 to 1944, a number of traditional practices disappeared, but the fundamental nature of both society and the economy were little altered: Bulgaria remained predominantly rural; its society rested on the village and the family; its agriculture was almost entirely the preserve of the small peasant proprietor; and its exports, at least in times of peace, were dominated by grain. Its industries grew, but they remained closely linked to agriculture, and they continued to be dominated not by large factories but by small workshops that employed only a handful of workers. There was slow but organic change. From 1944 to the early 1990s there was to be rapid but artificial change as socialist planning transformed both society and the economy through the collectivization of the land, rapid urbanization, and the development of a heavy industrial base.

Keywords:   Bulgaria, social conditions, economic conditions, agriculture, small peasant proprietor, standards of living, urban growth, industrial development

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