At the start of the Occupation, Theodor Dannecker and junior SS officials built an apparatus to facilitate the deportation of Jews while superiors like Helmut Knochen accrued power. Once vested with executive authority, Adolf Eichmann, Heinz Röthke, and other SS leaders pressed for the immediate deportation of Jews, but personnel shortages hamstrung the efforts of the Black Corps. Previous disagreements with Otto von Stülpnagel precluded substantial support from the military administration. Pierre Laval's enthusiasm for racial deportations evaporated as French opposition to deportations mounted, Germany's prospects for victory dimmed, and cooperation with the SS yielded few diplomatic concessions. With a brief limited to security, Oberg could not accommodate other French and German institutions and secure broad‐based support for the Final Solution. As a result, three‐quarters of the Jews who lived in France managed to survive World War II.
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