Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
This chapter presents an introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The fundamental thermodynamic concepts required for studying the irreversible processes taking place in a moving fluid are described. A local approach is followed in which the state variables are functions of time and the spatial coordinates. The local equilibrium hypothesis and its key role in irreversible thermodynamics are explained. The transport processes involve the exchange of matter, electric charge, linear momentum, energy, entropy, etc., between the neighbouring volume elements in the fluid. The balance equations that rule these exchanges are explained in detail, and the entropy balance equation receives special attention. The differences between the transport mechanisms of convection, chemical diffusion, electrodiffusion, ionic diffusion, ionic migration, and electric conduction are explained. The chapter discusses the concept of electric potential in thermodynamics and electrochemistry.
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