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The Judicial House of Lords 1876–2009$

Louis Blom-Cooper QC, Brice Dickson, and Gavin Drewry

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199532711

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532711.001.0001

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(p.753) APPENDIX 4 Pen Portraits of the Lords of Appeal

(p.753) APPENDIX 4 Pen Portraits of the Lords of Appeal

Source:
The Judicial House of Lords 1876–2009
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Ackner (Desmond)

Attended Highgate School and Cambridge University. Served in the Army during World War II. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Acted for the families of victims at the public inquiry into the Aberfan disaster in 1967 and for victims of thalidomide in the late 1960s. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge, six years on the Court of Appeal, and six years as a Lord of Appeal (1986–92).

Asquith of Bishopstone (Cyril)

Attended Winchester College and Oxford University. The fourth son of the Liberal Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith. Served in the Army during World War I. Called to the English Bar at age 30. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, and three years as a Lord of Appeal (1951–4). Died in office.

Atkin (Richard—‘Dick’)

Attended Christ College, Brecon and Oxford University. Early days in Brisbane, Australia, where his father was a member of the Queensland Assembly. Raised in Wales by his mother after his father died. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent six years on the High Court, nine years on the Court of Appeal, and 16 years as a Lord of Appeal (1928–44). Delivered leading judgment in Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) and a famous dissent in Liversidge v Anderson (1941). Died in office.

Atkinson (John)

Attended Belfast Academy and Queen’s College Galway. Called to the Irish Bar at age 21. Appointed as Solicitor General for Ireland in 1889 and became Attorney General for Ireland in 1892. Elected as Conservative MP for North Londonderry in 1895. The first Irish barrister to be appointed a Law Lord directly from his practice at the Bar. Spent 23 years as a Lord of Appeal (1905–28).

(p.754) Bingham of Cornhill (Thomas)

Attended Sedbergh School and Oxford University, where he read History. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Became Queen’s Counsel aged 38 and High Court Judge at age 46. Appointed as Master of the Rolls in 1992 and as Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales in 1996. In 2000, became the first appointed Senior Law Lord, a position formerly assumed by the longest serving Lord of Appeal. Served in this capacity until retiring in 2008.

Blackburn (Colin)

Attended Eton College and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Became better known as a law reporter than as an advocate but as a judge he acquired a reputation for great lucidity. Spent 17 years as a High Court Judge. Became one of the first two Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, with Lord Gordon, and spent over ten years in that capacity (1876–87).

Blanesburgh (Robert [Younger])

Attended Eton College, Edinburgh University, and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 23. Spent four years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division, four years on the Court of Appeal, and 13 years six months as a Lord of Appeal (1923–37). Fellow of the Royal College of Music and received honorary doctorates from Edinburgh, Oxford, and St Andrews Universities.

Bowen (Charles)

Went to school in Lille, France, before attending Rugby School and Oxford University. Won many classical scholarships and became a Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, in 1858. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Wrote verse translations of classical works. Spent three years as a High Court Judge, 11 years on the Court of Appeal, but just one year as a Lord of Appeal (1893–4). Died in office.

Brandon of Oakbrook (Henry)

Attended Winchester College and Cambridge University. Served in the Army during World War II, attaining the rank of Major in the Royal Artillery. Awarded the Military Cross in 1942 while serving in Madagascar. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Spent 12 years as a High Court Judge, three years on the Court of Appeal, and ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1981–91).

(p.755) Bridge of Harwich (Nigel)

Attended Marlborough College. Served in the Army during World War II, attaining the rank of Captain. Called to the English Bar at age 30. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, and over 11 years as a Lord of Appeal (1980–92). One of the very few Lords of Appeal without a university degree, but studied mathematics in his retirement and graduated from the Open University at the age of 86.

Brightman (John)

Attended Marlborough College and Cambridge University. Served in the Navy during World War II, attaining the rank of Lieutenant Commander. Called to the English Bar at age 30. Appointed Attorney General of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1969, but relinquished this in 1970 when promoted to the Bench. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1982–7).

Brown of Eaton-under-Heywood (Simon)

Attended Stowe School and Oxford University. Served in the Royal Artillery from 1955 until 1957, attaining the rank of Second Lieutenant. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Recorder and First Junior Treasury Counsel from 1979 until 1984. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge and 12 years on the Court of Appeal before becoming a Lord of Appeal in 2004. Was the Intelligence Services Commissioner from 2000 to 2006.

Browne-Wilkinson (Nicolas)

Attended Lancing College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 23. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, eight years on the Court of Appeal, and almost nine years as a Lord of Appeal (1991–2000). Senior Law Lord from 1998 until 2000, at the time of the Pinochet affair.

Carson (Edward)

Attended Portarlington School, Wesley College, Dublin, and Trinity College Dublin. Called to the Irish Bar at age 23. Elected as MP for Trinity College Dublin and served as Solicitor General for Ireland. Called to the English Bar at age 39 and served as Solicitor General for England. Represented Marquess of Queensbury when he was sued by Oscar Wilde. Became leader of the Unionist cause in Ulster at age 56. Spent eight years as a Lord of Appeal (1921–9). Received a state funeral in Belfast.

(p.756) Carswell (Robert)

Attended Royal Belfast Academical Institution, Oxford University, and Chicago University. Called to the Bar of Northern Ireland at age 23, becoming a Queen’s Counsell at 37. Counsel to the Attorney General for Northern Ireland 1970–1, and Senior Crown Counsel in Northern Ireland 1979–84. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge and four years as a Lord Justice of Appeal in Northern Ireland. Served as Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland from 1997 until 2004 and as a Lord of Appeal from 2004 to 2009.

Cave (George)

Attended Merchant Taylors’ School, London and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Elected as Unionist MP for the Kingston Division of Surrey. Served as Solicitor General and as Home Secretary. Spent almost four years as a Lord of Appeal (1918–22). Became a viscount in 1918. Served as Lord Chancellor from 1922 until 1924 and from 1925 until 1928. Became Chancellor of Oxford University in 1925.

Clyde (James)

Attended Edinburgh Academy, Oxford University, and Edinburgh University. Son and grandson of men who were each Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General. Served in the Intelligence Corps from 1954 until 1956. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 27. Became Chancellor to the Bishop of Argyll in 1972. Senator of the College of Justice in Scotland from 1985 to 1996. Served on the Courts of Appeal of Jersey and Guernsey for six years and spent five years as a Lord of Appeal (1996–2001). Was Justice Oversight Commissioner in Northern Ireland from 2003 to 2006.

Cohen (Lionel)

Attended Eton College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 30. Spent three years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division, five years on the Court of Appeal, and almost nine years (1951–60) as a Lord of Appeal. Chaired several Royal Commissions, including one on Awards to Inventors, which acknowledged scientists who made technological advances during World War II. The first Jew to be appointed as a Lord of Appeal.

Collins of Mapesbury (Lawrence)

Educated at the City of London School and Downing College, Cambridge. Admitted as a solicitor in 1968 and a partner in Herbert Smith Solicitors from 1971 to 2000. Became a (p.757) Queen’s Counsel in 1997. Served as a High Court Judge (Chancery Division) from 2000 to 2007 and on the Court of Appeal from 2007 to 2009. Replaced Lord Hoffmann as a Lord of Appeal in April 2009, the first solicitor to be appointed.

Collins (Richard)

Attended Dungannon School, Trinity College Dublin, and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, ten years on the Court of Appeal, and three years as a Lord of Appeal (1907–10). Served as Master of the Rolls from 1901 until 1907. Represented the United Kingdom on the Venezuela Boundary Commission, which was established in 1899.

Cross of Chelsea (Geoffrey)

Attended Westminster School and Cambridge University and became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Spent six years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division, ten years on the Court of Appeal, and four years as a Lord of Appeal (1971–5). Chancellor of Durham University from 1959 until 1960.

Davey (Horace)

Attended Rugby School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 28. Elected as Liberal MP for Christchurch in 1880, but lost his seat in 1885. Appointed as Solicitor General in 1886. Elected as MP for Stockton-on-Tees in 1888, but lost this seat in 1892. Spent one year on the Court of Appeal and 12 years and six months as a Lord of Appeal (1894–1907). Died in office.

Denning (Alfred Thompson—Tom)

Attended Andover School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent four years as a High Court Judge, nine years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1957–62). Returned to the Court of Appeal as Master of the Rolls, an office which he held for the next 20 years. A frequently controversial judge who was not afraid to reconsider established precedent. Published several books after retiring. Died aged 100.

Devlin (Patrick)

Attended Stonyhurst College and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent 12 years as a High Court Judge, one year on the Court of Appeal, and just over two years as a Lord of Appeal (1961–4). First independent chairman of the Press Council from 1964 until 1969 and High Steward of Cambridge University from 1966 until 1991. (p.758) Renowned for his debates about morality and the law with Professor Herbert Hart in the 1960s.

Dilhorne (Reginald [Manningham-Buller])

Attended Eton College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 22. Elected as Conservative MP for Daventry in 1943. Junior minister in Winston Churchill’s government. Elected as MP for Northamptonshire South in 1950. Served as Solicitor General, Attorney General and, from 1962–4, Lord Chancellor. Became a viscount in 1964. Appointed a Lord of Appeal in 1969. Died in office in 1980. The last Lord of Appeal to have previously served as a Member of Parliament.

Diplock (Kenneth)

Attended Whitgift School and Oxford University, where he read Chemistry. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Spent five years as a High Court Judge, seven years on the Court of Appeal, and 17 years as a Lord of Appeal (1968–85). Chaired a Commission set up in 1972 to consider legal measures against terrorism in Northern Ireland, leading to the establishment of ‘Diplock’ courts in which judges decided criminal cases without the assistance of juries.

Donovan (Terence)

Attended Brockley School. Served in the Army and the Royal Air Force during World War I. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Elected as Labour MP for Leicester East in 1945, and for Leicester North East in 1950. Spent ten years as a High Court Judge, three years on the Court of Appeal, and seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1964–71). Died in office.

Du Parcq (Herbert)

Born in Jersey. Attended Victoria College, Jersey, and Oxford University. Called to both the English Bar and the Jersey Bar at age 26. Specialised in commercial litigation. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, eight years on the Court of Appeal, and three years as a Lord of Appeal (1946–9). A member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague. Died in office.

Dunedin (Andrew [Murray])

Attended Harrow School, Cambridge University, and Oxford University. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 25. Elected as Conservative MP for Bute and Caithness in 1891. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland, Lord Advocate, and Secretary of State for Scotland. After leaving Parliament, spent eight years as Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord (p.759) Justice General, and 18 years and six months as a Lord of Appeal (1913–32). Created a viscount in 1926.

Edmund-Davies (Herbert)

Attended Mountain Ash Grammar School, London University, and Oxford University. Won the Vinerian Scholarship. Called to the English Bar at age 23. Lectured at the London School of Economics from 1930 until 1931. Served in the Army Officers’ Emergency Reserve and in the Royal Welch Fusiliers during World War II. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge, eight years on the Court of Appeal, and seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1974–81). Noted for his chairmanship of the Aberfan tribunal in 1966.

Evershed (Raymond)

Attended Clifton College and Oxford University. Served in the Army during World War I, attaining the rank of Second Lieutenant. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent two years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division and 15 years on the Court of Appeal. Master of the Rolls from 1949 until 1962. Spent almost three years as a Lord of Appeal (1962–5).

FitzGerald of Kilmarnock (John)

Attended Trinity College Dublin. Called to the Irish Bar at age 22. Became Queen’s Counsel at the early age of 31. Elected as Liberal MP for Ennis in 1852. Served as Solicitor General for Ireland and Attorney General for Ireland. Spent 22 years as a High Court Judge (in Ireland)and was then appointed directly into the House of Lords. Served seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1882–9). Died in office.

Fraser of Tullybelton (Ian)

Attended Repton School, Oxford and Glasgow Universities. Lectured at Glasgow University and Cambridge University. Served in the Army during World War II. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 25. Attempted to become a MP, standing unsuccessfully as the Conservative candidate for East Edinburgh. Spent ten years as a Senator of the Court of Justice in Scotland and ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1975–85).

Goddard (Rayner)

Attended Marlborough College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 22. Stood for Parliament as an Independent Conservative candidate in 1929, but was (p.760) unsuccessful. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, six years on the Court of Appeal, and 18 months as a Lord of Appeal (1944–6). Then served as Lord Chief Justice of England for 12 years, the first Lord Chief Justice to hold a law degree.

Goff of Chieveley (Robert)

Attended Eton College and Oxford University. Served in the Army from 1945 until 1948. Fellow and Tutor at Lincoln College, Oxford. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge and four years on the Court of Appeal. Served as a Lord of Appeal for over 11 years (1986–98), being the Senior Law Lord for his last two years. Called back from retirement to sit on the second Pinochet appeal.

Greene (Wilfrid)

Attended Westminster School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Became King’s Counsel at age 39 and went directly into the Court of Appeal at age 52. Spent 14 years on the Court of Appeal, including 12 as Master of the Rolls. Served as a Lord of Appeal for only 11 months (1949–50) before being forced to retire due to bad health. Remembered for his Court of Appeal judgment in Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation (1948).

Gordon (Edward)

Attended Royal Academy, Inverness, and Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 21. Elected as Conservative MP for Thetford and later for Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland and as Lord Advocate and was one of the first two Lords of Appeal appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 (with Lord Blackburn). Died in office in 1879.

Griffiths (Hugh)

Attended Charterhouse School, and Cambridge University. Served in the Welsh Guards during World War II, receiving the Military Cross in 1944. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, and eight years as a Lord of Appeal (1985–93). A keen sportsman, he became captain of St Andrews Golf Club the year after he retired and was later President of the MCC.

Guest (Christopher)

Attended Merchiston Castle School, and Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 24. Stood for Parliament as a Unionist candidate for the (p.761) Kirkcaldy Burghs in 1945, but was unsuccessful. Served as a senator of the College of Justice in Scotland from 1957 to 1960. Appointed a Lord of Appeal during the Macmillan administration. Served for ten years in this capacity (1961–71).

Hale of Richmond (Brenda)

Attended Richmond High School for Girls and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar in 1969. Worked primarily in academia for 18 years and became Professor of Law at Manchester University and a member of the Law Commission for England and Wales. Spent five years as a High Court Judge and five years on the Court of Appeal. Was only the second woman to be appointed to the Court of Appeal. Became the first female Lord of Appeal in 2004.

Hannen (James)

Attended St Paul’s School and Heidelberg University. Called to the English Bar at age 27 and was made Queen’s Counsel at age 47. Became a High Court Judge in 1868 and was appointed directly into the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal in 1891. Served for two years seven months in this capacity (1891–3). Acted as a government investigator in the Charles Stewart Parnell case.

Hobhouse of Woodborough (John)

Attended Eton College and Oxford University. Worked abroad in Australia and New Zealand. Called to the English Bar at age 23 and became Queen’s Counsel at age 41. Specialised in commercial law. Spent 11 years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1998–2003).

Hodson (Charles)

Attended Cheltenham College and Oxford University. Served in the Army during World War I, receiving the Military Cross. Called to the English Bar at age 26 and specialised in divorce law. Spent 14 years as a High Court Judge in the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division, nine years on the Court of Appeal, and more than ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1960–71). A member of the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague from 1949 until 1971.

Hoffmann (Leonard)

Born in South Africa. Attended South African College School, and Cape Town and Oxford Universities (the latter as a Rhodes Scholar). Won the Vinerian Scholarship. Called to the South African Bar at age 24. Stowell Council Law fellow at University (p.762) College, Oxford from 1961 to 1973. Called to the English Bar at age 30 and took silk in 1977. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division and three years in the Court of Appeal. Appointed as a Lord of Appeal in 1995, serving as Second Senior Law Lord from January 2007 until his retirement in April 2009.

Hope of Craighead (David)

Attended Edinburgh Academy, Rugby School, and Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 27. Dean of the Faculty of Advocates from 1986 until 1989. Was appointed direct from the Bar in 1989 to be Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General, which offices he held for seven years. Became a Lord of Appeal in 1996, assuming the mantle of Second Senior Law Lord in April 2009. Chancellor of the University of Strathclyde since 1998.

Hutton (Brian)

Attended Shrewsbury School, Oxford University, and Queen’s University Belfast. Called to the Northern Ireland Bar at age 23, becoming a Queen’s Counsel at age 39. Senior Crown Counsel in Northern Ireland from 1973 to 1979. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge before being appointed as the Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland in succession to Lord Lowry in 1988. Served in this capacity for nine years. Spent seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1997–2004). Chaired the inquiry into the death of Dr David Kelly (2003–4).

Jauncey of Tullichettle (Charles)

Attended Radley College, and Oxford and Glasgow Universities. Served in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 24. Spent nine years as a senator of the Court of Justice in Scotland and eight years as a Lord of Appeal (1988–96). A member of the Royal Company of Archers.

Jenkins (David)

Attended Charterhouse School and Oxford University. Served in the Army during both World Wars. Called to the English Bar at age 24 and became King’s Counsel at age 38. Held the office of Attorney General of the Duchy of Lancaster. Spent two years as a High Court Judge, ten years on the Court of Appeal, and four years as a Lord of Appeal (1959–63).

Keith of Avonholm ( James)

Attended Hamilton School and Glasgow University. Served in the Army with the Seaforth Highlanders during World War I. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 25. Spent 16 years as a senator of the Court of Justice in Scotland and over seven years as a Lord of Appeal (p.763) (1953–61). One of his three children became a Lord of Appeal in 1977, taking the title Lord Keith of Kinkel (see below).

Keith of Kinkel (Harry)

Attended Edinburgh Academy, and Oxford and Edinburgh Universities. Son of a previous Lord of Appeal, Lord Keith of Avonholm. Served in the Scots Guards during World War II. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 28. Spent six years as a member of the Scottish judiciary and 19 years as a Lord of Appeal (1977–96). Was the most senior Law Lord for the last ten of these years.

Kerr (Brian)

Attended St Colman’s College, Newry, and Queen’s University Belfast, being called to the Northern Ireland Bar in 1970. Became a Queen’s Counsel in 1983 and served as Senior Crown Counsel from 1988 to 1993. Appointed to the High Court of Northern Ireland in 1993, becoming Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland in 2004. The 112th (and last) person to be appointed as a Lord of Appeal, in 2009.

Kilbrandon ( Jim [Shaw])

Attended Charterhouse School, and Oxford and Edinburgh Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 26. Spent 12 years as a senator of the Court of Justice in Scotland and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1971–6). Served as Chairman of the Scottish Law Commission from its inauguration in 1965 until 1970. Chaired the Royal Commission on the Constitution from 1970 until 1973.

Lane (Geoffrey)

Attended Shrewsbury School and Cambridge University. Served in the Royal Air Force during World War II. Called to the English Bar at age 28. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, but only eight months as a Lord of Appeal (1979–80) as he was then appointed Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, serving in that capacity for 12 years.

Lindley (Nathaniel)

Attended University College School and London University. Called to the English Bar at age 22. Practised in the Chancery courts. Spent six years as a High Court Judge and (p.764) 19 years on the Court of Appeal. Appointed Master of the Rolls in 1897 and served in this capacity for three years. Spent six years as a Lord of Appeal (1899–1905).

Lloyd of Berwick (Anthony)

Attended Eton College, and Cambridge and Harvard Universities. Became a Fellow of Peterhouse College, Cambridge. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, nine years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1993–8). Chaired an inquiry into anti-terrorism legislation in 1996. Active in the House of Lords after retiring as a Lord of Appeal.

Lowry (Robert)

Attended Royal Belfast Academical Institution and Cambridge University. Son of a Unionist MP who later became a High Court Judge. Served in the Army during World War II, attaining the rank of Major. Called to the Northern Ireland Bar at age 28. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge and from 1971 to 1988 as Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, in succession to Lord MacDermott. Chaired the Constitutional Convention in Northern Ireland, 1975–6. Spent over five years as a Lord of Appeal (1988–94).

MacDermott (John)

Attended Campbell College, Belfast and Queen’s University Belfast. Called to the Irish Bar at age 25. Elected as Unionist MP for Queen’s University Belfast in 1938. Served in the Army during World War II, attaining the rank of Lieutenant. Spent three years as a High Court Judge and almost four years as a Lord of Appeal (1947–51). Was then appointed Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, a post he held until 1971. Ofter sat in the House of Lords even after returning to work in Northern Ireland in 1951.

Mackay of Clashfern (James)

Attended George Heriot’s School, and Edinburgh and Cambridge Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 28. Appointed as Dean of the Faculty of Advocates in 1976. Served as Lord Advocate of Scotland for five years. Spent one year as a Senator of the College of Justice in Scotland and two years as a Lord of Appeal (1985–7) before being appointed as Lord Chancellor, the first Scottish advocate to serve in that capacity. Retired as Lord Chancellor in 1997. Editor in Chief of Halsburg’s Laws of England since 1998.

Macmillan (Hugh)

Attended Collegiate School, Greenock, and Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 24. Served as Solicitor General. Appointed directly to the House (p.765) of Lords from the Bar. Served as a Lord of Appeal from 1930 until 1939 and then spent a period as Minister for Information during World War II. Served again as a Lord of Appeal from 1941 until 1947.

Macnaghten (Edward)

Attended Dr Cowan’s School, Sunderland, Trinity College Dublin, and Cambridge University. Became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Called to the English Bar at age 27. Elected as Conservative MP for County Antrim in 1880, exchanging this seat five years later for that of North Antrim. Appointed directly to the House of Lords from the Bar. Spent 26 years as a Lord of Appeal (1887–1913), second only to Lord Reid in length of service.

Mance (Jonathan)

Attended Charterhouse School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 22 and took silk at age 39. Spent six years as a commercial judge in the High Court and six years on the Court of Appeal. Became a Lord of Appeal in 2005. Served as Chairman of the Banking Appeals Tribunal from 1992 until 1993, Chairman of the Consultative Council of European Judges from 2000 to 2003, and President of the British Insurance Law Association from 2000 until 2002. Husband of Lady Justice Arden.

Maugham (Frederic)

Attended Dover College and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent six years as a High Court Judge and four years on the Court of Appeal. Served as a Lord of Appeal for three years (1935–8) and then spent one year as Lord Chancellor. Served two further years as a Lord of Appeal (1939–41). Presided in Liversidge v Anderson (1941). Created a viscount in 1939.

Millett (Peter)

Attended Harrow School and Cambridge University. Served in the Royal Air Force as a Flying Officer from 1955 until 1957. Called to the English Bar at age 23 and took silk age 41. Practised at the Chancery Bar. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge, four years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1998–2004). Retired early to take up the Treasurership of Lincoln’s Inn. A non-permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal, Hong Kong, since 2000. Editor in Chief of the Encyclopaedia of Forms and Precedents since 1998.

Morris (Michael)

Attended Galway College and Trinity College Dublin. Called to the Irish Bar at age 23. Elected as a Liberal MP for Galway in 1865. Became a Conservative and took (p.766) office in Lord Derby’s administration as Irish Solicitor General. Later appointed as Irish Attorney General. Spent 20 years as a High Court Judge, two years on the Court of Appeal, and ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1889–99).

Morris of Borth-y-Gest (John William)

Attended Liverpool Institute and Cambridge and Harvard Universities. Served in the Royal Welch Fusiliers during World War I. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Stood for Parliament twice as a Liberal candidate for the seat of Ilford, but was unsuccessful on both occasions. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, nine years on the Court of Appeal. and 15 years as a Lord of Appeal (1960–75).

Morton of Henryton (Fergus)

Attended Kelvinside Academy and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Served in the Highland Light Infantry during World War I, winning the Military Cross. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, three years on the Court of Appeal, and 12 years as a Lord of Appeal (1947–59). An Honorary Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge and later a Deputy High Steward of Cambridge University.

Moulton (John Fletcher)

Attended Kingswood School and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 30. Elected as Liberal MP for Clapham, South Hackney, and a Cornwall constituency. Appointed directly to the Court of Appeal, where he spent six years. Served as Director General of the Explosives Department during World War I. Spent eight years and five months as a Lord of Appeal (1912–21). Died in office.

Mustill (Michael)

Attended Oundle School and Cambridge University. Served in the Royal Artillery from 1949 until 1951. Called to the English Bar at age 24 and took silk at age 40. Chairman of the Civil Service Appeal Tribunal from 1971 until 1978. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge, seven years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1992–7), retiring prematurely. Served as Chairman of the Judicial Studies Board from 1985 until 1989, and as President of the British Maritime Law Association from 1995 to 2003.

(p.767) Neuberger of Abbotsbury (David)

Attended Westminster School and Oxford University. Employed by Rothschilds, the merchant bank, for three years. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Served as a High Court Judge for eight years, the last three of which as Supervisory Chancery Judge of Midlands, Wales and Chester, and Western Circuits. Spent three years on the Court of Appeal before being appointed a Lord of Appeal in 2007.

Nicholls of Birkenhead (Donald)

Attended Birkenhead School and Liverpool and Cambridge Universities. Called to the English Bar at age 25 and took silk at age 41. Spent three years as a High Court Judge and five years on the Court of Appeal. Served as Vice Chancellor of the Supreme Court from 1991 until 1994. Spent over 12 years as a Lord of Appeal (1994–2007), the last five as Second Senior Law Lord. Served on the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal from 1998 to 2004.

Nolan (Michael)

Attended Ampleforth College and Oxford University. Served in the Royal Artillery from 1947 until 1949. Called to the English Bar at age 25 and to the Northern Ireland Bar at age 46. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge, two years on the Court of Appeal, and four years as a Lord of Appeal (1994–8). Chaired the Committee on Standards in Public Life from 1994 until 1997, giving his name to the Nolan Principles. Chancellor of Essex University from 1997 until 2002.

Normand (Wilfrid)

Attended Fettes College, Edinburgh and Oxford, Paris, and Edinburgh Universities. Served in the Royal Engineers during World War I. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 26. Elected as Unionist MP for West Edinburgh in 1931. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland and then as Lord Advocate. Spent 12 years as Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General, and six years as a Lord of Appeal (1947–53).

Oaksey (Geoffrey [Lawrence])

Attended Haileybury School and Oxford University. Son of a Lord Chief Justice of England. Served in the Royal Artillery during World War I and was mentioned twice in despatches. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Spent 12 years as a High Court Judge, three years on the Court of Appeal, and ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1947–57). Served as the British President of the Nuremburg War Crimes Tribunal in 1945–6.

(p.768) Oliver of Aylmerton (Peter)

Attended the Leys School, Cambridge and Cambridge University. Later became an Honorary Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge and also University Commissary. Served in the 12th Battalion Royal Tank Regiment during World War II and was mentioned in despatches. Called to the English Bar at age 27. Spent six years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division, six years on the Court of Appeal, and five years as a Lord of Appeal (1986–91).

Parker of Waddington (Robert)

Attended Westminster School and Eton College, and then Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 27. Served as junior counsel to the Treasury from 1903 until 1906. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal. Served for five years in this capacity (1913–18). Died in office. His son served as Lord Chief Justice of England from 1958 to 1971.

Pearce (Edward Holroyd)

Attended Charterhouse School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge, five years on the Court of Appeal, and seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1962–9). After retiring as a Law Lord, became Chairman of the Press Council, serving in this capacity until 1974. An accomplished landscape artist.

Pearson (Colin)

A Canadian who came to England at age 7. Attended St. Paul’s School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 26. Worked at the Treasury Solicitor’s office during World War II. Spent ten years as a High Court Judge, four years on the Court of Appeal, and nine years as a Lord of Appeal (1965–74). Served as Chairman of the Law Reform Committee and of the Royal Commission on Civil Liability and Personal Injury.

Phillips of Worth Matravers (Nicholas)

Attended Bryanston School and Cambridge University. Undertook national service with the Royal Navy. Called to the English Bar at age 24 and took silk at age 40. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge, three years on the Court of Appeal, and one year as a Lord of Appeal (1999–2000). Appointed as Master of the Rolls in 2000 and served in this capacity until 2005, when he became Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales. Succeeded Lord (p.769) Woolf on both occasions and succeeded Lord Bingham as Senior Law Lord in October 2008. Is President-elect of the UK Supreme Court. Chaired the inquiry into Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) from 1998 to 2000.

Porter (Samuel)

Attended Perse School and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 28. Spent four years as a High Court Judge and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords where he served for 16 years as a Lord of Appeal (1938–54). Dissented in the treason trial of William Joyce (‘Lord Haw-Haw’), concluding that the Crown had not satisfied the burden of proof.

Radcliffe (Cyril)

Attended Haileybury School and Oxford University. Became a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Served as Director General of the Ministry of Information during World War II. Chairman of the Boundary Commission which resulted in the division of Pakistan and India. Appointed directly to the House of Lords, the youngest ever Lord of Appeal at age 50, and served for 15 years (1949–64). Created a viscount in 1962, the last Lord of Appeal to be granted an hereditary peerage.

Reid (James Cumbernauld Scott)

Attended Edinburgh Academy, and Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities. Served in the 8th Royal Scots during World War I. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 24. Elected as Unionist MP for Stirling and Falkirk from 1931 to 1935 and for Glasgow Hillhead from 1937 to 1948. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland and as Lord Advocate. Appointed directly to the House of Lords in 1948 and served longer than anyone else as a Lord of Appeal – 26 years (1948–75).

Robertson (James)

Attended Royal High School, Edinburgh, and Edinburgh University. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 22. Elected as Conservative MP for Buteshire from 1885 to 1891. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland and as Lord Advocate. Appointed as Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General in 1891. Rector of Edinburgh University from 1893 until 1896. Served as a Lord of Appeal for over nine years (1899–1909). Died suddenly in France while still in office.

(p.770) Robson (William)

Educated privately and at Dr Brace’s School in Newcastle before attending Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 28. Elected as Liberal MP for Bow and Bromley from 1885–6 and for South Shields from 1895 to 1910. Served as Solicitor General for England and Wales from 1905 until 1908 and as Attorney General for England and Wales from 1908 until 1910. Appointed directly to the House of Lords and served for two years as a Lord of Appeal (1910–12).

Roche (Alexander)

Attended Ipswich School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 25 and became King’s Counsel at age 41. Spent 17 years as a High Court Judge, one year on the Court of Appeal and over two years as a Lord of Appeal (1935–8).

Rodger of Earlsferry (Alan)

Attended Kelvinside Academy, and Glasgow and Oxford Universities, completing a doctorate at the latter. Became a Junior Research Fellow at Balliol College, Oxford and then a Fellow of New College, Oxford. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 30 and took silk at age 41. Became Solicitor General for Scotland and then Lord Advocate, serving in each post for three years. Served as Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General from 1996 to 2001, succeeding Lord Hope. Appointed a Lord of Appeal in 2001.

Romer (Mark)

Attended Rugby School and Cambridge University. Called to the Bar at age 24 and became Queen’s Counsel at age 40. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division, nine years on the Court of Appeal, and six years as a Lord of Appeal (1938–44). Died in office. Related to two other Lords of Appeal – his sister married Lord Maugham and his wife’s sister married Lord Russell of Killowen.

Roskill (Eustace)

Attended Winchester School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 22. Spent nine years as a High Court Judge, nine years on the Court of Appeal, and almost six years as a Lord of Appeal (1980–6). Served as Chairman of the Fraud Trials Committee, which reported in 1986 and was the impetus for the setting up of the Serious Fraud Office.

(p.771) Russell of Killowen (Charles Arthur)

Attended St. Malachy’s College, Belfast, Castleknock College, and Trinity College Dublin. Called to the English Bar at age 27. Elected as a Liberal MP for Dundalk from 1880 to 1885 and for South Hackney from 1885 to 1894. Served as Attorney General and was appointed as a Lord of Appeal in 1894, but served in this capacity for less than a month before becoming Lord Chief Justice. His son and grandson also became Lords of Appeal.

Russell of Killowen (Charles Ritchie)

Attended Beaumont College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 23. Served in the Army during World War II. Won the French Croix de Guerre and was mentioned in despatches. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division, 13 years on the Court of Appeal, and almost seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1975–82). His father and grandfather were also Lords of Appeal.

Russell of Killowen (Frank)

Attended Beaumont College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 26. When appointed to the High Court, chose to refuse the customary knighthood. Spent nine years on the High Court, one year on the Court of Appeal, and 17 years as a Lord of Appeal (1929–46). His father was a Lord of Appeal and his son also served in this capacity. Died in office.

Salmon (Cyril)

Attended Mill Hill School and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 22 and became King’s Counsel at age 42. Served in the Army during World War II. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge, eight years on the Court of Appeal, and eight years as a Lord of Appeal (1972–80). Chairman of the Royal Commission on Tribunals of Inquiry in 1966.

Saville of Newdigate (Mark)

Attended Rye Grammar School and Oxford University, where he won the Vinerian Scholarship. Called to the English Bar at age 26 and took silk at age 39. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge and three years on the Court of Appeal. Became a Lord of Appeal in 1997. Appointed in 1998 to chair the second Bloody Sunday Inquiry into the events of 30 January 1972 in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, so has rarely sat on House of Lords appeals.

(p.772) Scarman (Leslie)

Attended Radley College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Served in the Royal Air Force during World War II. Spent 12 years as a High Court Judge, four years on the Court of Appeal, and nine years as a Lord of Appeal (1977–86). Highly respected first Chairman of the Law Commission of England and Wales (1965–72). Chaired public inquiries into disturbances in Northern Ireland and race riots in Brixton. Early advocate of incorporating the European Convention on Human Rights into English law.

Scott of Foscote (Richard)

Born in India. Attended Michaelhouse College in Natal, South Africa, and then Cape Town and Cambridge Universities. Won a blue in rugby at Cambridge. A fellow at the University of Chicago for one year. Called to the English Bar at age 25, talking silk at age 40. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division. Appointed a Lord Justice of Appeal in 1991 and Vice Chancellor of the Supreme Court in 1994. Chaired the ‘Arms to Iraq’ Inquiry from 1992 to 1996. Appointed a Lord of Appeal in 2000, due to retire at the end of September 2009. A Judge of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal since 2003.

Shaw (Thomas)

Attended Dunfermline High School and Edinburgh University. Admitted to the Scottish Bar at age 25. Hamilton Fellow in Mental Philosophy at Edinburgh University. Elected as Liberal MP for Hawick Burghs from 1892 to 1909. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland from 1884 until 1885 and as Lord Advocate from 1905 until 1909. Spent 20 years as a Lord of Appeal (1909–29).

Simon of Glaisdale (Jocelyn—‘Jack’)

Attended Gresham’s School, Holt, and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 23. Served in the Royal Tank Regiment during World War II. Elected as Conservative MP for Middles brough West. Served as Solicitor General. Spent nine years as President of the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal, serving for six years in that capacity (1971–7). The last person to be elevated directly from the High Court to the House of Lords. No relation to Viscount Simon, the Lord Chancellor from 1940 to 1945.

(p.773) Simonds (Gavin)

Attended Winchester College and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal. Served in this capacity from 1944 until 1951 and from 1954 until 1962. Lord Chancellor from 1951 until 1954. Created a viscount in 1954.

Slynn of Hadley (Gordon)

Attended Sandbach School, and London and Cambridge Universities. Called to the Bar at age 26 and took silk at age 44. Lectured at the London School of Economics. Appointed a High Court Judge at 46, serving for five years before becoming President of the Employment Appeal Tribunal for three years. Became Advocate General at the European Court of Justice in 1981 and a Judge of the European Court of Justice in 1988. Served for ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1992–2002), being Second Senior Law Lord from 1998. President of the Court of Appeal of the Solomon Islands from 2001 until 2006.

Somervell of Harrow (Donald)

Attended Harrow school and Oxford University. Became a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Served in the Army during World War I. Called to the English Bar at age 27. Elected as Conservative MP for Crewe from 1931 to 1945. Served as Solicitor General, Attorney General, and Home Secretary. Appointed directly to the Court of Appeal, where he spent eight years. Served for over five years as a Lord of Appeal (1954–60).

Steyn ( Johan)

Born in Cape Town. Attended Jan van Riebeeck school, and Stellenbosch and Oxford Universities (the latter as a Rhodes Scholar). Called to the South African Bar at age 26, becoming Senior Counsel in South Africa at age 37. Moved to England in 1973 and joined the English Bar, specialising in commercial law. Spent six years as a High Court Judge, three years on the Court of Appeal, and ten years as a Lord of Appeal (1995–2005). Went public while still a Lord of Appeal with his opposition to the detention system at Guantánamo Bay.

Sumner ( John [Hamilton])

Attended Manchester Grammar School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 24. Spent three years on the High Court, one year on the Court of Appeal, and over 16 years as a Lord of Appeal (1913–30). Worked on the Treaty of (p.774) Versailles 1918 and chaired the London Reparation Committee. Created a viscount in 1927.

Templeman (Sydney)

Attended Southall Grammar school, and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 27. Served in the Army throughout World War II and was mentioned in despatches with the Rifles Gurkha. Took silk at age 44. Spent six years on the High Court in the Chancery Division, four years on the Court of Appeal, and 12 years as a Lord of Appeal (1982–94). Served on The Royal Commission on Legal Services 1976–9.

Thankerton (William [Watson])

Attended Winchester College and Cambridge University. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 26. Elected as Unionist MP for Lanark South in 1913 and for Carlisle in 1924. Served as Solicitor General for Scotland and as Lord Advocate. Appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal, serving for 19 years in that capacity (1929–48). Died in office. Son of a previous Lord of Appeal, Lord Watson.

Tomlin (Thomas)

Attended Harrow School and Oxford University. Called to the English Bar at age 24 and became King’s Counsel at age 46. Spent six years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal, serving for six years (1929–35). Died in office.

Tucker (Frederick)

Attended Winchester College and Oxford University. Son of a member of the South African Parliament. Called to the English Bar at age 26 and became King’s Counsel at age 45. Served in the Army during World War I. Spent eight years as a High Court Judge and five years on the Court of Appeal. Served for 11 years as a Lord of Appeal (1950–61).

Upjohn (Gerald)

Attended Eton College and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 26 and became King’s Counsel at age 40. Served in the Welsh Guards during World War II, attaining the rank of Brigadier. Sat on the Lynskey tribunal on corruption in government in 1948. Spent nine years on the High Court in the Chancery Division, three (p.775) years on the Court of Appeal, and over seven years as a Lord of Appeal (1963–71). Died in office.

Uthwatt (Augustus)

Born in Australia. Attended Ballarat College, and Melbourne and Oxford Universities. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Spent five years as a High Court Judge and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal, serving for three years (1946–9). Died in office.

Walker of Gestingthorpe (Robert)

Attended Downside School and Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 22 and became Queen’s Counsel at age 44, practising at the Chancery Bar. Spent three years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division and five years on the Court of Appeal. Appointed to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal in 2002.

Watson (William)

Attended Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities. Called to the Scottish Bar at age 24. Appointed Solicitor General for Scotland and later as Lord Advocate. Elected as MP for Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities from 1876 to 1880. Appointed directly into the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal, serving for 19 years (1880–99). Died in office. His son became a Lord of Appeal in 1929 as Lord Thankerton.

Wilberforce (Richard)

Attended Winchester College and Oxford University. Lived in India as a child and was the son of a judge of the Lahore High Court, and great-great-grandson of William Wilberforce. Became a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Called to the English Bar at age 25. Served in the Army during World War II. Spent three years as a High Court Judge in the Chancery Division and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal, serving for over 17 years (1964–82). Died in 2003, aged 95.

Woolf (Harry)

Attended Fettes College in Scotland and University College London. Called to the English Bar at age 21. Spent seven years on the High Court, six years on the Court of Appeal, and almost four years as a Lord of Appeal (1992–6). Returned to the Court of (p.776) Appeal as Master of the Rolls, remaining in that office until 2000, when he was appointed Lord Chief Justice of England, serving until 2005. In each post he succeeded Lord Bingham. Chaired an inquiry into disturbances at Strangeways Prison in 1990 and helped to prompt radical reform of civil procedure through his Access to Justice report in 1996. Helped to established a ‘Concordat’ between the judges and government in 2004. A Judge of the Hong Kong Final Court of Appeal since 2003.

Wright (Robert)

Educated privately and at Trinity College, Cambridge University. Called to the English Bar at age 31. Spent seven years as a High Court Judge and was then appointed directly to the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal. Served in this capacity from 1932 until 1935, when he became Master of the Rolls, a post he held until 1937. Then served as a Lord of Appeal for a further ten years (1937–47). The first Chairman of the United Nations War Crimes Commission.