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The Eighteenth Century in Sikh HistoryPolitical Resurgence, Religious and Social Life, and Cultural Articulation$
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Karamjit K. Malhotra

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199463541

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463541.001.0001

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Ethical Concerns of the Khalsa

Ethical Concerns of the Khalsa

Chapter:
(p.170) 5 Ethical Concerns of the Khalsa
Source:
The Eighteenth Century in Sikh History
Author(s):

Karamjit K. Malhotra

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463541.003.0006

The Sikh and non-Sikh sources together point to the conscious creation of a social order with serious ethical concerns. The Sikh sources quote verses from Guru Granth in support of ethical conduct and values touching all aspects of a Sikh’s personal, communitarian, and social lives: culinary and domestic matters; abstinence from intoxicants, tobacco, sensuality, and illicit relations; preference for honest living, good conduct, truthful and soft speech, and service of others (par-upkār), particularly of the poor, the hungry, and the naked. War ethics of the Khalsa required them not to attack a fugitive and a non-combatant, nor to molest women and make slaves. Catholicity built into the Sikh faith is emphasized, though in the contemporary context, the Sikhs should shun association with ‘Turks’ and ‘Khans’, and the emergent Sikh rulers should encourage all the four varnas to become ‘Singhs’.

Keywords:   Guru Granth, ethical conduct, values, abstinence, honest living, par-upkār, war ethics, catholicity, four varnas, ‘Singhs’

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