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The Islamic Lineage of American Literary CultureMuslim Sources from the Revolution to Reconstruction$

Jeffrey Einboden

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199397808

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199397808.001.0001

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(p.159) Appendix

(p.159) Appendix

Source:
The Islamic Lineage of American Literary Culture
Author(s):

Jeffrey Einboden

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The aim of this appendix is to catalog every line of Persian poetry translated by Emerson from German sources. John D. Yohannan’s 1943 “Check-List,” although accounting for only a third of the material here presented, provided the essential starting point as well as an instructive precedent.1 Cataloging efforts were also aided immensely by the footnotes to the Topical Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson (1990–1994), as well as the scrupulous anatomies of Emerson’s poems and translations supplied in The Poetry Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson (1986); however, this appendix also aims to rectify several omissions I have spotted in these critical editions.2 In seeking to assemble Emerson’s German sources, Emerson himself also assisted, as he frequently labeled his translations with page numbers from Joseph Hammer-Purgstall’s Diwan (1812–1813) and his Geschichte (1818). With hopes of establishing a conservative estimate of Emerson’s translation campaign, I include in this appendix only rendered lines for which a German source may be ascertained with confidence.3

The appendix is divided into two sections, Category A and Category B.

Category A catalogs every line translated by Emerson from Muḥammad Shamsuddīn Ḥāfiẓ. The sequence of entries in this category follows the order of Hafiz’s poems available to Emerson through Hammer-Purgstall’s Diwan (1812–1813).

  • The first column (“Location in Emerson’s Texts”) cites the page(s) in Emerson’s journals where the most complete translation of the relevant source poem may be found (many of the poems listed in this appendix were translated by Emerson several times).4 Citation of two or more sources in this column indicates that Emerson translated discrete sections from the same Hafiz poem in different locations.

  • The second column (“Location in Hammer’s Diwan”) cites the book and number of the Hafiz poem as offered in Emerson’s source, Hammer-Purgstall’s (p.160) Diwan. For example, the entry for “Elif:VII” indicates the seventh ghazal of Book “Elif.” The final seven entries of this column refer to other types of Hafizean poems found on page 478 and following in the second volume of Hammer-Purgstall’s Diwan (e.g., “Sakiname”).

  • The third column (“Lines Translated”) lists the number of lines Emerson translated from Hammer-Purgstall’s Diwan as well as the specific lines rendered. The entry “10:(1-4/9-14)” in the twenty-fifth row of Category A, for example, indicates that Emerson translated ten lines from this source—specifically, lines one through four and lines nine through fourteen. If the lines translated have been underlined, this indicates that Emerson has rendered the complete Hafizean poem as offered by Hammer-Purgstall. The entry “22:(1-22)” in the fifth row of Category A, for example, indicates that Emerson translated all twenty-two lines of this ghazal as presented in Hammer-Purgstall’s Diwan.

Category B catalogs every line Emerson translated from all Persian poets besides Hafiz from German sources. The sequence of the entries in this category follows the order of poems as given in Hammer-Purgstall’s Geschichte (1818).

  • The first column (“Location in Emerson’s Texts”): same as Category A

  • The second column (“Location, author & opening in Hammer’s Geschichte”) cites (1) the page number in the Geschichte where Emerson’s source is found; (2) the Persian poet’s name as provided by Hammer-Purgstall; and (3) either the title or the initial words of the poem from which Emerson translates.

  • The third column (“Lines Translated”) lists the number of lines Emerson translated from the source poem in Hammer-Purgstall’s Geschichte.

The final two entries of Category B are descriptions of Emerson’s translations from Persian poets other than Hafiz that he made from German sources other than Hammer-Purgstall’s Geschichte.

At the conclusion of Category B, a tally of the lines enumerated in both categories is provided, adding Category A’s total (1,492 lines) and Category B’s total (553 lines), leading to a sum of 2,045 lines.

Category A: Emerson’s Translations from Hafiz (p.161) (p.162) (p.163) (p.164)

#

Location in Emerson’s Journals

Location in Hammer’s Diwan

Lines Translated

1

“Orientalist,”57

Elif:VII

2:(17-18)

2

“Orientalist,”24 & “EF,”97

Elif:VIII

4:(1-2,17-18)

3

“EF,”109,114

Elif:XIII

3:(6,15-16)

4

“X,”171

Ber:I

4:(9-12)

5

“EF,”105

Ta:IX

2:(1-2)

6

“Orientalist,”158

Ta:XIII

22:(1-22)

7

“X,”167-68

Ta:XVII

28:(1-28)

8

“X,”172

Ta:XXIV

36:(1-36)

9

“EF,”114

Ta:XXX

4:(21-24)

10

“EF,”103

Ta:XXXIX

20:(9-28)

11

“X,”174-76

Ta:XL

28:(1-28)

12

“X,”176-77

Ta:XLIII

14:(5-6,9-20)

13

“EF,”94

Ta:XLV

2:(5-6)

14

“EF,”48(2)

Ta:L

4:(17-20)

15

“EF,”49

Ta:LV

18:(1-18)

16

“EF,”98

Ta:LXVII

4:(21-24)

17

“EF,”38

Dal:VII

3:(34-36)

18

“EF,”97

Dal:XLIII

4:(1-4)

19

“EF,”40

Dal:XLVI

4:(13-16)

20

“EF,”89-90

Dal:L

32:(1-32)

21

JMN,X,67-68

Dal:LV

24:(1-24)

22

“EF,”113

Dal:LXIV

4:(37-40)

23

Topical,III,349-50

Dal:LXXII

21:(1-21)

24

“EF,”112

Dal:LXXIV

4:(25-28)

25

“EF,”44

Dal:LXXVI

20:(5-24)

26

“EF,”45(2)

Dal:LXXXII

6:(27-32)

27

“EF,”46-47

Dal:LXXXIV

14:(1-14)

28

“EF,”47(2)

Dal:LXXXVII

10:(1-4/9-14)

29

“EF,”113

Dal:XC

4:(49-52)

30

“Orientalist,”153-54

Dal:CIX

36:(1-36)

31

“Orientalist,”232-34

Dal:CX

44:(1-44)

32

“Orientalist,”235

Dal:CXI

4:(33-36)

33

“EF,”114

Dal:CXX

4:(9-12)

34

“Orientalist,”57

Dal:CXXIX

2:(13-14)

35

“EF,”81-82

Dal:CXXXII

28:(1-28)

36

“EF,”108

Dal:CXXXVI

2:(5-6)

37

“EF,”109

Dal:CXLV

1:(7)

38

“EF,”94

Dal:CLI

8:(1-8)

39

“EF,”97

Dal:CLVI

4:(13-16)

40

“EF,”96

Dal:CLVII

1:(5)

41

“EF,”97

Dal:CLXIV

4:(21-24)

42

“EF,”109

Dal:CLXV

2:(21-22)

43

“EF,”104,108

Dal:CLXVII

32:(19-30/53-54/59-74/81-2)

44

“Orientalist,”7,151;”EF,”114

Ra:I

8:(9-12/17-18/23-24)

45

“Orientalist,”168-71

Ra:II

28:(9-36)

46

“Orientalist,”84-85

Ra:IX

24:(1-24)

47

“EF,”80(1)

Ra:X

4:(25-28)

48

“X,”165

Ra:XIII

22:(1-22)

49

“EF,”38

Sin:VI

2:(15-16)

50

“EF,”80(1)

Schin:II

2:(19-20)

51

“EF,”80(1)

Schin:III

4:(17-20)

52

“Orientalist,”133

Schin:VI

18:(1-18)

53

JMN,XIII,304-05

Schin:X

6:(7-12)

54

“Orientalist,”150

Schin:XI

6:(22-27)

55

“EF,”77

Shin:XII

8:(25-32)

56

“Orientalist,”135

Shin:XIX

6:(7-10/17-18)

57

“Orientalist,”135

Shin:XXII

2:(27-28)

58

JMN,XIII,349-50

Sad:I

8:(25-32)

59

“Orientalist,”137

Sad:II

14:(1-14)

60

“Orientalist,”180

Thy:I

6:(1-6)

61

“Orientalist,”138

Ghain:I

28:(1-28)

62

“Orientalist,”176-77

Kaf:I

12:(1-12)

63

“Orientalist,”177

Kaf:II

3:(8-9/12)

64

“Orientalist,”177

Kaf:III

2:(7/10)

65

“Orientalist,”177

Kiaf:I

4:(21-24)

66

“Orientalist,”83; “X”184(2)

Kiaf:II

28:(1-28)

67

“Orientalist,”178-79

Kiaf:III

18:(1-18)

68

“Orientalist,”181

Lam:III

4:(21-24)

69

“EF,”114

Lam:IV

4:(37-40)

70

“Orientalist,”182

Lam:IX

4:(29-32)

71

“Orientalist,”182

Lam:X

4:(25-28)

72

“Orientalist,”183

Mim:I

12:(9-20)

73

JMN,IX,398-99

Mim:V

20:(1-20)

74

“Orientalist,”184

Mim:VI

12:(1-12)

75

“EF,”76

Mim:IX

2:(21-22)

76

“EF,”76,77,109,114

Mim:X

14:(5-8/13-14/29-32/37-40)

77

“Orientalist,”187

Mim:XII

2:(13-14)

78

“EF,”80

Mim:XIV

2:(9-10)

79

“EF,”98

Mim:XXI

3:(7-9)

80

“Orientalist,”9

Mim:XXIII

4:(29-32)

81

JMN,XIV,152-53

Mim:XXV

4:(9-12)

82

“Orientalist,”5

Mim:XXVI

4:(5-8)

83

“EF,”48(1)

Mim:XXVII

4:(37-40)

84

“Rhymer,”139;” Orientalist,”60

Mim:XXVIII

8:(13-20)

85

“EF,”50(1)

Mim:XXXII

4:(9-10/15-16)

86

“EF,”38

Mim:XXXIV

4:(25-28)

87

“Orientalist,”188

Mim:XLII

4:(29-32)

88

“Orientalist,”189

Mim:XLIII

13:(3-6/8-16)

89

“Orientalist,”13

Mim:LI

12:(33-44)

90

“EF,”55

Mim:LXI

4:(13-16)

91

“Orientalist,”5

Mim:LXIV

8:(17-24)

92

“Orientalist,”5

Mim:LXVI

4:(13-16)

93

“Orientalist,”115

Mim:LXXI

12:(25-36)

94

“Orientalist,”114

Mim:LXXVI

4:(11-12/17-18)

95

“Orientalist,”112,113; ”EF,”80(1)

Nun:II

9:(1-3/13-15/25-27)

96

“Orientalist,”116; Topical,II,378-79

Nun:IV

8:(21-24/25-28)

97

“X,”254

Nun:XII

12:(1-12)

98

“EF,”42

Nun:XVI

9:(19-27)

99

“X,”196-97

Nun:XXIV

28:(1-28)

100

“Rhymer,”140

Waw:X

2:(9-10)

101

“X,”237

He:I

28:(1-28)

102

Topical,II,400

He:VI

14:(1-14)

103

“X,”178

He:IX

20:(1-20)

104

“EF,”114

Ja:II

4:(29-32)

105

“Orientalist,”7

Ja:VII

4:(13-16)

106

“Orientalist,”51

Ja:XV

4:(5-8)

107

“EF,”10(1)-11(1)

Ja:XVI

40:(1-40)

108

“EF,”109

Ja:XIX

2:(1-2)

109

“EF,”93

Ja:XX

2:(15-16)

110

“EF,”115

Ja:XXVI

4:(37-40)

111

“EF,”54

Ja:LII

28:(1-28)

112

“EF,”9

Ja:LIV

18:(1-18)

113

“EF,”55

Ja:LX

4:(9-12)

114

“EF,”109

Ja:LXXVII

2:(21-22)

115

“X,”244-53

Sakiname

238:(1-238)

116

“Orientalist,”237

Kasside:I

17:(14-20/23-32)

117

Topical,II,399

Mokataat:III

6:(1-6)

118

“Orientalist,”198

Mokataat:IX

11:(1-11)

119

“Orientalist,”190

Mokataat:X

8:(1-8)

120

Topical,II,399-400

Mokataat, XXI

10:(1-10)

121

“Orientalist,”110

Mokataat, LXII

4:(1-4)

Category A Total

1,492

(p.165) Category B: Emerson’s Translations from All Persian Poets Besides Hafiz (p.166)

#

Location in Emerson’s journals

Location, author & opening in Hammer’s Geschichte

# of Lines Translated

1

“Orientalist,”10

p.41

“Ammar” (Könnt’ ich…)

2

2

“Orientalist,”11

p.43

“Pindar aus Rei” (Umsonst…)

4

3

JMN,XI,175

p.44

“Asdschedi” (Es zieht…)

2

4

“Orientalist,”12

p.44

“Asdschedi” (Auf eine Melone)

4

5

“Orientalist,”12

p.44

“Asdschedi” (Man spricht…)

4

6

“Orientalist,”29

p.81

“Omar Chiam” (Du wünschest…)

16

7

“Orientalist,”29

p.82

“Omar Chiam” (Wo Tulpen…)

4

8

“Orientalist,”30

p.82

“Omar Chiam” (Ich trinke…)

4

9

“Orientalist,”30

p.82

“Omar Chiam” (In dem unendlichen…)

4

10

“Orientalist,”16

p.91

“Enweri” (An den Dichter…)

2

11

“Orientalist,”36-37

p.92

“Enweri” (Philosophische Lehre)

10

12

“Orientalist,”33-35

pp.92-3

“Enweri” (Schah Sandschar…)

62

13

“Orientalist,”31

p.94

“Enweri” (Die Sterne…)

2

14

“Orientalist,”63

p.96

“Enweri” (Im Garten…)

4

15

“Orientalist,”27-28

p.107

“Nisami” (Erzählung von…)

22

16

“Orientalist,”64

p.142

“Attar” (DerTulip…)

1

17

“Orientalist,”65

p.153

“Attar” (Der Vögel Seele…)

60

18

“Orientalist,”19

p.197

“Rumi” (Ich bin der Falk…)

8

19

“Orientalist,”18

p.197

“Rumi” (Höre was für…)

4

21

“Orientalist,”19

p.198

“Rumi” (Im Osten…)

4

22

“Orientalist,”222

p.208

“Saadi” (Kein Land…)

15

23

“Orientalist,”221

p.209

“Saadi” (Wenn auf den…)

2

24

JMN,XV,384

p.212

“Saadi” (Dein Aug’…)

2

25

JMN,XV,384

p.212

“Saadi” (Keine Seele…)

4

26

JMN,XV,384

p.212

“Saadi” (Liebeschmerz…)

2

27

JMN,XV,385

p.212

“Saadi” (Wer mit Mondgesicht…)

8

28

“Orientalist,”55

p.213

“Saadi” (Wer seinen Freund…)

8

29

JMN,XV,384

p.215

“Saadi” (Jetzt ist…)

16

30

“Orientalist,”76-77

p.218

“Saadi” (Zu Sanaa…)

24

31

“Orientalist,”41-50

p.223

“Nimetollah” (So gestalt…)

34

32

“Orientalist,”75

p.225

“Lutfallah” (Mein Unstern…)

8

33

“Orientalist,”72-74

p.228

“Seid Hosseini” (Hör’ dieß…)

46

34

“Orientalist,”80-81

p.233

“Mewlana” (Mahmud, mein Bruder…)

8

35

“Orientalist,”90

p.235

“Ben Jemin” (Du übertreibe…)

6

36

“Orientalist,”90

p.236

“Ben Jemin” (Ich sah…)

6

37

“Orientalist,”91

p.236

“Ben Jemin” (Ein Mühlrad…)

18

38

“Orientalist,”94

p.237

“Ben Jemin” (Welch eine Muhle…)

4

39

“Orientalist,”92

p.238

“Ben Jemin” (Bloß ob…)

8

40

“Orientalist,”98

p.239

“Ben Jemin” (Der freye…)

4

41

“Orientalist,”144-47

p.248

“Chodschu Kermani” (Willkommen…)

8

42

“Orientalist,”104-07

p.249

“Mir Kermani” (Ohne die Wangen…)

10

43

“Orientalist,”118

p.259

“Dschelaleddin Adhad” (Wie Blumenmärkte…)

13

44

“Orientalist,”126

p.337

“Dschami” (Ein Freund…)

4

45

“Persian Poetry,”726

p.360

“Hatifi” (Man kann das…)

2

46

“Orientalist,”121

p.364

“Gilani” (O trantes Herz…)

14

47

“Orientalist,”122

p.369

“Hilali” (Wenn du mich…)

2

48

“Orientalist,”124

p.401

“Feisi” (Ich bin’s…)

6

49

“Orientalist,”124

p.401

“Feisi” (Der Trinker…)

4

50

“Orientalist,”163-65

40

[A selection of Rūmī’s Mesnavi, pp. 89–93 in August Tholuck’s Bluthensammlung aus der Morgenlandischen Mystik (1825)]

51

“Orientalist,”194

4

[A selection of Sa‘dī’s Bostan, p.152 of the first volume of K. H. Graf’s Moschlichedden Sadi’s Lustgarten (1850)]

Category A Total

1,492

Category B Total

553

Appendix Sum Total

2,045

Notes:

(1.) For Yohannan’s “Check-list,” see Chapter 5, note 69. An earlier version of this appendix originally appeared as part of my 2005 University of Cambridge unpublished Ph.D. dissertation “Ralph Waldo Emerson, Persian Poetry and the German Critical Tradition,” 267–89.

(2.) For German sources of Emersonian translations not previously identified by editors of his Poetry Notebooks and Topical Notebooks, see Category A, entries 4, 12, 44, 47, 77, and 96, (p.200) which indicate sources in Hammer-Purgstall’s Diwan previously designated as “unlocated” in Emerson, Poetry Notebooks, 970, 852, 837, 832, and Emerson, Topical Notebooks, II, 114, 379, respectively.

(3.) Emerson’s translations also merit attention from Parvin Loloi in her Hafiz, Master of Persian Poetry: A Critical Bibliography (London: I.B. Tauris, 2004); offering a catalog of English translations of Hafiz, Loloi only includes Emersonian renditions of full Hafizean ghazals previously catalogued by Yohannan.

(4.) In listing locations in Emerson’s personal papers, for the sake of specificity I cite his own page numbers provided in his manuscript journals. For the published editions of the relevant notebooks, see (1) “Notebook Orientalist” in Emerson, Topical Notebooks, II, 37–141; (2) “Notebook EF” in Emerson, Poetry Notebooks, 264–322; (3) “Notebook X” in Emerson, Poetry Notebooks, 109–263; and (4) “Notebook Rhymer” in Emerson, Poetry Notebooks, 424–67.