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Including EveryoneCreating Music Classrooms Where All Children Learn$

Judith A. Jellison

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199358762

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199358762.001.0001

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(p.203) Appendix D Significant Changes in Practices: 1970s to the Present

(p.203) Appendix D Significant Changes in Practices: 1970s to the Present

Including Everyone
Oxford University Press

1970s and 1980s: Functional, Chronological Age-Appropriate Curricula with Community-Referenced Practices

  • A developmental model dominates special education practices for children and adults; many reside in institutional settings with separate schools on institutional grounds.

    • Curricular and instructional decisions are based on practices used in infant and preschool programs; a multitude of age-inappropriate prerequisite skills and knowledge are required in curricula for children and adults with significant disabilities.

    • The concept of “mental age” is prominent.

    • Research and assessments of outcomes show slow educational progress and poor quality-of-life outcomes.

    • The model is eventually deemed ineffective and for the most part, eliminated from special education practices.

  • Groundbreaking ideas emphasize a model focusing on quality-of-life outcomes.

    • Curricular and instructional practices are chronological age-appropriate, are community-referenced, and focus on functional outcomes (e.g., domestic and social knowledge and skills, vocational skills).

    • The concept of “chronological age” is prominent.

    • The concept of “partial participation” allows for greater participation in a variety of activities. (p.204)

    • Research and assessments of outcomes show positive quality-of-life outcomes.

    • A model developed initially for individuals with significant disabilities, many of whom reside in institutional settings, gains recognition in special education practices in school settings.

  • Focus on independence to the maximum extent possible and access to programs and facilities continues to gain ground as a result of laws—Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, IDEA, and the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act (Tech Act). Sweeping advances are seen in technology.

1990s: Social Inclusion, Self-Determination, and the Prominence of Assistive Technology

  • Practices focus on social justice and inclusion as a civil right.

    • Increase in civil rights activities by individuals with disabilities, self-advocacy groups, and supportive individuals and professional organizations, all working for full membership of people with disabilities in their schools, neighborhoods, and communities.

  • Professionals produce a wealth of articles on social inclusion, social interactions, and self-determination.

  • IDEA 1997 mandates access to the general curriculum to the maximum extent possible and also participation in the general curriculum, extracurricular activities, and other nonacademic activities, all to be documented in the IEP; participation in state and district tests is required, or alternate tests if necessary. Special education begins to be viewed as a service rather than a place where children receive instruction.

  • Transition requirements from IDEA 1990 and IDEA 1997 strengthen the importance of postschool adult-living objectives in education programs.

  • Greater access and opportunities for participation in all aspects of life in the public and private sectors are a result of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA amended in 2008).

  • Technological advancements continue with amendments in 1999 to the Tech Act and increase access to academic learning and activities of daily life. (p.205)

2000s: Access to the General Curriculum and Assessment of Student Progress

  • Earlier priorities and effective practices of the 1980s and 1990s are prominent; the biggest thrust is access to academic subjects in the general curriculum and assessment of students’ progress.

  • IDEA 2004 continues to focus on access to the general education curriculum and instruction, academic performance, and assessment of students’ progress.

    • Both academic and functional (daily-living) goals are included, assessed, and integrated into regular education practices to the degree possible.

    • Scientifically based instructional practices and services based on peer-reviewed research are used to the extent possible.

    • Access to instructional materials and assistive technology (AT) devices and services is required.

  • The concept of universal design introduced in IDEA 2004 specific to assessment practices gains prominence as an instructional approach.

  • Response to Intervention (RTI) emerges from language in IDEA 2004 and develops into a schoolwide, multitiered instructional model that receives much attention in general education at all levels, particularly as a proactive process designed to identify and meet diverse learning needs of students with disabilities and those at risk.

For more information about these and other changes that added significantly to progress in education and civil rights for individuals with disabilities, see appendix B. Current curricular and instructional practices are discussed in depth in chapter 4. (p.206)