Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Buddha PartyHow the People's Republic of China Works to Define and Control Tibetan Buddhism$

John Powers

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199358151

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199358151.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.317) Bibliography

(p.317) Bibliography

Source:
The Buddha Party
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Aggarwal, Ravina. 2004. Beyond Lines of Control: Performance and Politics on the Disputed Borders of Ladakh, India. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Ahmad, Zahiruddin. 1970. Sino-Tibetan Relations in the Seventeenth Century. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.

Ahmad, Zahiruddin. 1995. A History of Tibet by the Fifth Dalai Lama of Tibet. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ahmad, Zahiruddin. 2012. The Historical Status of China in Tibet. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.

Ainam. 1996. “How the Soul Boy of the 10th Bainqen Is Determined.” China’s Tibet 7, no. 1: 6–9.

Ali, S. Mahmud. 1999. Cold War in the High Himalaya: The US, China, and South Asia in the 1950s. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Allès, Elizabeth. 2003. “Muslim Religious Education in China.” China Perspectives 45: 21–29.

Amnesty International. 2009. Reports. http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/unrest-tibet-continues-human-rights-violations-escalate-20090310.

Anagnost, Ann. 1997. National Past-Times: Narrative, Representation, and Power in Modern China. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.

Andrugtsang, Gompo Tashi. 1973. Four Rivers, Six Ranges: A True Account of Khampa Resistance to Chinese in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office.

Anon. n.d. Brahmā Net Discourse [Skt. Brahmā-jāla-sūtra; Chin. Fanwang jing 梵網經‎]. T 1484.24.997a–1010a.

Anon. n.d. Golden Light Discourse [Skt. Suvarṇa-prabhāsottama-sūtra; Chin. Jinguangming zuishengwang jing 金光明最勝王經‎]. T 665.16.403–457. Tib. (p.318) ‘Phags pa gser ‘od dam pa mdo sde’i dbang po’i rgyal po, sDe dge 556 and 557, vol. pa: 151b–273a.

Anon. n.d. Perfection of Wisdom Discourse for Humane Kings Who Protect Their Countries [Renwang huguo bore boluomi jing 仁王護國般若波羅蜜經‎]. T 246.8.825a–846a. Abbreviated as Renwang Jing 仁王經‎.

Anon. 1972. Great Changes in Tibet. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.

Anon. 1974. Tibet Today. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.

Anon. 1998. Propaganda Materials for Education and Study in Patriotism in Tibetan Buddhism [Zangchuan fojiao aiguozhuyi jiaoyu xuexi xuanchuan cailiao 藏傳佛教愛國主義教育學習宣傳材料‎]. Lanzhou: Zhonggong Gansu shengwei tongzhanbu—Gansu sheng zongjiao shiwuju.

Apter, David, and Tony Saich. 1994. Revolutionary Discourse in Mao’s Republic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ardley, Jane. 2003. The Tibetan Independence Movement: Political, Religious, and Gandhian Perspectives. London: Routledge/Curzon.

Aris, Michael. 1988. Hidden Treasures and Secret Lives: A Study of Pemalingpa (1450–1521) and the Sixth Dalai Lama (1683–1706). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Arpi, Claude. 2009. Dharamsala and Beijing: The Negotiations that Never Were. Frankfort, IL: Lancer.

Arpi, Claude. 2012. “The Cause of Resentment.” http://claudearpi.blogspot.com.au/2012/03/cause-of-resentment.html.

Ashiwa, Yoshiko, and David L. Wank, eds. 2009. Making Religion Making the State: The Politics of Religion in Modern China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Asia Watch. 1990. Merciless Repression: Human Rights in Tibet. Washington, DC: Asia Watch Committee.

Askew, David. 2009. “Sport and Politics: The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.” In The European Union and China: Interests and Dilemmas, edited by George Wiessala, John Wilson, and Pradeep Taneja, 103–120. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Atwood, Christopher P. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongolian Empire. New York: Facts on File.

Backhouse, Edmund, and Otway P. Bland. 1914. Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. London: Houghton Mifflin.

Bacot, Jacques. 1935. “Le Marriage chinois du roi tibétain Sroṅ bcan sgan po.” Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques 3: 1–60.

Bacot, Jacques, Frederick W. Thomas, and Charles G. Toussaint. 1940–1946. Documents de Touen-houang relatifs à l’histoire du Tibet. Paris: Paul Geuthner.

Badeng Nima. 2001. “Problems Related to Bilingual Education in Tibet.” Chinese Education and Society 34, no. 2: 91–102.

Bakken, Borge. 2000. The Exemplary Society: Human Improvement, Social Control, and the Dangers of Modernity in China. New York: Oxford University Press.

Balcombe, Dennis. 2014. China’s Opening Door. Lake Mary, FL: Charisma House.

Barmé, Geremie. 1996a. Shades of Mao: The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

(p.319) Barmé, Geremie. 1996b. “To Screw Foreigners is Patriotic: China’s Avant-Garde Nationalists.” In Chinese Nationalism, edited by Jonathan Unger, 183–208. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Barmé, Geremie. 1999. In the Red: On Contemporary Chinese Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.

Barnett, Robert. 1994. “Symbols and Protest: The Iconography of Demonstrations in Tibet, 1987–1990.” In Resistance and Reform in Tibet, edited by Robert Barnett and Shirin Akiner, 238–258. London: Hurst & Co.

Barnett, Robert. 2005. “Women and Politics in Contemporary Tibet.” In Women in Tibet, edited by Janet Gyatso and Hanna Havnevik, 285–366. New York: Columbia University Press.

Barnett, Robert. 2006. Lhasa: Streets with Memories. New York: Columbia University Press.

Barnett, Robert. 2008. “Authenticity, Secrecy, and Public Space: Chen Kuiyuan and Representations of the Panchen Lama Reincarnation Dispute of 1995.” In Tibetan Modernities: Notes from the Field on Cultural and Social Change, edited by Robert Barnett and Ronald Schwartz, 353–421. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Barnett, Robert. 2009. “Can China’s Tibetan Crisis Be Resolved?” Council on Foreign Relations, March 6. http://www.cfr.org/china/can-chinas-tibetan-crisis-resolved/p18707.

Barnett, Robert. 2010. “China, Tibet and the Dynamics of Inland Borders.” A Keynote Address at the Conference “Asian Diversity in a Global Context,” Asian Dynamics Initiative, University of Copenhagen, November 11, 2010. Reprint in China Heritage Quarterly 27 (September 2011). http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/scholarship.php?searchterm=027_borders.inc&issue=027.

Barnett, Robert. 2011. “The Dalai Lama’s ‘Deception’: Why a Seventeenth-Century Decree Matters to Beijing.” New York Book Review, April 6.

Barnett, Robert. 2012. “Political Self-Immolation in Tibet: Causes and Influences.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 41–64.

Barnett, Robert, and Shirin Akiner, eds. 1994. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst & Co.

Barnett, Robert, and Ronald Schwartz, eds. 2008. Tibetan Modernities: Notes from the Field on Cultural and Social Change. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Bass, Catriona. 1998. Education in Tibet: Policy and Practice since 1950. London: Zed Books.

Bass, Catriona. 2008. “Tibetan Primary Curriculum and Its Role in Nation Building.” Educational Review 60, no. 1: 39–50.

Beckwith, Christopher. 1976. “Tibet and Early Medieval Florissance in Eurasia: A Preliminary Note on the Economic History of the Tibetan Empire.” Central Asiatic Journal 21: 89–104.

Beckwith, Christopher. 1987. The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

(p.320) Beckwith, Christopher. 2006. “Toward a Tibeto-Burman Theory.” In Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages II, edited by Christopher Beckwith, 1–38. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Beech, Hannah. 2015. “China Creates Database of ‘Living Buddhas’ in Latest Attempt to Control Tibetan Affairs.” Time Magazine, December 11.

Beijing Xinhua Domestic Service. 2000. “Wang Zhaoguo on PRC United Front Work.” January 11.

Bell, Sir Charles. 1987. Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth. London: Wisdom Publications.

Bellezza, John V. 1997. Divine Dyads: Ancient Civilization in Tibet. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Bellezza, John V. 2005. Spirit-Mediums, Sacred Mountains and Related Bon Textual Traditions in Upper Tibet. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Bellezza, John V. 2008. Zhang Zhung: Foundations of Civilization in Tibet. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Benn, James A. 2012. “Multiple Meanings of Buddhist Self-Immolation in China—A Historical Perspective.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 203–212.

Berkin, Martyn. 2000. The Great Tibetan Stonewall of China: The Status of Tibet in International Law and International Policy on Tibet. Chichester: Barry Rose Law Publishers.

Bernays, Edward. 1947. “The Engineering of Consent.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 250: 113–120.

Bernays, Edward. 2005. Propaganda. New York: Ig Publishing.

Berounský, Daniel. “Kirti Monastery of Ngawa: Its History and Recent Situation.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 65–80.

Bertsch, Wolfgang. 2002. The Currency of Tibet. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Bhabha, Homi K., ed. 1990. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge.

Bhabha, Homi K. 2004. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.

Bhattacharya, Abanti. 2007. “Chinese Nationalism and the Fate of Tibet: Implications for India and Future Scenarios.” Strategic Analysis 31, no. 2: 237–266.

Biggs, Michael. 2012. “Self-Immolation in Context, 1963–2012.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 143–150.

bLo bzang chos kyi nyi ma, Thu’u bkwan III(Tügen Losang Chögi Nyima). 1984. Crystal Mirror: Good Explanations Presenting the Sources and Viewpoints of All Tenet Systems [Grub mtha’ thams cad kyi khung dang ’dod tshul ston pa legs bshad shel gyi me long]. Lan kru’u: Kan su’u mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

bLo bzang ’phrin las, Dung dkar Rin po che. 1981. Explanation of the Merging of Religion and Politics in Tibet [Bod kyi chos srid zung ’brel skor bshad pa]. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1981. English trans.

Blondeau, Anne-Marie, and Katia Buffetrille. 2008. Authenticating Tibet: Answers to China’s 100 Questions. Berkeley: University of California Press.

(p.321) Blum, Susan D. 2000. Portraits of Primitives: Ordering Human Kinds in the Chinese Nation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blum, Susan D. 2007. Lies that Bind: Chinese Truth, Other Truths. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Bonvillain, Nancy. 2000. Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Brady, Anne-Marie. 2003. Making the Foreign Serve China: Managing Foreigners in the People’s Republic. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Brady, Anne-Marie. 2008. Marketing Dictatorship: Propaganda and Thought Work in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Branigan, Tania. 2011. “Dalai Lama’s Retirement Is a Trick, Says China.” The Guardian, March 10.

Brauen, Martin. 2004. Dreamworld Tibet: Western Illusions. Bangkok: Orchid Publishers.

Brauen, Martin. 2005. The Dalai Lamas: A Visual History. Chicago: Serindia.

Bräuner, Oliver. 2009. China’s Changing Approach to International Intervention in the Post–Cold War Era. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag.

Bretfield, Sven. 2004. “The ‘Great Debate’ of bSam yas: Construction and Deconstruction of a Tibetan Buddhist Myth.” Asiatische Studien/Études Asiatiques 58, no. 1: 15–56.

Bretschneider, E. 2000. Mediaeval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources. Vol. 2. London: Routledge. Originally published 1888.

Broido, Michael. 1987. “Sa-skya Paṇḍita, the White Panacea and the Hva-Shang Doctrine.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10, no. 2: 27–68.

Broughton, Jeffrey. 1983. “Early Ch’an Schools in Tibet.” In Studies in Ch’an and Hua-yen, edited by Robert Gimello and Peter Gregory, 1–68. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Brownell, Susan, and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. 2002. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press.

bSod nams grags pa, Paṇ chen. 1989. New Red Annals [Deb ther dmar po gsar ma]. Lhasa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang.

bSod nams grags pa, Paṇ chen. 2001. Ornament for the Mind: Ecclesiastic History of the Old and New Scriptures and Precepts Orders [bKa’ gdams gsar rnying gi chos ’byung yid kyi mdzes rgyan]. Lhasa: Bod ljongs bod yig dpe rnying dpe skrun khang.

bSod nams rgyal mtshan, bLa ma dam pa. n.d. Clear Mirror of Royal Genealogies [rGyal rabs gsal ba’i me long]. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center Work G9730.

bsTan ’dzin rnam dag. 1997. Essence of the Transmission of Useful Explanations Regarding the Early History of Tibet [sNga rabs bod kyi byung ba brjod pa’i ’brel gtam lung ti snying po]. New Delhi: Paljor Publications.

bsTan rgyal bzang po, sPa ston. 1991. Lamp that Illuminates the Expansion of the Teachings [bsTan pa’i rnam bshad dar rgyas gsal ba’i sgron me]. Beijing: Krung go’i bod kyi shes rig dpe skrun khang.

(p.322) bsTan rgyas karma nges don. 1973. Wish Fulfilling Tree: Condensed Biographies of the Succession of the Rosary of Lives of the Dharma Lords, the Karma pas [Chos rje Karma pa sku ’phreng rim byon gyi rnam thar mdor bsdus dpag bsam khri shing]. New Delhi: Tobden Tsering.

Bu ston Rin chen grub. 1989. History of the Doctrine [Chos ’byung; full title: bDe bar gshegs pa’i bstan pa’i gsal byed chos kyi ’byung gnas gsung rab rin po che’i mdzod]. Bu-ston Thams-cad Mkhyen-pa’i Chos-’byung. Dehradun: Drikung Partrun Khang.

Buffetrille, Katia. 2012. “Self-Immolation in Tibet: Some Reflections on an Unfolding History.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 1–17.

Buffetrille, Katia, and Hildegard Diemberger, eds. 2002. Territory and Identity in Tibet and the Himalayas. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Bulag, Uradyn E. 2000. “Ethnic Resistance with Socialist Characteristics.” In Chinese Society: Change, Conflict, and Resistance, edited by Elizabeth Perry and Mark Selden, 178–197. New York: Routledge.

Bultrini, Raimondo. 2013. The Dalai Lama and the King Demon: Tracking a Triple Murder Mystery through the Mists of Time. New York: Tibet House.

Burton, Adrian P. 2000. “Temples, Texts, and Taxes: The Bhagavad-gītā and the Politico-Religious Identity of the Caitanya Sect.” PhD diss., Australian National University.

Burton, Charles. 2008. “The ‘Beijing Consensus’ and China’s Quest for Legitimacy on the International Stage.” In The Chinese Party-State in the 21st Century: Adaptation and the Reinvention of Legitimacy, edited by André Laliberté and Marc Lanteigne, 146–161. London: Routledge.

Bushell, F. W. 1880. “The Early History of Tibet from Chinese Sources.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, n.s., 12: 434–541.

Butler, Alex. 2003. Feminism, Nationalism, and Exiled Tibetan Women. New Delhi: Kali for Women.

Bytwerk, Randall L. 1989. “Western and Totalitarian Views of Propaganda.” In Propaganda: A Pluralistic Perspective, edited by Ted J. Smith, 39–48. New York: Praeger.

Bytwerk, Randall L. 2008. “Propaganda.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cabezón, José. 2008. “State Control of Tibetan Buddhist Monasticism in the People’s Republic of China.” In Chinese Religiosities: Afflictions of Modernity and State Formation, edited by Mayfair Mei-Hui Yang, 261–291. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cai, Yongshun. 2008. “Disruptive Collective Action in the Reform Era.” In Popular Protest in China, edited by Kevin J. O’Brien, 163–178. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Calkowski, Marcia. 1997. “The Tibetan Diaspora and the Politics of Performance.” In Tibetan Culture in the Diaspora, edited by Frank Korom, 4:51–59. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

(p.323) Cao, Ziqiang 曹自強‎, and Li Decheng 李德成‎. 2008. Summary of Religious Work in Tibet [Xizang zongjiao gongzuo gaishuo 西藏宗教工作概説‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe.

Carlson, Allen. 2004. Beijing’s Tibet Policy: Securing Sovereignty and Legitimacy. Washington, DC: East–West Center.

Cassinelli, C. W., and Robert Ekvall. 1959. A Tibetan Principality: The Political System of Sa skya. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies Compilation Committee. 1995. Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies (1949–1991). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies Compilation Committee. 1997. Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies (1992–1995). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Cayley, Vyvyan. 1994. Children of Tibet: An Oral History of the First Tibetans to Grow up in Exile. Balmain, NSW: Pearlfisher.

Central Committee, Chinese Communist Party. 1994. “Implementation of the Platforms for Patriotic Education” [Aiguozhuyi Jiaoyu Shishi Gangyao 爱国主义教育实施纲要‎]: 115.32.34/dangban/zzwx/agjy.asp; issued August 23, 1994.

Central Propaganda Department, People’s Republic of China. “Implementation Outline for Patriotic Education” [Aiguozhuyi jiaoyu 爱国主义教育‎]. August 23, 1994; news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2003-01/20/content_697898.htm.

Central Tibetan Administration. 2015. “Tibet Was Not Part of China but Middle Way Remains a Viable Solution: Central Tibetan Administration’s Response to China’s White Paper.” http://tibet.net/2015/09/full-text-of-ctas-response-to-chinas-whitepaper-on-tibet/.

Chan, Kim-Kwong. 2009. “The Christian Community in China: The Leaven Effect.” In Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Asia, edited by David Halloran Lumsdaine, 43–86. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chan, Kim-Kwong, and Eric R. Carlson. 2005. Religious Freedom in China: Policy, Administration, and Regulation. Santa Barbara, CA: Institute for the Study of American Religion.

Chan, Koonchung. 2011. The Fat Years. London: Doubleday.

Chatterjee, Partha. 1982. “Agrarian Relations and Communalism in Bengal, 1926–1935.” In Subaltern Studies I: Writings on South Asian History and Society, edited by Ranajit Guha, 9–38. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chaturvedi, Vinayak, ed. 2000. Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial. London: Verso.

Chen, Baiping 陈柏萍‎. 2010. “The Role of the Dalai Lama System in the Qing Dynasty’s Governance of Tibet.” [Dalai Lama xitong zai Qingchao zhili Xixang Zhong de zuoyong 达赖喇嘛系统在清朝治理西藏中的作用‎]. Journal of Qinghai Nationalities University [Qinghai Minzu Daxue Xuebao Shehui Kexue 青海民族大学学报社会科学版‎] 36, no. 3 (July): 21–28.

(p.324) Chen, Guansheng. 1991. The Merging of Religious and Secular Rule in Tibet. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Chen, Jian. 2006. “The Tibetan Rebellion of 1959 and China’s Changing Relations with India and the Soviet Union.” Journal of Cold War Studies 8, no. 3: 54–101.

Ch’en, Kenneth. 1964. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Chen, Nan 陈楠‎. 2008. “Influence of Tibetan Buddhism on the Hinterland in the Ming Dynasty” [Mingdai Zangchuan Fojiao dui Neidi de yingxiang 明代藏传佛教对内地的影响‎]. China Tibetology [Zhongguo Zangxue 中国藏学‎], September 2, 1–18.

Chen, Qingying 陈庆英‎. 2006. “The Qing Dynasty’s Golden Urn Lottery System: Its Implementation in Tibet [Qingdai Jinping Cheqian Zhidu de Zhiding Jiqi zai Xizang de Shishi 清代金瓶掣签制度的制定及其在西藏的实施‎]. Journal of Tibet Nationalities Institute [Xizang Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao 西藏民族学院学报‎] 27, no. 6: 1–8.

Chen, Qingying 陈庆英‎. 2008. The System of the Dalai Lama Reincarnation. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Chen, Qingying, and Wang Xiangyun. 2008. “Tibetology in China: A Survey.” In Images of Tibet in the 19th and 20th Centuries, edited by Monica Esposito, 611–681. Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient.

Chen, Xiezhang, Suo Wenqing, and Chen Naiwen 陳燮章‎, 索文清, 陳乃文‎. 1982–1993. Collected Tibetan Historical Records [Zangzu Shiliaoji 藏族史料集‎]. 4 vols. Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe 四川民族出版社‎.

Chiang Kai-shek. 1947. China’s Destiny. Translated by Wang Chung-hui. New York: Roy Publishers.

China Council for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reconciliation. 2012. “Discussion of Zhu Weiqun with European Officials, Scholars, and Reporters Concerning the Dalai Lama.” http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/tylt/2012ndyq/201210/t20121018_3196838.html.

China Tibet Online. 2012. “Dalai Lama Condemned by Foreign Media for Inciting Self-Immolation.” March 21. http://chinatibet.people.com.cn/96069/7764092.html.

Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. 1991. “Notice about Conducting Education of Patriotism and Revolutionary Tradition by Exploiting Extensively Cultural Relics” [Guanyu Chongfeng Liyong Wenwu Jinxing Aiguozhuyi he Geming Chuantong Jiaoyu de Tongzhi]. Beijing: Government Printing Office.

Chinese Communist Party Ministry of Education. 1991. “General Outline on Strengthening Education on Chinese Modern and Contemporary History and National Conditions in Primary and Middle School” [Zhongxiaoxue Jiaqiang Jindai Xiandaishi he Guoqing Jiaoyu de Zongti Gangyao]. Beijing: Government Printing Office.

Chiu, Hungdah, and June Teufel Dreyer. 1989. Tibet: Past and Present. Occasional Papers/Reprints Series in Contemporary Asian Studies, 4. Baltimore: School of Law, University of Maryland.

(p.325) Chokyi Nyima Rinpoche. 1989. The Union of Mahamudra and Dzogchen. Kathmandu: Rangjung Yeshe Publications.

Chong, Woei Lien, ed. 2002. China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Chos kyi ’byung gnas, Ta’i si tu VIII. 2004. Rosary of Moon Crystals: The Religious Biographies of the Golden Rosaries of the bKa’ brgyud [bKa’ brgyud gser phreng rnam thar zla ba chu shel gyi phreng ba stod cha]. Varanasi: Vajra Vidya Institute Library.

Chow, Daniel C. K. 2003. The Legal System of the People’s Republic of China in A Nutshell. St. Paul, MN: West Law School.

Christensen, Thomas.1996. “Chinese Realpolitik.” Foreign Affairs 75, no. 5: 37–52.

Chu, Godwin C. 1977. Radical Change through Communication in Mao’s China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Chu, Hong-yuan, and Peter Zarrow. 2002. “Modern Chinese Nationalism: The Formative Stage.” In Exploring Nationalisms in China: Themes and Conflicts, edited by C. X. George Wei and Xiaoyuan Liu, 3–26. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Chu, Shan. 2012. “Western Media Flawed with Shoddy Journalism.” China Daily, November 28.

Chung Tsering. “Online Articles on Self-Immolation by Tibetans in Exile—A Brief Survey.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 99–104.

Clifford, James. 1994. “Diasporas.” Cultural Anthropology 9, no. 3: 302–338.

Clippard, Seth. 2012. “Protecting the Spiritual Environment: Rhetoric and Chinese Buddhist Environmentalism.” PhD diss., Arizona State University.

Coleman, William M. 2002. “The Uprising at Batang: Khams and Its Significance in Chinese and Tibetan History.” In Khams pa Histories: Visions of Its People, Place, and Authority, edited by Lawrence Epstein, 31–56. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Collins, Stephen. 1982. Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravāda Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Comaroff, John L., and Paul C. Stern, eds. 1995. Perspectives on Nationalism and War. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers.

Conboy, Kenneth, and James Morrison. 2002. The CIA’s Secret War in Tibet. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

Cong, Dachang. 1997. When Heroes Pass Away: The Invention of a Chinese Communist Pantheon. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Congressional Executive Commission on China. 2006. China’s National and Local Regulations on Religion: Recent Developments in Legislation and Implementation. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Congressional Executive Commission on China. 2010. “Communist Leadership Outlines 2010–2020 ‘Tibet Work’ Priorities at ‘Fifth Forum.’” http://www.cecc.gov/publications/commission-analysis/communist-party-leadership-outlines-2010-2020-tibet-work-priorities.

Congressional Executive Commission on China. 2012. “Special Report: Tibetan Self-Immolation—Rising Frequency, Wider Spread, Greater Diversity.” (p.326) http://www.cecc.gov/publications/issue-papers/special-report-tibetan-self-immolation-rising-frequency-wider-spread.

Connor, Walker. 1994. Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Corlin, Claes. 1975. “The Nation in Your Mind: Continuity and Change among Tibetan Refugees in Nepal.” PhD diss., University of Göteborg.

Council for Tibetan Education, Tibetan Government-in-Exile. 2004. Grade Five Reader: The Sun of Wisdom [’Dzin grwa lnga pa’i slob deb rig pa’i nyin byed]. Dharamsala: Tibetan Cultural Printing Press.

Craig, Sienna. 2012. “Social Suffering and Embodied Political Crisis.” Cultural Anthropology, April 8. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/97-social-suffering-and-embodied-political-crisis.

Crossley, Pamela Kyle. 1999. A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cui, Yonghong 崔永红‎. 2008. Princess Wencheng and the Ancient Tang Foreign Route [Wencheng Gongzhu yu Tang fan gudao 文成公主与唐番古道‎]. Xining: Qinghai Renmin Chubanshe 青海人民出版社‎.

Cunningham, Stanley B. 2002. The Idea of Propaganda. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Da, Wei 达巍‎. n.d. “China’s Pride Versus Western Prejudice.” Tibet Today. http://www.tibetoday.com/opinion_on_tibetpage_54.htm.

Dabringhaus, Sabine. 1994. Das Qing-Imperium als Vision und Wirklichkeit: Tibet in Laufbahn und Schriften des Song Yun (1752–1835). Stuttgart: Franz Ssteiner Verlag.

Dai, Yannian, Edna Driscoll, Yan Qinghong, Zhu Yuan, eds. 1988. Tibet: Myth vs. Reality. Beijing: Beijing Review.

Dalton, Jacob. 2004a. “The Development of Perfection: The Interiorization of Buddhist Ritual in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 32, no. 1: 1–30.

Dalton, Jacob. 2004b. “Bsam Yas Debate.” In Encyclopedia of Buddhism, edited by Robert Buswell, 69–71. New York: Thompson Gale.

Damm, Jens, and Simona Thomas, eds. 2006. Chinese Cyberspaces: Technological Changes and Political Effects. London and New York: Routledge.

David, Barbara, and John C. Turner. 1996. “Studies in Self-Categorization and Minority Conversion: Is Being a Member of the Out-group an Advantage?” British Journal of Social Psychology 35: 179–199.

Davidson, Ronald M. 2002. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press.

Davidson, Ronald M. 2005. Tibetan Buddhism: Tantric Buddhism in the Rebirth of Tibetan Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.

Davies, Gloria. 2007. Worrying about China: The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dawa Norbu. 1987. Red Star over Tibet. New York: Envoy Press.

(p.327) Dawa Norbu. 1988. “Chinese Communist Views on National Self-Determination, 1922–1956: Origins of China’s National Minorities Policy.” International Studies 25, no. 4: 317–342.

dBang ldan tshe ring. 2007. Language: Level Three Discourses [sKad yig: Lo rim gsum pa’i skad cha]. mTsho sngon: mTsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

dBang phyug bde ldan, Zhwa sgag pa. 1976. Royal Genealogies of Tibetan Politics [Bod kyi srid don rgyal rabs]. 2 vols. Kalimpong: Shakabpa House.

Demiéville, Paul. 1952. Le Concile de Lhasa: Une controverse sur le quiétisme entre bouddhistes de l’Inde et de la Chine au VIIIe siècle de l’ère chrétienne. Paris: Institut des hautes études chinoises, Collège de France.

Dempsey, Mike. 2011. “Chinese Pervert Tibet’s Spiritual Power.” The Independent, October 20. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/chinese-pervert-tibets-spiritual-power-1355672.html.

Deng, Ruiling 邓锐龄‎. 1989. The Relationship between the Central Government and Tibetan Areas during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties [Yuan-Ming liangdai zhongyang yu Xizang de fang de guanxi 原名两代中央与西藏的房的关系‎]. Beijing: China Tibetology Publishing House.

Deng, Xiaoping. 1994. Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol. 3. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Department of Education, Tibetan Government-in-Exile. 2002. Supplement to the Intermediate Study Book: A Brief History of the Dharma and Royal Genealogy [’Bring rim slob deb kyi kha skong las. Chos ’byung dang rgyal rabs don bsdu]. Dharamsala: Tibetan Cultural Printing Press.

Department of Education, Tibetan Government-in-Exile. 2004. Tibetan Reader VI. Part II: Tibetan History, Buddhist History, and the Insider’s Path of Reasoning [rGyal rabs chos ’byung dang rigs lam nang chos]. Dharamsala: Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

Department of Information and International Relations. 1996a. The Mongols and Tibet: A Historical Assessment of Relations between the Mongol Empire and Tibet. Dharamsala: Department of Information and International Relations.

Department of Information and International Relations. 1996b. The Panchen Lama Lineage: How Reincarnation is Being Reinvented as a Political Tool. Dharamsala: Department of Information and International Relations.

Department of Information and International Relations. 2001. Tibet under Communist China—50 Years. Dharamsala: Department of Information and International Resources.

Department of Information and International Relations. 2008. 2008 Uprising in Tibet: Chronology and Analysis. Dharamsala: Department of Information and International Relations.

Department of Religion and Culture. 1998. Worship of Shugden: Documents Related to a Tibetan Controversy. Dharamsala: Department of Religion and Culture.

(p.328) Desideri, Ippolito. 2010. Mission to Tibet: The Extraordinary Eighteenth-Century Account of Father Ippolito Desideri, S.J. Translated by Michael Sweet. Boston: Wisdom.

Deutsch, Karl. 1966. Nationalism and Social Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Devoe, Dorsh Marie. 1983. “Survival of a Refugee Culture: The Longterm Gift Exchange between Tibetan Refugees and Donors in India.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Devoe, Dorsh Marie. 1987. “Keeping Refugee Status: A Tibetan Perspective.” In People in Upheaval, edited by Scott Morgan and Elizabeth Colson, 54–65. New York: Center for Migration Studies.

Dewatshang, Kunga Samten. 1997. Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest: The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications.

Dhundup Gyalpo. 2011. “Making Sense of Tibetan Self-Immolation.” Asia Times Online, December 2. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/ML02Ad01.html.

Di Cosmo, Nicola. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dikötter, Frank. 1992. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. London: Hurst.

Dikötter, Frank. 1996. “Culture, ‘Race,’ and Nation: The Formation of National Identity in Twentieth Century China.” Journal of International Affairs 2: 590–605.

Dillon, Michael. 2009. Contemporary China: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Dirlik, Arif. 1978. Revolution and History: The Origins of Marxist Historiography in China, 1919–1937. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Dirlik, Arif. 1985. “The Universalisation of a Concept: ‘feudalism’ to ‘Feudalism’ in Chinese Marxist Historiography.” In Feudalism and Non-European Societies, edited by T. J Byrnes and Harbans Mukhia, 197–226. London: Frank Cass.

Dirlik, Arif. 2005. Marxism in the Chinese Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Dittmer, Lowell, and Samuel S. Kim, eds. 1993. China’s Quest for National Identity. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

dKon mchog bstan pa rab rgyas, Brag dgon pa. 1982. Religious History of Eastern Tibet [mDo smad chos ’byung]. Lanzhou: Kan su’u mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

dKon mchog ’jigs med dbang po, ’Jam dbyangs bzhad pa. 1971. Garland of Jewels: Ecclesiastic History of the dGa’ ldan Lineage [dGe ldan chos ’byung nor bu’i phreng ba]. Collected Works, 5:526–697. New Delhi: Ngawang Gelek Demo.

dKon mchog rgya mtsho, ’Bri gung. 2004. Religious History of the ’Bri gung Order [’Bri gung chos ’byung]. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

Dodin, Thierry, and Heinz Räther, eds. 2001. Imagining Tibet: Perceptions, Projections, and Fantasies. Boston: Wisdom Publications.

Don thog bstan pa’i rgyal mtshan. 2002. Uncommon Annals that Examine the Passage of Time in the Royal Genealogies of Snowy Tibet: A Song that Delights the Learned [Gangs can bod kyi rgyal rabs lo tshigs dang dus ’gyur yo lang la dpyad pa sngon med deb ther gzur gnas dpyod ldan dgyes pa’i dbyangs snyan]. Shoreline, WA: Sapan Institute.

(p.329) Dondrup Tsering [Dongzhu Cairang 東主才讓‎]. 1999. The Marvelous Spectacle of Tibetan Tantra [Zangchuan Fojiao Mizong Qiguan 藏传佛教密宗器官‎]. Xining: Qinghai People’s Publishing House.

Dong, Jinxia. 2010. “The Beijing Games, National Identity and Modernization in China.” International Journal of the History of Sport 27, nos. 16–17: 2798–2820.

Dotson, Brandon. 2009. The Old Tibetan Annals: An Annotated Translation of Tibet’s First History. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Dreyer, June Teufel. 1976. China’s Forty Million: Minority Nationalities and National Integration in the People’s Republic of China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dreyer, June Teufel. 2006. Economic Development in Tibet under the People’s Republic of China. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.

Dreyfus, Georges. 1994. “Proto-nationalism in Tibet.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the IATS, Fagernes 1992, edited by Per Kvaerne, 205–218. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.

Dreyfus, Georges. 1998. “The Shuk-den Affair: The History and Nature of a Quarrel.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 18, no. 1: 227–270.

Dreyfus, Georges. 2002. “Tibetan Religious Nationalism: Western Fantasy or Empowering Vision?” In Tibet, Self, and the Tibetan Diaspora: Voices of Difference, edited by P. Christiaan Klieger, 37–56. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Driem, George van. 1977. “Sino-Bodic.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 40: 455–488.

Driem, George van. 2001. Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Du, Yongbin 杜永彬‎. 2007. “The Development Course of Contemporary Tibetan Buddhism” [Lun Dangdai Zangchuan Fojiao de Fazhan Luxiang 论当代藏传佛教的发展路向‎]. Journal of Tibet University [Xizang Daxue Xuebao 西藏大学学报‎] 22, no. 1 (March): 88–96. http://ckrd85.cnki.net.virtual.anu.edu.au/kns50/detail.aspx?QueryID=304&CurRec=17.

Duara, Prasenajit. 1995. Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dudjom Rinpoche. 1991. The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism. Translated by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein. 2 vols. Boston: Wisdom Publications.

Dunham, Mikel. 2004. Buddha’s Warriors: The Story of the CIA-Backed Tibetan Freedom Fighters, the Chinese Invasion, and the Ultimate Fall of Tibet. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.

Duojie Caidan 多杰才旦‎. 1994. A Compilation of Historical Records Regarding the Relationship between the Central Government and the Tibet Region since the Yuan [Yuan yilai Xizang difang yu zhongyang zhengfu guanxi dang’an shiliao huibian 元以來西藏地方与中央政府關係檔案史料匯編‎]. 7 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue Chubanshe 北京中國藏學出版社‎.

Dwang slob mda’ zur, ed. n.d. Political and Military History of Tibet [Bod rgyal khab kyi chab srid dang ’brel ba’i dmag don lo rgyus]. 2 vols. Dharamsala: n.p.

(p.330) Eberhard, Wolfram. 1971. “Chinese Regional Stereotypes.” In Moral and Social Values of the Chinese: Collected Essays, 305–317. Taipei: Ch’eng-wen.

Eberhard, Wolfram. 1988. A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought. London: Routledge.

Editors of China Reconstructs Press. 1988. Tibetans on Tibet. Beijing: China Reconstructs Press.

Ellul, Jacques. 1973. Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books.

Elverskog, Johan. 2003. The Jewel Translucent Sūtra: Altan Khan and the Mongols in the Sixteenth Century. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Elvin, Mark. 1973. The Pattern of the Chinese Past. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Epstein, Israel. 1983. Tibet Transformed. Beijing: New World Press.

Epstein, Lawrence, ed. 2002. Khams pa Histories: Visions of People, Place, and Authority. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Esherick, Joseph W., Paul G. Pickowicz, and Andrew Walder, eds. 2006. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Esposito, Monica, ed. 2008. Images of Tibet in the 19th and 20th Centuries. 2 vols. Paris: École française d’Extrȇme-Orient.

Evans, Carolyn. 2002. “Chinese Law and the International Protection of Religious Freedom.” University of Melbourne Faculty of Law Public Law and Legal Theory, Research Paper 36. http://ssm.com/abstract_id=364880.

Ewan, Stuart. 1996. PR! A Social History of Spin. New York: Basic Books.

Fairbank, John K., ed. 1968. The Chinese World Order: Traditional China’s Foreign Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fällman, Fredrik. 2008. Salvation and Modernity: Intellectuals and Faith in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Farrer, James. 2008. “One Bed, Different Dreams: The Beijing Olympics as Seen in Tokyo.” Policy Innovations: http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/commentary/data/000079.

Fei, Xiaotong. 1981. “On the Social Transformation of China’s National Minorities and Ethnic Identification in China.” In Toward a People’s Anthropology, 36–51. Beijing: New World Press.

Fenn, Nicholas. 2002. “In the Footsteps of Francis Younghusband the Centenary Tour of Tibet.” Asian Affairs 33, no. 2: 179–194.

Fischer, Andrew M. 2012. “The Geopolitics of Politico-Religious Protest in Eastern Tibet.” Cultural Anthropology, April 8. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/100-the-geopolitics-of-politico-religious-protest-in-eastern-tibet.

FitzGerald, C. P. 1967. “Religion and China’s Cultural Revolution.” Pacific Affairs 40, no. 1/2: 124–129.

Fitzgerald, John. 1986. “Hollow Words: Guomindang Propaganda and the Formation of Popular Attitudes in Guangdong Province, 1919–1926.” PhD diss., Australian National University.

(p.331) Fitzgerald, John. 1998. Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Foreign Languages Press. 1976. The Wrath of the Serfs—A Group of Life-Size Clay Sculptures. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.

Foster, Paul B. 2006. Ah Q Archeology: Lu Xun, Ah Q, Ah Q Progeny and the National Character Discourse in Twentieth Century China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Foucault, Michel. 1979. The History of Sexuality. London: Allen Lane.

Foucault, Michel. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1997. Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press.

Foucault, Michel. 2001. “Truth and Power.” In The Nature of Truth: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Michael P. Lynch, 317–320. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Frechette, Ann. 2007. “Democracy and Democratization among Tibetans in Exile.” Journal of Asian Studies 66, no. 1: 97–127.

French, Rebecca. 1991. “The New Snow Lion: The Tibetan Government-in-Exile in India.” In Governments-in-Exile in Contemporary World Politics, edited by Yossi Shain, 188–201. New York: Routledge.

French, Rebecca. 1995. The Golden Yoke: The Legal Cosmology of Tibet. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Fuchs, Andreas, and Nils-Hendrik Klann. 2013. “Paying a Visit: The Dalai Lama Effect on International Trade.” Journal of International Economics 91: 164–177. http://www.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/docs/koenig-pamina/article_dalailama_effect_on_internationaltrade_jie_2013.pdf.

Ga, Zangjia. 2003. Tibetan Religions. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Gardner, Alexander P. 2006. “The Twenty-Five Great Sites of Khams: Religious Geography, Revelation, and Nonsectarianism in Nineteenth-Century Eastern Tibet.” PhD diss., University of Michigan.

Garver, John. 2001. Protracted Contest: Sino-Indian Rivalry in the Twentieth Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Gelder, Stuart, and Roma Gelder. 1964. Timely Rain: Travels in the New Tibet. London: Hutchinson.

Gellner, Ernest. 1964. Thought and Change. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gladney, Dru C. 1994. “Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Majority/Minority Identities.” Journal of Asian Studies 53, no. 1: 92–123.

Gladney, Dru C. 1995. “Tian Zhuangzhuang, the Fifth Generation, and Minorities Film in China.” Public Culture 8, no. 1: 161–176.

Gladney, Dru C. 2004. Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldkorn, Jeremy. 2012. “Legal Daily Report on Mass Incidents in China in 2012.” Danwei.com, January 6. http://www.danwei.com/a-report-on-mass-incidents-in-china-in-2012/#more-7151.

(p.332) Goldstein, Melvyn C. 1989. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Goldstein, Melvyn C. 1999. The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Goldstein, Melvyn C. 2007. A History of Modern Tibet. Vol. 2: The Calm before the Storm, 1951–1955. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Goldstein, Melvyn C. 2013. A History of Modern Tibet. Vol. 3: The Storm Clouds Descend, 1955–1957. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Goldstein, Melvyn C., Ben Jiao, and Tanzen Lhundrup. 2009. On the Cultural Revolution in Tibet: The Nyemo Incident of 1969. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Goldstein, Melvyn C., and Matthew Kapstein, eds. 1998. Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gómez, Luis O. 1983a. “Indian Materials on the Doctrine of Sudden Awakening.” In Early Ch’an in China and Tibet, edited by Whalen Lai and Lewis Lancaster, 393–434. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gómez, Luis O. 1983b. “The Direct and Gradual Approaches of Zen Master Mahāyāna: Fragments of the Teachings of Mo-ho-yen.” In Studies in Ch’an and Hua-Yen, edited by Robert M. Gimello and Peter N. Gregory, 69–168. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Gong, Xuezeng 龔學增‎. 2003. Socialism and Religion [Shehuizhuyi yu zongjiao 社會主義與宗教‎]. Beijing: Zongjiao wenhua chubanshe.

Goossaert, Vincent, and David A. Palmer. 2011. The Religious Question in Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

’Gos gZhon nu dpal. 1974. Blue Annals: History of Buddhism in Tibet [Bod kyi yul du chos dang chos smra ba ji ltar byung ba’i rim pa deb ther sngon po]. Edited by Lokesh Chandra. Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture.

Gould, Sir Basil J. 2003. “The Discovery, Recognition, and Installation of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama.” In The History of Tibet: The Modern Period: 1895–1959. The Encounter with Modernity, edited by Alex McKay, 545–572. London: Routledge Curzon.

Government of the People’s Republic of China. “White Paper on Tibet.” http://www.china.org/WhitePaper.

Grags pa rgyal mtshan. 1968. Tibetan Royal Genealogy [Bod kyi rgyal rabs]. Sa skya pa’i bka’ ’bum. Vol. 4. Tokyo: Toyo Bunko.

Gries, Peter Hays. 1999. “Face Nationalism: Power and Passion in Chinese Anti-Foreignism.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Gries, Peter Hays. 2004. China’s New Nationalism: Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gries, Peter Hays, and Stanley Rosen, eds. 2004. State and Society in Twenty-First Century China: Crisis, Contention, and Legitimation. New York: Routledge Curzon.

gTsug lag ’phreng ba, dPa’ bo. 2003. Ecclesiastic History: A Feast for Scholars Clearly Describing the Turning of the Wheel of the Doctrine [Dam pa’i chos kyi ’khor lo bsgyur (p.333) ba rnams kyi byung ba gsal bar byed pa mkhas pa’i dga’ ston]. Varanasi: Vajra Vidya Library.

Guha, Ranajit, ed. 1982. Subaltern Studies I: Writings on South Asian History and Society. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Guha, Ranajit. 1997. A Subaltern Studies Reader, 1986–1995. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Guha, Ranajit, and Gayatri Spivak, eds. 1988. Selected Subaltern Studies. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gunaratna, Rohan, Arabinda Acharya, and Wang Pengxin. 2010. Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Guo, Rongxing. 2007. Territorial Disputes and Resource Management: A Global Handbook. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gyatso, Janet. 2012. “Discipline and Resistance on the Tibetan Plateau.” Cultural Anthropology, April 8. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/96-discipline-and-resistance-on-the-tibetan-plateau.

’Gyur med Tshe dbang mchog grub. 2001. Treasury of the Uncompounded: A Rebuttal of the Polemical Attacks on the Early Translations of the Great Treatise “Clear Differentiation of the Three Vows” [sDom pa gsum gyi rab tu dbye ba’i bstan bcos chen pos snga ’gyur phyogs la rtsod pa spong ba ’dus ma byas kyi gan mdzod]. Vol. cha. Chengdu: dMangs khrod dpe dkon sdud sgrig khang.

Haarh, Erik. 1969. The Yar-luṅ Dynasty. Copenhagen: G. E. C. Gad’s Forlag.

Hall, John S. 2001. “Chinese Population Transfer in Tibet.” Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 9: 172–199.

Hansen, Peter H. 1996. “The Dancing Lamas of Everest: Cinema, Orientalism, and Anglo-Tibetan Relations in the 1920s.” American Historical Review 101: 712–747.

Harrell, Stevan. 1995. “Civilizing Projects and Reactions to Them.” In Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers, edited by Stevan Harrell, 3–36. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Harrell, Stevan. 2001. Ways of Being Ethnic in Southwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Harris, Claire. 2012. The Museum on the Roof of the World: Art, Politics, and the Representation of Tibet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Harrison, James. 1969. Modern Chinese Nationalism. New York: Hunter College of the City of New York, Research Institute on Modern Asia.

Hartley, Lauran R., and Patricia Schiaffini-Vedani, eds. 2008. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Hastings, Adrian. 1997. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heberer, Thomas. 1989. China and Its National Minorities: Autonomy or Assimilation? Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Heberer, Thomas. 2008. “Peking erlässt die ‘Verwaltungsmethode zur Reinkarnation des Lebenden Buddhas im tibetischen Buddhismus.’ Analyse vor dem (p.334) allgemeinen Hintergrund der Tibet-Frage.” Zeitschrift für Chinesisches Recht 15, no. 1: 1–9.

Hess, Julia M. 2009. Immigrant Ambassadors: Citizenship and Belonging in the Tibetan Diaspora. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Hessler, Peter. 1999. “Tibet through Chinese Eyes.” Atlantic Magazine, February.

Hilary, John. 1992. “Note on Chinese Policies toward Sects in the 1980s.” Background Papers on Tibet: September 1992. London: Tibet Information Network.

Hilton, Isabel. 2000. The Search for the Panchen Lama. New York: W. W. Norton.

Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hoffer, Eric. 1996. The Passionate State of Mind. Cutchogue, NY: Buccaneer Books.

Holm, David L. 1991. Art and Ideology in Revolutionary China. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Holslag, Jonathan. 2010. China and India: Prospects for Peace. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hopkirk, Peter. 1982. Trespassers on the Roof of the World: The Race for Lhasa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hou, Fuwu. 1961. To Change A Nation: Propaganda and Indoctrination in Communist China. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Houston, G. W. 1971. “The System of Ha śang Mahāyāna.” Central Asiatic Journal 21, no. 2: 106–111.

Houston, G. W. 1980. Sources for a History of the bSam yas Debate. Sankt Augustin: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag.

Hsi, Chang-hao, and Kao Yuan-mei. 1977. Tibet Leaps Forward. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.

Hu, Zhaojie 胡绍皆‎. 2007. “Respect the Tradition of Reincarnation of Living Buddhas, Safeguard Freedom of Religious Belief: Written on the Occasion of the Promulgation of ‘Management Measures for the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas in Tibetan Buddhism’” [Zunzhong huofo zhuanshi chuantong baozhang zongjiao xinyang ziyou xie Zangchuan Fojiao houfo zhuanshi guanli banfa banbu zhiji 尊重活佛转世传统保障宗教信仰自由—写在《藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法》颁布之际‎]. China Religion [Zhongguo Zongjiao 中国宗教‎] 8: 16–17.

Huang, Cary. 2015. “Chinese President Stresses Marxist Materialism in Effort to Silence Critics.” South China Morning Post, January 26.

Huber, Toni, ed. 1999. Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places in Tibetan Culture: A Collection of Essays. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Huber, Toni. 2001. “Shangri-la in Exile: Representations of Tibetan Identity and Transnational Culture.” In Imagining Tibet: Perceptions, Projections, and Fantasies, edited by Thierry Dodin and Heinz Räther, 357–371. Boston: Wisdom Publications.

Huber, Toni, ed. 2002. Amdo Tibetans in Transition: Society and Culture in the Post-Mao Era. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Huddart, David. 2006. Homi K. Bhabha. London: Routledge.

(p.335) Hulsewé, A. F. P. 1968. “Chinese Communist Treatment of the Origins and the Foundation of the Chinese Empire.” In History in Communist China, edited by Albert Feuerwerker, 96–123. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Human Rights Watch. 2008. China’s Forbidden Zones: Shutting the Media out of Tibet and Other “Sensitive” Stories. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Human Rights Watch Asia. 1997. China: State Control of Religion. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/78482.

Hummel William C., and Keith Huntress. 1963. Analysis of Propaganda. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Hung, Chang-tai. 1994. War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hunt, Michael. 1994. “Chinese National Identity and the Strong State: The Late Qing-Republican Crisis.” In China’s Quest for National Identity, edited by Lowell Dittmer and Samuel S. Kim, 62–79. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Hunwick, Robert F. 2014. “Xi Jinping Calls for Ideological Control on Chinese Universities.” The Telegraph, December 30.

Huo, Wei 霍巍‎. 1995. History of Ancient Burial Systems in Tibet [Xizang gudai muzang zhidu shi 西藏古代墓葬制度史‎]. Chengdu: Sichuan Renmin Chubanshe.

Illich, Marina. 2006. “Selections from the Life of a Tibetan Buddhist Polymath: Chankya Rolpai Dorje (Lcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje), 1717–1786.” PhD diss., Columbia University.

Imeda, Yoshiro. 1975. “Documents tibétains de Touen-houang concernant le concile du Tibet.” Journal Asiatique 263: 125–146.

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 2007. “China: The Second-Generation Resident Identity Card; Security Features; and How the Card is Tested for Authenticity.” July 3: CHN102481.E. http://www.refworld.org/docid/46c4037fc.html.

Information and Publicity Office of H. H. the Dalai Lama. 1976. Tibet under Chinese Rule: A Compilation of Refugee Statements 1958–1975. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

Information and Publicity Office of H. H. the Dalai Lama. 1981. Tibetans in Exile. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

Institute for Propaganda Analysis. 1937. Propaganda Analysis. No. 2. New York: Institute for Propaganda Analysis.

International Campaign for Tibet. 1996. A Season to Purge: Religious Repression in Tibet. Washington, DC: International Campaign for Tibet.

International Campaign for Tibet. 2001. Jampa: The History of Racism in Tibet. Washington, DC: International Campaign for Tibet.

International Campaign for Tibet. 2004. When the Sky Fell to Earth: The New Crackdown on Buddhism in Tibet. Washington, DC: International Campaign for Tibet.

International Campaign for Tibet. 2007. The Communist Party as Living Buddha: The Crisis Facing Tibetan Religion under Chinese Control. Washington, DC: International Campaign for Tibet.

(p.336) International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims. 1992. “Human Rights in Tibet: An Emerging Foreign Policy Issue.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 5: 193–203.

Ishihama, Yumiko. 1992. “A Study of the Seals and Titles Conferred by the Dalai Lamas.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 5th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Narita 1989, edited by Ihara Shōren and Yamaguchi Zuihō, 501–514. Narita: Naritasan Shinsoji.

Ishihama, Yumiko. 1997. “New Light on the ‘Chinese Conquest of Tibet’ in 1720 (Based on the New Manchu Sources.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 7th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Graz 1995, edited by Helmut Krasser, Michael Much, Ernst Steinkellner, and Helmut Tauscher, 419–426. Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Jabb, Lama. 2011. “Singing the Nation: Modern Tibetan Music and National Identity.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 21: 1–30.

Jackson, David. 1990. “Sa-skya Paṇḍita the ‘Polemicist’: Ancient Debates and Modern Interpretations.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 13, no. 2: 17–116.

Jackson, Roger. 1982. “Sa skya Paṇḍita’s Account of the bSam yas Debate: History as Polemic.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 5: 89–99.

Jackson, Roger. 2006. “Triumphalism and Ecumenism in Thu’u bkwan’s Crystal Mirror.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 2: 1–23.

Jackson, Roger, and Geshe Lhundup Sopa. 2009. The Crystal Mirror of Philosophical Systems: A Tibetan Study of Asian Religious Thought. Boston: Wisdom Publications.

Jagou, Fabienne. 2004. Le 9e Panchen Lama (1883–1937): Enjeu des relations sino-tibétaines. Paris: École française d’extrème-orient.

Jagou, Fabienne. 2012. “Chinese Policy towards Tibet versus Tibetan Expectations for Tibet: A Divergence Marked by Self-Immolations.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 81–87.

Jamyang Norbu. 1979. Warriors of Tibet: The Story of Aten and the Khampas’ Fight for the Freedom of Their Country. London: Wisdom Publications.

Jenner, William J. F. 1992. The Tyranny of History: The Roots of China’s Crisis. London: Penguin Press.

Jiang Ping 江平‎, Li Zuomin 李佐民‎, Song Yingting 宋盈亭‎, and Xin Wenbo 辛文波‎. 1996. “The Tradition of Patriotism in the Tibetan Buddhist Community” [Xizang Fojiao jie de Aiguo zhuyi chuantong 西藏佛教界的爱国主义传统‎]. China Tibetology 2: 3–17.

Jin, Hui, Ren Yinong, and Ma Naihui. 2008. Social History of Tibet, China: Documented and Illustrated. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Johnson, Chalmers. 1962. Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1937–1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Jowett, Garth S., and Victoria O’Donnell. 2006. Propaganda and Persuasion. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

(p.337) Kämpfe, Hans-Rainer.Ñi ma’i ’od zer/Naran-u-gerel: Die Biographie des 2. Pekinger lČaṅ skya—Qutugtu Rol pa’i rdo rǰe (1717–1786). St. Augustin: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag.

Kapstein, Matthew T. 2000. The Tibetan Assimilation of Buddhism: Conversion, Contestation, and Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kapstein, Matthew T. 2006. The Tibetans. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Kapstein, Matthew T. 2008. “Tibetan Tibetology? Sketches of an Emerging Discipline.” In Images of Tibet in the 19th and 20th Centuries, edited by Monica Esposito, 799–815. Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient.

Kapstein, Matthew T., ed. 2009. Buddhism between Tibet and China. Boston: Wisdom Publications.

Kapstein, Matthew T., and Sam van Schaik, eds. 2010. Esoteric Buddhism at Dunhuang: Rites and Teachings for This Life and Beyond. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Karma bstan skyong dbang po. 1985. The Sixteenfold Legal Ordnances of the Ruler of gTsang and the Twelvefold Legal Ordnances of the Tibetan Government and Other Important Items [sDe pa gtsang pa’i khrims yig zhal lce bcu drug dang dga’ ldan pho brang ba’i zhal lce bcu gnyis sogs nyer mkho sna tshogs]. Dolanji: Tibetan Bonpo Monastic Community.

Kau, Michael Y. M., and John K. Leung, eds. 1986. The Writings of Mao Zedong. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Kelsang Kedrup [bsKal bzang mkhas grub]. 2000. The Panda and the Extraordinary Stone [Ya mtshon rdo dang byi la dom]. Dharamsala: Tibetan Government in Exile Education Department.

Kerr, Blake, and John Ackerly. 1989. “Witness to Repression.” Utne Reader, March/April.

Keyes, Ralph. 2004. The Post-Truth Era: Dishonesty and Deception in Contemporary Life. New York: St. Martin’s.

Kezhu Qunpei 克珠群佩‎. 2009. Research on Tibetan Buddhism: Collected Essays by Chinese Buddhism Scholars [Xizang Fojiao Yanjiu 西藏佛教研究‎]. Beijing: Zongjiao Wenhua Chubanshe 宗教文化出版社‎.

Khang dkar tshul khrims bskal bzang. 1980. Tibet and the Tibetans: A Compendium of Tibetan History [Bod kyi lo rgyus phyogs bsdus bod dang bod mi]. New Delhi: Western Tibetan Cultural Association.

Kindopp, J., and Lee Hamrin, eds. 2004. God and Caesar in China. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Klandermans, Bert. 2002. “How Group Identification Helps to Overcome the Dilemma of Collective Action.” American Behavioral Scientist 45: 887–900.

Klieger, P. Christiaan. 1989. “Accomplishing Tibetan Identity: The Constitution of a National Consciousness.” PhD diss., University of Hawai’i.

Klieger, P. Christiaan. 1992. Tibetan Nationalism: The Role of Patronage in the Accomplishment of a National Identity. Meerut, India: Archana Publications.

Knaus, John Kenneth. 1999. Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. New York: BBS Publications.

(p.338) Kolås, Åshild. 1996. “Tibetan Nationalism: The Politics of Religion.” Journal of Peace Research 33, no. 1: 51–66.

Kolås, Åshild, and Monika P. Thowsen. 2005. On the Margins of Tibet: Cultural Survival on the Sino-Tibetan Frontier. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.

Kolmaš, Josef. 1994. “The Ambans and Assistant Ambans of Tibet (1727–1912): Some Statistical Observations.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes 1992, edited by Per Kvaerne, 1:454–467. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.

Korom, Frank J., ed. 1997a. Constructing Tibetan Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Quebec: World Heritage Press.

Korom, Frank J. 1997b. Tibetan Culture in Diaspora: Papers Presented at a Panel of the 7th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Graz 1995. Vienna: Verlag Oder Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Krantz, Elizabeth. 2008. “The Day Chinese Red Guards Crushed Dissent on Australian Soil: China Sends in the Goons.” Australian News Commentary, April 26, 2008. http://www.australian-news.com.au/China_torch_relay.htm.

Kuijp, Leonard van der. 1996. “Tibetan Historiography.” In Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, edited by José Ignacio Cabezón and Roger R. Jackson, 39–56. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.

Kun dga’ rgyal mtshan, Sa skya Paṇḍita. n.d.a. Clear Differentiation of the Three Vows. [sDom pa gsum gyi rab tu dbye ba’i bstan bcos]. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center W1KG1686.

Kun dga’ rgyal mtshan, Sa skya Paṇḍita. n.d.b. Clarifying the Sage’s Thought [Thub pa’i dgongs pa rab tu gsal ba]. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center W00EGS1017151. Sa skya bka’ ’bum, 5:1–211.

Kunsang Paljor [Kun bzang dpal ’byor]. 1971. Tibet: The Undying Flame [bSregs kyang mi ’tshigs pa’i bod]. Dharamsala: Tibetan Cultural Printing Press.

Kunsang Paljor [Kun bzang dpal ’byor]. 1977. Tibet: The Undying Flame. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

Kvaerne, Per. 1994. Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Sixth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes 1992. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.

Kvaerne, Per, ed. 1995. The Bon Religion of Tibet. London: Serindia Publications.

Laird, Thomas. 2006. The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. New York: Grove Press.

Lam, Willy Wo-Lap. 2006. Chinese Politics in the Hu Jintao Era: New Leaders, New Challenges. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Landsberger, Stefan. 1995. Chinese Propaganda Posters: From Revolution to Modernization. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Langer, Walter. n.d. “Hitler as His Associates Knew Him.” A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler. His Life and Legend. Washington, DC: Office of Strategic Services. http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/h/hitler-adolf/oss-papers/text/oss-profile-03-02.html.

(p.339) Langfitt, Frank. 2015. “Why a Chinese Government Think Tank Attacked American Scholars.” National Public Radio, May 21. http://www.npr.org/2015/05/21/408291285/why-a-chinese-government-think-tank-attacked-american-scholars.

Langlois, John D., ed. 1981. China under Mongol Rule. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lasswell, Harold D. 1927. Propaganda Techniques in the World War. New York: Knopf.

Lasswell, Harold D. 1935. World Politics and Personal Insecurity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lasswell, Harold D. 1995. “Propaganda.” In Propaganda, edited by Robert Jackall, 13–25. New York: New York University Press.

Lasswell, Harold D., and D. Blumenstock. 1939. World Revolutionary Propaganda: A Chicago Study. New York: Knopf.

Latham, Kevin. 2000. “Nothing but the Truth: News Media, Power, and Hegemony in South China.” China Quarterly 163: 633–654.

Lau, Adam Yuet. 2006. Miraculous Response: Doing Popular Religion in Contemporary China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Lee, Chin-Chuan, ed. 2003. Chinese Media, Global Contexts. London: Routledge Curzon.

Lee, Don Y. 1981. The History of Early Relations between China and Tibet: From Chiu t’ang-shu, a Documentary Survey. Bloomington, IN: Eastern Press.

Leibold, James. 2007. Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism: How the Qing Frontier and its Indigenes Became Chinese. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Li, An-che. 1994. History of Tibetan Religion: A Study in the Field. Beijing: New World Press.

Li, Fang-Kuei. 1956. “The Inscription of the Sino-Tibetan Treaty of 821–822.” T’oung Pao 44: 1–99.

Li, Huizi. 2010. “Obama–Dalai Lama Meeting Interferes in China’s Internal Affairs: Tibetologists.” Xinhua, February 19. http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/xw/t659213.htm.

Li, Jicheng. 1991. The Realm of Tibetan Buddhism. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Li, Jieren. 2008. “In Search of the Via Media between Christ and Marx: A Study of Bishop Ding Guangxun’s Contextual Theology.” PhD diss., University of Lund.

Li, Kwok-sing, ed., and Mary Lok, trans. 1995. A Glossary of Political Terms of the People’s Republic of China. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Li, Tieh-Tseng. 1956. The Historical Status of Tibet. New York: King’s Crown Press, Columbia University.

Li, Tieh-Tseng. 1960. Tibet: Today and Yesterday. New York: Bookman Associates.

Li, Xiguang, and Liu Kang 李希光, 劉康‎. 1997. The Plot to Demonize China [Yaomohua Zhongguo de beihou 妖魔化中國的背後‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe 中國社會科學‎.

Li, Xuezhu 李学竹‎. 2007. “Patriotic Thought in the Doctrines of Buddhism” [Fojiao jiaoyi Zhong de Aiguo sixiang 佛教教义中的爱国思想‎]. China Tibetology [Zhongguo Zangxue 中国藏学‎], vol. 1. http://www.tibet.cn/periodical/zgzx/2007/01/200805/t20080523_395990.html.

(p.340) Liao, Zugui, Li Yongchang, and Li Pengnian 廖祖桂‎, 李永昌‎, 李鹏年‎, eds. 2006. “Twenty-Nine Regulations, An Imperial Edict for Regulating Internal Matters in Tibet”: Summary of Sources. Publications of Research on this Topic [Qinding Zangnei Shanhou Zhangcheng Ershijiu Tiao Banben Kaolue《钦定藏内善后章程二十九条》版本考略‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue Chubanshe 中国藏学出版社‎.

Lin, Chun. 2006. The Transformation of Chinese Socialism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Lin, Hsiao-Ting. 2006. Tibet and Nationalist China’s Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Lin, Shen-yu. 2007. “The Tibetan Image of Confucius.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 12: 105–129.

Ling, Nai-min. 1964. Tibetan Sourcebook. Hong Kong: Union Research Institute.

Link, Perry, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds. 2002. Popular China: Unofficial Culture in a Globalizing Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Lipman, Jonathan N. 1990. “Ethnic Violence in Modern China: Hans and Huis in Gansu, 1781–1929.” In Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture, edited by Jonathan N. Lipman and Stevan Harrell, 65–86. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Lippmann, Walter. 2004. Public Opinion. New York: Dover. Originally published in 1922.

Liu, Alan P. 1971. Communications and National Integration in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lobsang Sangay. 2003. “Tibet: Exiles’ Journey.” Journal of Democracy 14, no. 3: 119–130.

Lobsang Sangay. 2010. “Constitutional Analysis of the Secularization of the Tibetan Diaspora.” In Theology and the Soul of the Liberal State, edited by Leonard V. Kaplan and Charles L. Cohen, 291–322. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Losang Trinle Lhündrüp Chögigyeltsen [bLo bzang ’phrin las lhun grub chos kyi rgyal mtshan, Panchen Lama X]. 1997. A Poisoned Arrow: The Secret Report of the 10th Panchen Lama. London: Tibet Information Network.

Lovell, Julia. 2011. The Opium War. Sydney: Picador.

Lu, Xing. 2004. Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Lubman, Stanley. 1999. Bird in a Cage: Legal Reform in China after Mao. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Lynch, Daniel C. 1999. After the Propaganda State: Media, Politics, and “Thought Work” in Reformed China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Ma, Lianlong 马连龙‎. 2008. Relations between the Dalai Lamas and the Central Government [Libei Dalai Lama yu zhongyang zhengfu guanxi 历辈达赖喇嘛与中央政府关系‎]. Xining: Qinghai People’s Publishing House [Qinghai Renmin Chubanshe 青海人民出版社‎].

(p.341) Ma, Yin. 1989. China’s Minority Nationalities. Beijing: Foreign Language Press.

Macdonald, Ariane. 1971. “Une lecture des Pelliot tibétain 1286, 1287, 1038, 1047, et 1290: Essai sur la formation et l’emploi des mythes politiques dans la religion royale de Sroṅ-bcan sgam-po.” In Études tibétaines dédiées à la mémoire de Marcelle Lalou, 190–391. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve.

MacInnis, Donald. 1989. Religion in China Today: Policy and Practice. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Mackie, Diane M., Leila T. Worth, and Arlene G. Asuncion. 1990. “Processing of Persuasive In-Group Messages.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58, no. 5: 812–822.

MacPherson, Leonaigh, and Gulbahar Beckett. 2008. “The Hidden Curriculum of Assimilation in Modern Chinese Education: Fuelling Indigenous Tibetan and Uygur Cessation Movements.” In Cultural Education—Cultural Sustainability: Minority, Diaspora, Indigenous and Ethno-Religious Groups in Multicultural Societies, edited by Zvi Bekerman and Ezra Kopelowitz, 103–122. New York: Routledge.

Madsen, Richard. 1998. China’s Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Makeham, John. 2008. Lost Soul: “Confucianism” in Contemporary Chinese Academic Discourse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center.

Makley, Charlene E. 2007. The Violence of Liberation: Gender and Tibetan Buddhist Renewal in Post-Mao China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Makley, Charlene E. 2012. “The Political Lives of Dead Bodies.” Cultural Anthropology, April 8. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/95-the-political-lives-of-dead-bodies.

Mala, Guilaine. 2006. “A Mahayanist Rewriting of the History of China by Mgon po skyabs in the Rgya nag chos ’byung.” In Power, Politics, and the Reinvention of Tradition: Tibet in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, edited by Bryan J. Cuevas and Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 145–169. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Mann, Jim. 1998. “CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in ’60s, Files Show.” LA Times, September 15.

March, Andrew L. 1974. The Idea of China: Myth and Theory in Geographic Thought. Melbourne: Wren Publishing.

Marsh, Christopher. 2011. Religion and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival, and Revival. London: Continuum International.

Martin, Dan. 1997. Tibetan Histories: A Bibliography of Tibetan-Language Historical Works. London: Serindia Publications.

Maslak, Mary Ann. 2008. “School as a Site of Tibetan Ethnic Identity Construction in India: Results from a Content Analysis of Textbooks and Delphi Study of Teachers’ Perceptions.” Educational Review 60, no. 1: 85–106.

Marx, Karl. 1970. “A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right.” In Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, edited by Joseph O’Malley, 129–142. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.342) Mayers, William E. 2005. The Chinese Government: A Manual of Chinese Titles, Categorically Arranged and Explained, with an Appendix. Boston: Adamant Media Corporation.

McConnell, Fiona. 2009. “De facto, Displaced, and Tacit: The Sovereign Articulations of the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.” Political Geography 28, no. 6: 343–352.

McGranahan, Carole. 2010. Arrested Histories: Tibet, the CIA, and Memories of a Forgotten War. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

McGranahan, Carole, and Ralph Litzinger. 2012. “Self-Immolation as Protest in Tibet.” Cultural Anthropology, April 9. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/93-self-immolation-as-protest-in-tibet.

McKay, Alex, ed. 2003. The History of Tibet. 3 vols. London: Routledge Curzon.

McLaughlin, Kathleen E. 2008. “A Bad Omen: The Anti-Press Upsurge in China Following the Rioting in Tibet Isn’t an Encouraging Sign as to How the News Media will be Treated during the 2008 Olympics.” American Journalism Review, June/July. http://ajrarchive.org/Article.asp?id=4534.

mGon po skyabs. 1985. History of Buddhism in China [rGya nag chos ’byung]. sNgon gyi gtam me tog giphreng ba. Dharamsala: T. D. Densapa.

Mi, Guanghong 米广弘‎. 2013. “An Examination Conducive to the Work of Interpreting Tibetan Buddhist Doctrines in the Present Era” [Dangdai Zangchuan Fojiao jiaoyi chanshi gongzuo de youyi tansuo 当代藏传佛教教义阐释工作的有益探索‎]. Journal of Northwest University for Nationalities (Philosophy and Social Science) [Xibei Minzu Daxue Xuebao Zhexue Shehui Kexue 西北民族大学学报(哲学社会科学‎)] 2: 75–78.

Miller, Frederic P., Agnes F. Vandome, and John McBrewster. 2010. Tibet during the Ming Dynasty. Beau Bassin: Alphascript Publishing.

Miller, Gerald R., and James B. Stiff. 1993. Deceptive Communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Miller, Roy A. 1976. Studies in the Grammatical Tradition in Tibet. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V.

Miller, Roy A. 1983. “Thon mi Sam bho ṭa and His Grammatical Treatises Reconsidered.” In Contributions on Tibetan Language, History, and Culture, edited by Ernst Steinkellner and Helmut Tauscher, 1:183–205. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.

Miller, Roy A. 1988. “The Sino-Tibetan Hypothesis.” Bulletin of the School of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 59, no. 2: 509–540.

Mills, Martin A. 2003a. Identity, Ritual and State in Tibetan Buddhism: The Foundations of Authority in Gelukpa Monasticism. London: Routledge Curzon.

Mills, Martin A. 2003b. “This Turbulent Priest: Contesting Religious Rights and the State in the Tibetan Shugden Controversy.” In Human Rights in Global Perspective: Anthropological Studies of Rights, Claims and Entitlements, edited by Richard A. Wilson and Jon P. Mitchell, 54–70. New York: Routledge.

Millward, James A. 2007. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. New York: Columbia University Press.

(p.343) Millward, James A., Ruth W. Dunnell, Mark C. Elliott, and Philippe Forêt, eds. 2004. New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde. London: Routledge Curzon.

Ministry of Education, People’s Republic of China. 2004. Outline for the Teaching of History at Normal Full-time High Schools [Quanrizhi putong gaoji zhongxue lishi jiaoxue dagang 全日制普通高級中學歷史教學大綱‎]. People’s Education Press. http://www.pep.com.cn/200406/ca412138.htm.

Misra, Kalpana. 1998. From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Official Ideology in Deng’s China. New York and London: Routledge.

Mitter, Rana. 2004. A Bitter Revolution: China’s Struggle with the Modern World. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

mKhas pa lDe’u jo sras. 1987. Extensive Ecclesiastic History of India and Tibet [rGya bod kyi chos ’byung rgyas pa]. Lhasa: Bod ljongs mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

Molele, Charles. 2011. “China’s Big Economic Stick: No Dalai Lama Allowed.” Mail and Guardian, October 7. http://mg.co.za/article/2011-10-07-chinas-big-economic-stick.

Mueggler, Erik. 2001. The Age of Wild Ghosts: Memory, Violence, and Place in Southwest China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Murakami, Daisuke. 2000. “Tourism Development and Propaganda in Contemporary Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China.” In Asian Tourism: Growth and Change, edited by Janet Cochrane, 55–68. London: Routledge.

Namgyel Wangdue, Gyaltse [rGyal rtse rNam rgyal dbang ’dus]. 2012. Political and Military History of Tibet. 2 vols. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Naquin, Susan, and Chün-fang Yü, eds. 1992. Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Neack, Laura. 2014. The New Foreign Policy: Complex Interactions, Competing Interests. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Réne de. 1956. Oracles and Demons of Tibet: The Cult and Iconography of Tibetan Protector Deities. The Hague: Mouton.

Nedostup, Rebecca. 2009. Superstitious Regimes: Religion and the Politics of Chinese Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center.

New World Press. 1988. Tibet—A General Survey. Peking: New World Press.

Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho. 1979–1983. Good Silk Cloth: Autobiography of the Fifth Victorious Lord [rGyal dbang lnga pa’i rang rnam du kū la’i gos bzang]. Zangs dkar: Library of Zangla khar (reproduced from the ’Bras spungs dga’ ldan pho brang blocks).

Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho. 1989. Religious Autobiography of Ngawang Losang Gyatso [Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho’i rnam thar]. 3 vols. Lhasa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang.

Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho. n.d. Royal Genealogies: Song of the Queen of Spring [rGyal rabs dpyid kyi rgyal mo’i glu dbyangs]. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center, W241.

(p.344) Ngag dbang kun dga’ bsod nams, ’Jam mgon a myes zhabs. n.d. Wondrous Chariots: Good Explanation of the Methods of the Profound and Expansive True Ecclesiastic History of the Auspicious Wheel of Time [dPal dus kyi ’khor lo’i zab pa dang rgya che ba’i dam pa’i chos ’byung ba’i tshul legs par bshad pa ngo mtshar dad pa’i shing rta]. gSung ’bum, Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center W29307: 1–532.

Niu, Lühua 牛绿花‎. 2009. “On the Regulations Formulated by Imperial Decree for the Tibetan Region and Their Historical Significance” [Luelun Qinding Xizang Zhangcheng Jiqi Lishiyiyi 略论《钦定西藏章程》及其历史意义‎]. Nationalities Research in Qinghai [Qinghai Minzu Yanjiu 青海民族研究‎] 20, no. 1: 86–90.

Niu, Xinfang 牛欣芳‎. 1983. Feudal Superstition and Gods and Demons [Chin. Guishen yu fengjian mixin 鬼神与封建迷信‎; Tib. Lha ’dre dang bkas bkod rgyud ’dzin gyi rmongs dad]. Xining: Qinghai Nationalities Publishing House.

Noonan, Ann. 2001. “The Persecution Continues.” National Review, May 25. http://wwrn.org/articles/10997/?&place=china/taiwan&section=gov-reports.

Obermiller, Eugene. 1931–1932. History of Buddhism (Chos-ḥbyung) by Bu-ston. Heidelberg: Otto Harrassowitz.

O’Brien, Kevin J., ed. 2008. Popular Protest in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ong, Thuy. 2013. “Tibetan Self-Immolations Having Little Effect, Dalai Lama Says.” Reuters, June 13. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/13/us-china-tibet-dalai-idUSBRE95C05S20130613.

O’ Shaugnessy, Nicholas J. 2004. Politics and Propaganda: Weapons of Mass Seduction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Overing, Joanna. 1997. “The Role of Myth: An Anthropological Perspective, of: ‘The Reality of the Really Made-Up’.” In Myths and Nationhood, edited by Geoffrey Hosking and George Schöpflin, 1–18. London: Hurst.

Overmyer, Daniel L., ed. 2003. Religion in China Today. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Parker, Emily. 2008. “The Roots of Chinese Nationalism.” Wall Street Journal, April 1. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB120701186550979029.

Pasang Wangdu, and Hildegard Diemberger. 1996. Shel dkar chos ’byung: History of the “ ‘White Crystal’.” Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Pasang Wangdu, Hildegard Diemberger, and Per K. Sørensen. 2001. dBa’ bzhed: The Royal Narrative Concerning the Bringing of Buddha’s Doctrine to Tibet. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Peerenboom, Randall. 2002. China’s Long March toward Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pelliot, Paul. 1961. Histoire ancienne du Tibet. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.

People’s Daily Web Online Law. http://law.people.com.cn/bike/index.btml.

People’s Republic of China. Human Rights China. http://www.humanrights-china.org.

(p.345) Perdue, Peter C. 2005. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Perry, Elizabeth J., and Mark Selden. 2000. Chinese Society: Change, Conflict, and Resistance. London: Routledge.

Petech, Luciano. 1959. “The Dalai Lamas and Regents of Tibet: A Chronological Study.” T’oung Pao, second series, 47, no. 3/5: 368–394.

Petech, Luciano. 1973a. Aristocracy and Government in Tibet, 1728–1959. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.

Petech, Luciano. 1973b. China and Tibet in the Early 18th Century. Westport, CT: Hyperion Press.

Petech, Luciano. 1990. Central Tibet and the Mongols: The Yüan-Sa-skya Period of Tibetan History. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.

Petty, Richard E., John T. Cacioppo, and Curtis P. Haugtvedt. 1992. “Ego-Involvement and Persuasion: An Appreciative Look at the Sherifs’ Contribution to the Study of Self-Relevance and Attitude Change.” In Social Judgment and Intergroup Relations: Essays in Honor of Muzafer Sherif, edited by D. Granberg and G. Sarup, 147–175. New York: Springer/Verlag.

Phun tshogs tshe ring. 2004. The Annals that Are a Completely Clear Mirror [Deb ther kun gsal me long]. Lhasa: Tibet People’s Publishing House.

Postiglione, Gerard A., ed. 1999. China’s National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling and Development. New York: Falmer Press.

Postiglione, Gerard A. 2008. “Making Tibetans in China: The Educational Challenges of Harmonious Multiculturalism.” Educational Review 60, no. 1: 1–20.

Postiglione, Gerard A. and J. T. H. Tang (ed.). 1997. Hong Kong’s Reunion with China: The Global Dimensions. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Potter, Pitman B. 2003. “Belief in Control: Regulation of Religion in China.” In Religion in China Today, edited by Daniel L. Overmyer, 11–31. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Powers, John. 1992. “Lost in China, Found in Tibet: How Wonch’uk Became the Author of the Great Chinese Commentary.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 15, no. 1: 95–103.

Powers, John. 1998. “Human Rights and Cultural Values: The Dalai Lama versus the Peoples’ Republic of China.” In Buddhism and Human Rights, edited by Charles Prebish, 175–202. Richmond: Curzon Press.

Powers, John. 2000. “The Free Tibet Movement: A Selective Narrative History.” In Engaged Buddhism in the West, edited by Christopher Queen, 218–246. Boston: Wisdom Publications.

Powers, John. 2004. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People’s Republic of China. New York: Oxford University Press.

Powers, John. 2007. Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. 2d ed. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.

(p.346) Powers, John. 2011. “Yogācāra.” In The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy, edited by Jay L. Garfield and William Edelglass, 222–232. New York: Oxford University Press.

Powers, John, and David Templeman. 2012. Historical Dictionary of Tibet. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Pratkanis, Anthony R., and Elliott Aronson. 1991. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Pu, Wencheng 蒲文成‎, He Feng 何峰‎, and Mu Xingtian 穆兴天‎. 1995. “The Patriotic Thought of the 10th Master Panchen” [Shi Banchan dashi de aiguo sixiang 十世班禅大师的爱国思想‎]. Qinghai Social Sciences [Qinghai Shehui Kexue 青海社会科学‎] 5: 94–100.

Pye, Lucian W. 1985. Asian Power and Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pye, Lucian W. 1988. The Mandarin and the Cadre: China’s Political Cultures. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies/University of Michigan.

Pye, Lucian W. 1991. China: An Introduction. 4th ed. New York: Harper Collins.

Pye, Lucian W. 1992. The Spirit of Chinese Politics: A Psychocultural Study of the Authority Crisis in Political Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pye, Lucian W. 1996. “How China’s Nationalism Was Shanghaied.” In Chinese Nationalism, edited by Jonathan Unger, 86–112. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Qin, Yongzhang 秦永章‎. 2008. The Master lCang skya and the Qianlong Emperor [Qianlong huangdi yu Zhangjia guoshi 乾隆皇帝与章嘉国师‎]. Xining: Qinghai Renmin Chubanshe 青海人民出版社‎.

Qiongna Nuobu Wangdian 琼那诺布旺典‎. 2007. Tibetan Thanka History [Tangka zhong de Xizang shi 唐卡中的西藏史‎]. Shaanxi: Shaanxi Normal University Press.

Rachewitz, Igor de. 1993. In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities in the Early Mongol-Yuan Period. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag.

Ran, Cheng. 1991. Why Tibet Is an Integral Part of China. Beijing: New Star Publishers.

Ranade, Jayadeva. 2015. “Xi Jinping’s Statements about Dalai Lama Reincarnation Set Tone for China’s Sixth Tibet Work Forum.” Sunday Guardian, August 10.

Rang byung rdo rje. 1983. Collected Songs of Rang byung rdo rje [Rang byung rdo rje’i mgur rnam]. Bidung, Tashigung: Kunchhap.

Rawski, Evelyn. 1998. The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Renan, Ernest. 1990. “What Is a Nation?” In Nation and Narration, edited by Homi K. Bhabha, 8–22. London: Routledge.

rGyal mo ’brug pa. 1995. Tibetan Historical Documents [Bod kyi lo rgyus gleng ba’i gtam]. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

Rhoton, Jared D. 2002. Clear Differentiation of the Three Codes: Essential Distinctions among the Individual Liberation, Great Vehicle, and Tantric Systems. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Richardson, Hugh E. 1952. Ancient Historical Edicts at Lhasa: The Mu Tsung/Khri Tsug lde brtsan Treaty of A.D. 821–822 from the Inscription at Lhasa. London: Luzac.

(p.347) Richardson, Hugh E. 1978. “The Sino-Tibetan Treaty Inscription of A.D. 821/23 at Lhasa.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2: 153–154.

Richardson, Hugh E. 1984. Tibet and Its History. Boston: Shambhala Publications.

Richardson, Hugh E. 1985. A Corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions. London: Royal Asiatic Society.

Richardson, Hugh E. 1998. High Peaks, Pure Earth: Collected Writings on Tibetan History and Culture. London: Serindia Publications.

Robin, Françoise. 2012. “Fire, Flames and Ashes: How Tibetan Poets Talk about Self-Immolations without Talking about Them.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines, no. 25: 123–131.

Roemer, Stephanie. 2010. The Tibetan Government-in-Exile: Politics at Large. New York: Routledge.

Roerich, George N., trans. 1978. The Blue Annals. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Rosett, Arthur. 1991. “Legal Structures for Special Treatment of Minorities in the People’s Republic of China.” Notre Dame Law Review 66, no. 5: 503–528.

Rossabi, Morris. 1975. China and Inner Asia: From 1368 to the Present Day. London: Thames & Hudson.

Rossabi, Morris. 1983. China among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rudolph, Jörg. 1984. Cankao Xiaoxi: Foreign News in the Propaganda System of the People’s Republic of China. Baltimore: School of Law, University of Maryland.

Ruegg, David S. 1989. Buddha-Nature, Mind and the Problem of Gradualism in a Comparative Perspective. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Ruegg, David S. 1997. “The Preceptor-Donor (yon mchod) Relation in Thirteenth-Century Tibetan Society and Polity: Its Inner Asian Precursors and Indian Models.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 7th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Graz, 1995, edited by Helmut Krasser, Michael T. Much, Ernst Steinkellner, and Helmut Tauscher, 2:441–453. Vienna: Österrichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Sahlins, Marshall. 1981. Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Sahlins, Marshall. 2013. “China U.” The Nation, October 29.

Saich, Tony. 2004. Governance and Politics in China. 2d ed. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. New York: Vantage Books.

Saiget, Robert. 2011. “Tibetan Buddhists Live in Fear after Immolations.” AFP, October 25.

Samten Karmay. 2002. “The Fifth Dalai Lama and His Reunification of Tibet.” In Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas, edited by Françoise Pommaret, 65–80. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Samuel, Geoffrey. 1990. “Shamanism, Bon and Tibetan Religion.” In Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalayas, edited by Charles Ramble and Martin Brauen, 318–330. Zurich: Ethnological Museum of the University of Zurich.

(p.348) Samuel, Geoffrey. 1993. Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Sang, Yidan 桑一丹‎, and Wang Guozhen 王国振‎, eds. 2009. Tibet: 700 Years of History [Xizang qibainian 西藏七百年‎]. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Sangs rgyas rgya mtsho. 1998. Yellow Lapis Lazuli [Bai ḍū rya ser po; full title: dPal mnyam med ri bo dga’ ldan pa’i bstan pa zhwa ser cod pan ’chang ba’i ring lugs chos thams cad kyi rtsa ba gsal bar byed pa bai ḍū rya ser po’i me long]. Xi ling: Krung go bod kyi shes rig dpe skrun khang.

Sangs rgyas ye shes, Nub chen. n.d. Lamp for the Eye of Contemplation [bSam gtan mig sgron]. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center: W00EGS1016286.

Sardar, Hamid. 2007. “Danzan Ravjaa: The Fierce Drunken Lord of the Gobi.” In The Mongolia–Tibet Interface: Opening New Research Terrains in Inner Asia, edited by Uradyn E. Bulag and Hildegard M. Diemberger, 257–294. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Sargent, Clyde B. 1944. “Subsidized History, Pan Ku and the Historical Records of the Former Han Dynasty.” Far Eastern Quarterly 3, no. 2: 119–143.

Sautman, Barry. 2001. “Tibet: Myths and Realities.” Current History 100, no. 647: 278–283.

Schein, Louisa. 2002. “Gender and Orientalism in China.” In Chinese Femininities Chinese Masculinities: A Reader, edited by Susan Brownell and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, 385–411. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Schieffelin, Bambi B., Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, eds. 1998. Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, Erik. 2006. Wellsprings of the Great Perfection: The Lives and Insights of the Early Masters. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Schoenhals, Martin. 1992. Doing Things with Words in Chinese Politics: Five Studies. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California.

Schöpflin, George. 1997. “The Function of Myths and the Taxonomy of Myths.” In Myths and Nationhood, edited by Geoffrey Hosking and George Schöpflin, 19–35. London: Hurst.

Schram, Stuart R., ed. 1985. The Scope of State Power in China. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Schremf, Mona. 2006. “Hwa shang at the Border: Transformations of History and Reconstructions of Identity in Modern A mdo.” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies 2: 1–32.

Schwartz, Benjamin. 1968. “The Chinese Perception of World Order, Past and Present.” In The Chinese World Order: Traditional China’s Foreign Relations, edited by John K. Fairbank, 276–291. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schwartz, Henry, ed. 1971. Chinese Policies towards Minorities: An Essay and Documents. Bellingham: Eastern Washington State College.

Schwartz, Ronald D. 1994a. “The Anti-Splittist Campaign and Tibetan Political Consciousness.” In Resistance and Reform in Tibet, edited by Robert Barnett and Shirin Akiner, 207–237. London: Hurst.

(p.349) Schwartz, Ronald D. 1994b. “Buddhism, Nationalist Protest, and the State in Tibet.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Sixth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes 1992, edited by Per Kvaerne, 728–738. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.

Schwartz, Ronald D. 1994c. Circle of Protest: Political Ritual in the Tibetan Uprising. New York: Columbia University Press.

Schwieger, Peter. 2010. “Significance of Ming Titles Conferred upon the Phag mo gru Rulers: A Revaluation of Chinese–Tibetan Relations during the Ming Dynasty.” In The Earth Ox Papers: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Tibetan and Himalayan Studies, edited by Roberto Vitali, 313–328. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Schwieger, Peter. 2011. “The Long Arm of the Fifth Dalai Lama: Influence and Power of the Fifth Dalai Lama in Southeast Tibet.” In Buddhist Himalaya: Studies in Religion, History, and Culture, edited by Alex McKay and Anna Balikci-Denjongpa, 1:239–257. Gangtok: Namgyal Institute of Tibetology.

Schwieger, Peter. 2015. The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China: A Political History of the Tibetan Institution of Reincarnation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Scientific Buddhist Association. 1990. Tibet: The Facts. India: Tibetan Young Buddhist Association.

Shā kya mchog ldan. n.d. Golden Scalpel: Good Explanations of the Differentiation of the Three Vows [sDom pa gsum gyi rab tu dbye ba’i bstan bcos las brtsams pa’i ’bel gtam rnam par nges pa legs bshad gser gyi thur ma]. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center, W23200; gSung ’bum, 6:439–648.

Shabo, Magedah E. 2008. Techniques of Propaganda and Persuasion. Clayton, DE: Prestwick House.

Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. 1967. Tibet: A Political History. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. 1986. Using the Lance of Truth to Draw out the Pus of Crooked Explanations [’Khyog bshad kyi rnag khrag ’byin byed bden pa’i gtsags bu]. Dharamsala: Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. 2010. One Hundred Thousand Moons: An Advanced Political History of Tibet. Translated by Derek Maher. 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Shen, Tsung-Lien, and Shen-Chi Liu. 1953. Tibet and the Tibetans. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Sherif, M., and C. Hovland. 1961. Social judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Sigley, Gary. 1998. “Guest Editor’s Introduction.” Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 31, no. 1: 3–13.

Silverston, Michael. 1998. “The Uses and Utility of Ideology: A Commentary.” In Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory, edited by Kathryn A. Woolard, Bambi B. Schieffelin, and Paul V. Kroskrity, 123–145. New York: Oxford University Press.

Siren and Gewang. 1997. The 14th Dalai Lama. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

(p.350) Slobodnik, Martin. 2011. “A Difficult Rebirth: Tibetan Reincarnations in the Spotlight of Chinese Religious Policy.” Studia Orientalia Slovaca 10, no. 1: 57–80.

Smith, E. Gene. 2001. Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Smith, Warren W. 1994. “The Nationalities Policy of the Chinese Communist Party and the Socialist Transformation of Tibet.” In Resistance and Reform in Tibet, edited by Robert Barnett and Shirin Akiner, 51–75. London: Hurst.

Smith, Warren W. 1996. Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Smith, Warren W. 2008. China’s Tibet? Autonomy or Assimilation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Smith, Warren W. 2010. Tibet’s Last Stand? The Tibetan Uprising of 2008 and China’s Response. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Snellgrove, David. 1967. The Nine Ways of Bon. London: Oxford University Press.

Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 vols. Boston: Shambhala Publications.

Snellgrove, David, and Hugh Richardson. 1995. A Cultural History of Tibet. Boston: Shambhala.

Sørensen, Per K. 1990. Divinity Secularized: An Inquiry into the Nature and Form of the Songs Ascribed to the Sixth Dalai Lama. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien Universität Wien.

Sørensen, Per K. 1994. Tibetan Buddhist Historiography: The Mirror Illuminating the Royal Genealogies, An Annotated Translation of the XIVth Century Tibetan Chronicle: rGyal-rabs gsal-ba’i me-long. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Spengen, Wim van. 2000. Tibetan Border Worlds. London: Kegan Paul.

Sperling, Elliot. 1976. “The Chinese Venture in K’am, 1904–1911, and the Role of Chao Erh-feng.” Tibet Journal 1, no. 2: 10–36.

Sperling, Elliot. 1992. “Notes on References to ’Bri-gung-pa-Mongol Contact in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries.” In Tibetan Studies, edited by S. Ihara and Z. Yamaguchi, 741–750. Narita: Naritasan Shinshuji.

Sperling, Elliot. 1998. “Awe and Submission: A Tibetan Aristocrat at the Court of Qianlong.” International History Review 20, no. 2: 325–335.

Sperling, Elliot. 2003. “Tibet’s Foreign Relations during the Epoch of the Fifth Dalai Lama.” In Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas, edited by Françoise Pommaret, 119–132. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Sperling, Elliot. 2004. The Tibet–China Conflict: History and Polemics. Washington, DC: East–West Center Policy Studies.

Sperling, Elliot. 2009. “Tibet and China: The Interpretation of History since 1950.” China Perspectives 2009/3: 25–37.

Sperling, Elliot. 2012. “Conversations and Debates: Chinese and Tibetan Engagement with the Broader Discussion of Self-Immolation in Tibet.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 89–97.

(p.351) State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. 2015. “Tibet’s Path of Development Is Driven by an Irresistible Historical Tide.” Beijing: State Council Information Office. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2015-04/15/c_134152612.htm.

Stein, Rolf A. 1992. “Tibetica Antiqua VI: Maximes confucianistes dans deux manuscrits de Toeuen-houang.” Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 79, no. 1: 9–17.

Stein, Rolf A. 2010a. “Study of the Chinese World: Institutions and Concepts.” Annuaire du Collège de France, 67th Year (1967): Rolf Stein’s Tibetica Antiqua. Translated by A. P. McKeown. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Stein, Rolf A. 2010b. Rolf Stein’s Tibetica Antiqua, with Additional Materials. Translated and edited by Arthur P. McKeown. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Steinkellner, Ernst, ed. 1991. Tibetan History and Language: Studies Dedicated to Géza Uray on his Seventieth Birthday. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien Universität Wien.

Stepan, Nancy Leys. 1991. The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender and Nation in Latin America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Stevenson, Mark. 2005. Many Paths: Searching for Old Tibet in New China. Melbourne: Lothian Books.

Stoddard, Heather. 1994. “Tibetan Publications and National Identity.” In Resistance and Reform in Tibet, edited by Robert Barnett and Shirin Akiner, 121–156. London: Hurst.

Strong, Anna Louise.1960. When Serfs Stood Up in Tibet. Peking: New World Press.

Su, Faxiang 蘇發祥‎. 2001. A Study of the Policy of Qing Dynasty Rule in Tibet [Qingdai zhi Zang zhengce yanjiu 清代治藏政策研究‎]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.

Suman, Michael D. 2006. The Church in China: One Lord Two Systems. Bangalore: SAIACS Press.

Sun, Zhenping 孙镇平‎, and Wang Liyan 王立艳‎. 2006. A Study of Tibetan Buddhist Institutions during the Nationalist Period [Minguo shiqi Xizang fazhi yanjiu 民国时期西藏法制研究‎]. Beijing: Zhishi Chanquan Chubanshe 知识产权出版社‎.

Tā ra nā tha. n.d. History of Buddhism in India [rGya gar chos ’byung]. sDe dge: sDe dge par khang chen mo.

Takakusu, Junjiro, and Kaigyoku Watanabe, eds. 1924–1932. Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō. Tokyo: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai.

Takeuchi, Tsuguhito. 1985. “A Passage from the Shih Chi in the Old Tibetan Chronicle.” In Soundings in Tibetan Civilization, edited by Barbara Aziz and Matthew Kapstein, 135–145. New Delhi: Manohar.

Tanner, Harold M. 2000. Strike Hard! Anti-Crime Campaigns and Chinese Criminal Justice 1979–1989. Ithaca, NY: East Asian Program, Cornell University.

Teather, David C. B., and Herbert S. Yee, eds. 1999. China in Transition: Issues and Policies. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Teichman, Eric. 1922. Travels of a Consular Officer in Eastern Tibet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.352) Teiser, Stephen T. 2009. “Ornamenting the Departed: Notes on the Language of Chinese Buddhist Ritual Texts.” Asia Major 22, no. 1: 201–237.

Templeman, David. 2012. “The 17th Cent. gTsang Rulers and Their Strategies of Legitimization.” In Studies on the History and Literature of Tibet and the Himalaya, edited by Roberto Vitali, 65–78. Kathmandu: Vajra Publications.

Teng, S. Y. and J. K. Fairbank, eds. 1979. China’s Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tenzin Gyatso, Dalai Lama XIV. 1997. My Land and My People: The Original Autobiography of His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet. New York: Warner.

Tenzin Gyatso, Dalai Lama XIV. 1999. Kalachakra Tantra: Rite of Initiation. Translated by Jeffrey Hopkins. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Tenzin Gyatso, Dalai Lama XIV. 2005. Good Explanations Opening the Eye of New Awareness [Legs bshad blo gsar mig ’byed]. Dharamsala: Tibetan Cultural Printing Press (Tibetan Government in Exile Wisdom Publications).

Tenzin Mingyur Paldron. 2012. “Virtue and the Remaking of Suffering.” Cultural Anthropology, April 8. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/98-virtue-and-the-remaking-of-suffering.

Thomas, F. W. 1951–1955. Tibetan Literary Texts Concerning Chinese Turkestan. 4 vols. London: Luzac.

Thub bstan phun tshogs. 2006. Ruby Key: A General Survey of Tibetan History [Bod kyi lo rgyus spyi don padma rā ga’i lde mig]. 2 vols. Chengdu: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

Thubten Khetsun. 2008. Memories of Life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule. New York: Columbia University Press.

Thurman, Robert A. F. 1985. “Tibet: Mystic Nation in Exile.” Parabola 10, no. 2: 56–69.

Tibet Information Network. 1999a. A Sea of Bitterness: Patriotic Education in Qinghai Monasteries. London: Tibet Information Network.

Tibet Information Network. 1999b. Relative Freedoms: Tibetan Buddhism and Religious Policy in Kandze, Sichuan, 1987–1999. London: Tibet Information Network.

Tibet Information Network. 2001. Invisible Chains: Life after Release for Tibetan Political Prisoners. London: Tibet Information Network.

Tibet Information Network and Human Rights Watch Asia. 1996. Cutting Off the Serpent’s Head: Tightening Control in Tibet, 1994–1995. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Tibet Times. 2012. “Explanation of [the Two Kinds of Self-Immolation According to Tibetan History” [Bod kyi lo rgyus thog byung ba’i rang sreg gi gnas tshul khag gnyis gleng ba]. http://tibettimes.net/news.php?id=6220.

Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy. 2004. “Strike Hard” Campaign: China’s Crackdown on Political Dissidence. Dharamsala: Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy.

Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy. 2008. “Uprising in Tibet 2008: Documentation of Protests in Tibet.” http://www.tchrd.org/publications/topical_reports/uprising_in_tibet/uprising_in_tibet.pdf.

(p.353) Tibetan Government in Exile. Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts. White Paper. http://www.tibet.com/WhitePaper/.

Tibetan Government in Exile Education Department. 2002. Dynastic History, Buddhist History, and the Insider’s Dharma Path of Reasoning [rGyal rabs chos ’byung dang rigs lam nang chos] (sixth grade reader). Dharamsala: Tibetan Government Wisdom Publications.

Tibetan Youth Congress. 2009. The Response to Communist Party of China’s Allegations. Dharamsala: Tibetan Youth Congress.

Tobin, Emma. 2004. “Just behind the Mountain: Refugee Children Imagine Tibet.” SIT Tibetan Studies. http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/isp_collection/491/.

Trevaskes, Susan. 2004. “Propaganda Work in Chinese Courts: Public Trials and Sentencing Rallies as Sites of Expressive Punishment and Public Education in the People’s Republic of China.” Punishment and Society 6, no. 5: 5–21.

Tsepak Rigzin. 2003. “The Tibetan Schools in the Diaspora.” In Exile as Challenge: The Tibetan Diaspora, edited by Dagmar Bernstorff and Hubertus von Welck, 266–278. Hyderabad: Orient Longman.

Tsering Dorje Gashi. 1980. New Tibet: Memoirs of a Graduate of the Peking Institute of National Minorities. Dharamsala: Information Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

Tsering Shakya. 1993. “Whither the Tsampa Eaters?” Himal 6, no. 5: 8–11.

Tsering Shakya. 1994. “Politicisation and the Tibetan Language.” In Resistance and Reform in Tibet, edited by Robert Barnett and Shirin Akiner, 157–165. London: Hurst.

Tsering Shakya. 1999. The Dragon in the Land of Snows: A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947. New York: Columbia University Press.

Tsering Shakya. 2012. “Self-Immolation: The Changing Language of Protest in Tibet.” Revue d’Études Tibétaines 25: 19–39.

Tshe dbang nor bu, Kaḥ thog rig ’dzin. 1977. Virtuous Stream that Purifies Mental Afflictions and Examines the Origins of the Chinese Master Hwa shang’s Tenet System [rGya nag Hwa shang gi byung tshul grub mtha’i phyogs snga bcas sa bon tsam smos pa yid kyi dri ma dag byed dge ba’i chu rgyun]. gSung ’bum, 5(ca):419–450. Dalhousie, n.p.

Tshe ring dbang phyug, Bu rdzong lha mo. 2007. The Chinese (Soldier), bLo bzang bkra shis, and Four Rivers, Six Ranges [rGya blo bzang bkra shis dang chu sgang]. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Tucci, Giuseppe. 1971. Deb t’er dmar po gsar ma: Tibetan Chronicles by bSod nams grags pa. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.

Tuttle, Gray Warren. 2005. Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China. New York: Columbia University Press.

Tuttle, Gray Warren. 2006. “A Tibetan Buddhist Mission to the East: The Fifth Dalai Lama’s Journey to Beijing, 1652–1653.” In Power, Politics, and the Reinvention of Tradition, edited by Bryan J. Cuevas and Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 65–90. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

(p.354) Uebach, Helga. 1980. “Notes on the Tibetan Kingship Term dbon.” In Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, 301–309. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.

Uebach, Helga. 1997. “Eminent Ladies of the Tibetan Empire According to Old Tibetan Texts.” In Les Habitants du toit du monde, edited by Samten Karmay and Phillipe Sagant, 53–74. Nanterre: Société d’Ethnologie.

Ueyama, Daishun. 1983. “The Study of Tibetan Ch’an Manuscripts Recovered from Tun-huang: A Review of the Field and Its Prospects.” In Early Ch’an in China and Tibet, edited by Whalen Lai and Lewis Lancaster, 327–350. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Uhalley, Stephen, and Xiaoxin Wu, eds. 2001. China and Christianity: Burdened Past, Hopeful Future. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Unger, Jonathan. 1993. Using the Past to Serve the Present: Historiography and Politics in Contemporary China. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Unger, Jonathan, ed. 1996. Chinese Nationalism. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

United Front, People’s Republic of China. United Front website devoted to religious laws, which lists approximately fifty-five national and provincial laws relating to religion. http://zytzb.org.cn/zytzbwz/flfg/.

United States Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1995. Daily Report: People’s Republic of China. Issues 101–104. Springfield, VA: Foreign Broadcast Information Service.

United States State Department. 2009. U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report on China. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127268.htm.

Uray, Géza. 1972. “The Narrative of Legislation and Organization of the Mkhas-pa’i Dga’-ston: The Origins of the Traditions Concerning Sroṅ-brcan Sgam-po as First Legislator and Organizer of Tibet.” Acta Orientalia Hungarica 26: 11–68.

Van Schaik, Sam. 2008. “Tibetan Chan III: More Teachings of Heshang Hoheyan.” Website: Early Tibet: Notes, thoughts and fragments of research on the history of Tibet. http://earlytibet.com/2008/06/10/tibetan-chan-iii-more-teachings-of-heshang-moheyan/.

Van Schaik, Sam. 2011. Tibet: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Van Schaik, Sam. 2015. Tibetan Zen: Discovering a Lost Tradition. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.

Vitali, Roberto. 1990. Early Temples of Central Tibet. London: Serindia.

Vitali, Roberto. 1996. The Kingdoms of Gu-ge Pu-hrang: according to Mngaʼ-ris rgyal rabs by Gu-ge Mkhan-chen Ngag-dbang-grags pa. London: Serindia.

Vitali, Roberto, ed. 2009. The Earth Ox Papers: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Tibetan and Himalayan Studies. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

Volkan, Vamik. 1991. “On Chosen Trauma.” Mind and Human Interaction 4: 3–19.

Volland, Nikolai. 2003. “The Control of the Media in the People’s Republic of China.” PhD diss., University of Heidelberg.

(p.355) Waddell, L. Austine. 1905. Lhasa and Its Mysteries: With a Record of the British Tibetan Expedition of 1903–1904. London: J. Murray.

Wagner, Rudolf G. 1990. “Tian Han’s Peking Opera Xie yaohuan.” In The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama: Four Studies, 80–138. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Waldron, Arthur. 1995. “Scholarship and Patriotic Education: The Great Wall Conference, 1994.” China Quarterly 143: 844–850.

Walker, Connor. 1987. “Ethnonationalism.” In Understanding Political Development, edited by Myron Weiner and Samuel Huntington, 196–220. Boston: Little, Brown.

Walter, Michael L. 2009. Buddhism and Empire: The Political and Religious Culture of Early Tibet. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Wang, Furen 王辅仁‎, and Suo Wenqing 索文清‎. 1984. Highlights of Tibetan History [Zangzu shiyao 藏族史要‎]. Beijing: New World Press.

Wang, Gui 王贵‎, Xirao Nima 喜饶尼玛‎, and Tangjia Weizhu 唐家卫著‎. 1995. A Discussion of Tibet’s Historical Status [Xizang Lishi Diwei Bian 西藏历史地位辨‎]. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.

Wang, Jiawei, and Nyima Gyaincain.2001. The Historical Status of China’s Tibet. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Wang, Lixiong. 2002. “Reflections on Tibet.” New Left Review, 14.

Wang, Sen 王森‎. 2010. Outline of Tibetan Buddhist History [Xizang Fojiao Fazhan Shilue 西藏佛教发展史略‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue Chubanshe 民族出版社‎.

Wang, Wenli 王文利‎. 2004. “Analysis of the Historical Background of the Golden Urn Lottery System in Tibetan Buddhism” [Lun Zangchuan Fojiao Zhong jinping cheqian zhidu zhiding de lishi beijing 论藏传佛教中金瓶掣签制度制定的历史背景‎]. Journal of Yanbei Normal University [Yanbei Shifan xueyuan Xuebao 雁北师范学院学报‎]] 20, no. 4: 70–72.

Wang, Xiangyun. 2000. “The Qing Court’s Tibet Connections: Lcang skya Rol pa’i rdo rje and the Qianlong Emperor.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60, no. 1: 125–163.

Wang, Zheng. 2005. “The Power of History and Memory: National ‘Patriotic Education’ and China’s Conflict Behavior in Crises with the United States, 1991–2001.” PhD dissertation, George Mason University.

Wang, Zheng. 2008. “National Humiliation, History Education, and the Politics of Historical Memory: Patriotic Education Campaign in China.” International Studies Quarterly 52: 783–806.

Wang, Zheng. 2012. Never Forget National Humiliation: Historical Memory in Chinese Politics and Foreign Relations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wangpo, Tethong. 2000. Der Wandel in der politischen Elite der Tibeter im Exil: Integrations & Desintegrationsprozesse in der politischen Führungsschicht 1950–1979. Rikon, Switzerland: Tibet-Institut.

Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N., and Elizabeth J. Perry, eds. 1992. Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China: Learning from 1989. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

(p.356) Weber, Ian. 2002. “Reconfiguring Chinese Propaganda and Control Modalities; A Case Study of Shanghai’s Television System.” Journal of Contemporary China 11, no. 30: 53–75.

Wee, Sui-lee, and Ben Blanchard. 2011. “China Says Dalai Lama Has to Reincarnate.” Reuters, March 8.

Wei, Jing. 1991a. 100 Questions about Tibet. Beijing: Beijing Review Press.

Wei, Jing. 1991b. Is Tibet an Independent Country? Beijing: New Star Publishers.

Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, Susanne. 1993. “Party Historiography.” In Using the Past to Serve the Present: Historiography and Politics in Contemporary China, edited by Jonathan Unger, 151–173. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Western Shugden Society. 2010. A Great Deception: The Ruling Lamas’ Policies. London: Western Shugden Society.

Whitfield, Susan, ed. 2004. The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. London: Serindia.

Wickeri, Philip L. 2007. Reconstructing Christianity in China: K. H. Ting and the Chinese Church. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Wielander, Gerda. 2013. Christian Values in Communist China. London: Routledge.

Wilder, David A. 1990. “Some Determinants of the Persuasive Power of In-Groups and Out-Groups: Organization of Information and Attribution of Independence.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59, no. 6: 1202–1213.

Williams, Paul. 2004. Songs of Love, Poems of Sadness: The Erotic Verse of the Sixth Dalai Lama. London: I. B. Tauris.

Wong, Edward. 2011. “Study Points to Heavy-Handed Repression of Tibetan Area in China.” New York Times, November 12. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/13/world/asia/study-points-to-heavy-handed-repression-of-tibetan-area-in-china.html.

Wu, Congzhong 吴从众‎. 1991. Selected Essays on Tibet’s Feudal Serfdom [Xizang fengjian nongnu zhi yanjiu lunwen xuan 西藏封建农奴制研究论文选‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo zangxue chubanshe 中国藏学出版社‎.

Wylie, Turrell. 1980. “Lama Tribute in the Ming Dynasty.” In Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, 335–340. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.

Wylie, Turrell. 1983. “Reincarnation: A Political Innovation in Tibetan Buddhism.” In Contributions on Tibetan and Buddhist Religion and Philosophy: Proceedings of the Csoma de Koros Symposium Held at Velm-Vienna, Austria, 13–19 September 1981, edited by Louis Ligeti, 579–586. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.

Xiao, Lin 肖林‎. 2003. “Son of the Land of Snow, the Fifth Geda Living Buddha: What He Did for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” Xinhua Net. http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2003-12/16/content_1234136.htm.

Xie, Zhibin. 2006. Religious Diversity and Public Religion in China. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Xinhua. 2009. “Patriotic Education” [Aiguozhuyi Jiaoyu 爱国主义教育‎]. http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2003-01/20/content_697898.htm.

(p.357) Xinhua News Agency. 2005. “Hu Jintao Meets with New Party Delegation.” Xinhua News Agency, July 13. http://english.china.org.cn/english/China/134789.htm).

Xirao Jiacuo [Shes rab rgya mtsho]. 1982. The Collected Works of Xirao Jiacuo. Xining: Qinghai Minzu Press.

Ya, Hanzhang. 1993. The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Ya, Hanzhang. 1994. Biographies of the Tibetan Spiritual Leaders Panchen Erdinis. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Yamaguchi, Zuihō. 1996. “The Fiction of King Dar-ma’s Persecution of Buddhism.” In Du Dunhuang au Japon: Études chinoises et bouddhiques offertes à Michel Soymié, edited by Jean-Pierre Drège, 231–258. Geneva: Librarie Droz.

Yan, Zunian 闫祖年‎. 2008. “Historical Contribution of Princess Jincheng’s Allied Marriage with Tubo” [Ping Jincheng gongzhu ru bo fan lianyin zhi lishi gongxian 评金城公主入蕃联姻之历史贡献‎]. Journal of Tibet Nationalities Institute [西藏民族学院学报(哲学社会科学版)‎] 3: 35–37.

Yang, Dali L. 2008. “The Politics of Sports Anti-Doping in China: Crisis, Governance and International Compliance.” China International Journal 6, no. 1: 121–148.

Yang, Huilin 杨辉麟‎. 2007. A Buddhist Collection: Mysteries of Tibetan Temples [Fojie Shenmi de Xizang Siyuan 佛界神秘的西藏寺院‎]. Xining: Qinghai Renmin Chubanshe 青海人民出版社‎.

Yang, Mayfair Mei-Hui, ed. 2008. Chinese Religiosities: Afflictions of Modernity and State Formation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Yardley, Jim. 2008. “Chinese Nationalism Fuels Tibet Crackdown.” New York Times, March 31.

Ye shes dpal ’byor, Sum pa mkhan po. 1908. An Account of How the Precious Teachings Arose in India, the Perfect Land, Vast China, the Snowland of Tibet, and Mongolia: A Wish Fulfilling Tree [rGya gar ’phags pa’i yul/rgya nag chen po/gangs can bod yul/sog yul rnams su dam chos rin chen byung tshul dpag bsam ljon bzang]. Parts 1 and 2 edited by Rai Bahadur Śrī Sarat Chandra Das. Calcutta: Presidency Jail Press.

Ye, Xiaowen. 1998. “China’s Current Religious Question: Once Again an Inquiry into the Five Characteristics of Religion.” In China: State Control of Religion, edited by Mickey Spiegel, 116–144. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Ye, Xiaowen. 2002. “China’s Religions: Retrospect and Prospect.” China News Report, October 7.

Yeh, Wen-hsin. 2006. “National Learning and International Study: Travel and Translation in the Writing of Chinese History.” In Global Conjectures: China in Transnational Perspective, edited by William C. Kirby, Mechthild Leutner, and Klaus Mühlhahn, 8–21. Berlin: Lit Verlag.

Ying, Chenqing. 2003. Tibetan History. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Yu, Anthony C. 2005. State and Religion in China: Historical and Textual Perspectives. Chicago and LaSalle: Open Court.

(p.358) Yu, Dan Smyer. 2011. The Spread of Tibetan Buddhism in China: Charisma, Money, Enlightenment. London: Routledge.

Yu, Haiqing. 2009. Media and Cultural Transformation in China. New York: Routledge.

Yu, hong 于洪‎, and Zhang Shuangzhi 张双志‎. 2006. “The Golden Urn Lottery and Its Role in the Culture of Divine Selection” [Jinping cheqian yu shenpan wenhua 金瓶掣签与神判文化‎]. Tibetan Studies [Xizang Yanjiu 西藏研究‎] 5, no. 2: 43–49.

Yu, Te-chi. 1955. “The Propaganda Machine in Communist China.” Lackland Air Force Base: Air Force Personnel and Training Research Center, Research Memorandum 37, 39.

Yu, Te-chi. 1964. Mass Persuasion in Communist China. New York: F. A. Praeger.

Yu, Te-chi. 1971. Communications and National Integration in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Yu, Verna. “On China’s Campuses, Scholars Battle Ideology and Red Tape.” Christian Science Monitor, June 7. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2015/0607/On-China-s-campuses-scholars-battle-ideology-and-red-tape.

Yu, Xue. 2009. “Buddhist Contributions to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953.” Journal of Global Buddhism 10: 217–253.

Yudru Tsomo. 2006. “Local Aspirations and National Constraints: A Case Study of Nyarong Gonpo Namgyel and his Rise to Power in Kham (1836–1865).” PhD diss., Harvard University.

Zablocki, Abraham. 2009. “The Taiwanese Connection: Politics, Piety, and Patronage in Transnational Tibetan Buddhism.” In Buddhism between Tibet and China, edited by Matthew Kapstein, 379–414. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Zeng, Liping 曾立平‎. 1981. “On the Anti-Historical Tendency in the Creation of Historical Drama” [Ping lishiju chuangzuo zhong de fan lishi zhuyi qingxiang 评历史剧创作中的反历史主义倾向‎]. Theater Art [Xiju Yishu 戲劇藝術‎] 1.

Zhang, Anli 张安礼‎. 2010. “Brief Analysis of the Policy of Granting Titles to Tibetan Monks for Reconciliation by Zhu Yuanzhang, the First Emperor of the Ming Dynasty” [Qianxi Ming Taixu Zhu Yuanzhang dui Zang seng de duo feng zhong jian 浅析明太祖朱元璋对藏僧的多封众建‎]. Journal of Tibet Nationalities Institute (Philosophy and Social Sciences) [Xizang Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao Zhexue Shehui kexue ban 西藏民族学院学报(哲学社会科学版)‎] 31, no. 2: 12–14.

Zhang, Boshu. 1994. Marxism and Human Sociobiology: The Perspective of Economic Reforms in China. Albany: State University Press of New York.

Zhang, M. 1997. “The New Thinking of Sino–US Relations.” Journal of Contemporary China 6, no. 14: 117–123.

Zhang, Wuxin. 2002. Testimony of History. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Zhang, Xiaoming. 2004a. Tibetan Buddhism. Beijing: China Pictorial Publishing House.

Zhang, Xiaoming. 2004b. Tibetan Stories. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

(p.359) Zhang, Yun 张云‎. 1998. A Study of the Administrative System of Tibetan Areas under Yuan Dynasty [Yuandai Tufan difang xingzheng tizhi yanjiu 元代吐蕃地方行政体制硏究‎]. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Publishing House 中国社会科学出版社‎.

Zhang, Yun 张云‎. 2008a. “Some Reflections on How Qianlong Handled the Aftermath of the Gurkha Invasion of Tibet” [Qianlong Huangdi Chuli Kuo’erka Qin Zang Shanhou Shiwu de Yixie Jiben Sixiang 乾隆皇帝处理廓尔喀侵藏善后事务的一些基本思想‎]. China Tibetology [Zhongguo Zangxue 中国藏学‎] 3: 101–108.

Zhang, Yun 张云‎. 2008b. A Study of Issues in Tibetan History [Xizang lishi wenti yanjiu 西藏历史问题研究‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue Chubanshe 中国藏学出版社‎.

Zhao, Gaiping 赵改萍‎. 2009. Development of Tibetan Buddhism during the Yuan and Ming Periods [Yuan Ming shiqi Zangchuan Fojiao zai neidi fazhan ji yingxiang 元明时期藏传佛教在内地的发展及影响‎]. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue chubanshe 中国社会科学出版社‎.

Zhao, Suisheng. 1998. “A State-Led Nationalism: The Patriotic Education Campaign in Post-Tiananmen China.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 31, no. 3: 287–302.

Zhao, Suisheng, ed. 2000. China and Democracy: Reconsidering the Prospects for a Democratic China. New York: Routledge.

Zhao, Yuezhi. 1998. Media, Market, and Democracy in China: Between the Party Line and the Bottom Line. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Zhe, Ji. 2013. “Zhao Puchu and His Renjian Buddhism.” The Eastern Buddhist 44, no. 2: 35–58.

Zheng, Dui 郑堆‎. 2012a. Collected Essays on Tibetan Buddhist Doctrines. Vol. 1 [Zangchuan Fojiao jiaoyi chanshi yanjiu wenji diyi ji 藏传佛教教义阐释研究文集(第一辑)‎]. Beijing: China Tibetology Research Center [Zhongguo Zangxue Chubanshe 中国藏学出版社‎].

Zheng, Dui 郑堆‎. 2012b. Interpreting Tibetan Buddhist Doctrines: Trial Lecture Booklet [Zangchuan Fojiao jiaoyi jushi: shijiang ben 藏传佛教教义l鞠释: 试讲本‎]. Beijing: China Tibetology Research Center.

Zheng, Dui 郑堆‎, ed. 2013. Collected Essays on Interpretation of Tibetan Buddhist Doctrines. Vol. 2: Tibetan Buddhism and Spiritual Civilization Research Collection [Zangchuan Fojiao jiaoyi chanshi yanjiu wenji di’er ji: Zangchuan Fojiao yu jingshen wenming yanjiu zhuanji 藏传佛教教义阐释研究文集(第二辑):藏传佛教与精神文明研究专辑‎]. Beijing: China Tibetology Research Center.

Zheng, Shan. 2010. A History of Development of Tibet. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Zhou, Aiming. 2004. Tibetan Education. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press.

Zhou, Jin, ed. 1981. Tibet: No Longer Mediaeval. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Zhou, Jinghao. 2010. China’s Peaceful Rise in a Global Context: A Domestic Aspect of China’s Road Map to Democratization. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Zhou Jiwen 周季文‎, and Xie Houfang 谢后芳‎, trans. 2008. Selections of Stories from Tibetan-Language Buddhist Scriptures [Zangwen Fojing Gushi Xuan 藏文佛经故事选‎]. Beijing: China Tibetology Press.

(p.360) Zhu, Xiaoming, Suo Wenqing, et al., eds. 1999. Priceless Treasures: Cultural Relics and Historical Materials about the Conferment of Honorific Titles upon Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas of Successive Generations by the Central Governments through the Ages. Beijing: Morning Glory Publishers.

Zhuang, Jianping 庄建平‎. 1992. A Dictionary of National Humiliation [Guochi shidian 國耻事典‎]. Chengdu: Chengdu Shubanshe 成都出版社‎.

Zeitchik, Steven, and Jonathan Landreth. 2012. “Hollywood Gripped by Pressure from China.” Los Angeles Times, June 12. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/movies/2012/06/china-censorship-movies-hollywood-iron-man-red-dawn-hollywood.html.