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The Evolving Sphere of Food Security$
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Rosamond L. Naylor

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199354054

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354054.001.0001

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The Food Security Roots of the Middle-Income Trap

The Food Security Roots of the Middle-Income Trap

Chapter:
(p.64) 3 The Food Security Roots of the Middle-Income Trap
Source:
The Evolving Sphere of Food Security
Author(s):

Scott Rozelle

Jikun Huang

Xiaobing Wang

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354054.003.0003

Volumes have been written about calorie and protein deficiencies in poor countries. However, much less research has been compiled on the food security problems of middle-income countries with personal incomes in the $3,000 to $10,000 range. This chapter focuses on these nations, describes the middle-income trap into which many have fallen, and uses China as a case study of food security as both a cause and a consequence of such traps. As countries move to middle-income status, labor costs rise, and countries must improve education, boost productivity, and master innovation if they expect to continue growing. Data from a dozen middle-income countries, particularly those with quite unequal income distributions, show widespread deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, and micronutrients. Specific survey data from rural China show that these deficiencies are leading to cognitive difficulties and excessive dropouts among rural children. This second food security challenge can thus be a severe constraint on the skilled labor force that China needs and desires for continued economic growth in the years and decades ahead.

Keywords:   second food security challenge, micronutrient deficiency, anemia, China, middle-income trap

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