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US Foreign Policy on Transitional Justice$

Annie R. Bird

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199338412

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199338412.001.0001

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(p.179) Appendix 2: Case Study Timelines

(p.179) Appendix 2: Case Study Timelines

US Foreign Policy on Transitional Justice
Oxford University Press

Cambodia Timeline

  1. 1969–73 President Nixon approves covert bombing of Cam- bodia.

  2. 1975–79 Khmer Rouge in power.

  3. 1979–89 Vietnamese control of Cambodia.

  4. 1991 Paris Peace Accords; establishment of UN Transitional Authority.

  5. 1993 Elections in Cambodia; UN withdraws.

  6. 1994 United States passes Cambodian Genocide Justice Act.

  7. 1997 Cambodian request to UN for assistance with a tribunal; Hun Sen stages coup.

  8. 1997–2001 David Scheffer serves as first US ambassador for war crimes issues.

  9. 1998 Hun Sen wins elections in Cambodia; United States circulates draft for an international criminal tribunal; UN Group of Experts commissioned.

  10. 1999 UN Group of Experts release their report; Cambodia rejects report; mixed tribunal is proposed by the United States.

  11. 2001 Cambodia passes the law to establish the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.

  12. (p.180) 2002 UN withdraws from court negotiations with Cam- bodia.

  13. 2003 UN resumes negotiations and signs an agreement with Cambodia on the court’s establishment.

  14. 2004 UN/Cambodia Agreement approved by Cambodia’s National Assembly.

  15. 2004–7 US Congress blocks funding for the court.

  16. 2008 United States announces $1.8 million for the tribunal.

  17. 2009 Court’s first trial begins.

  18. 2010 First defendant convicted; former US war crimes ambassador Clint Williamson appointed as UN special expert to ECCC.

  19. 2011 Court’s second trial begins.

Liberia Timeline

  1. 1821 African Americans establish settlements in Liberia.

  2. 1847 Liberia achieves independence.

  3. 1971 Liberian president William Tubman dies while in office. Tubman’s vice president, William Tolbert, assumes the presidency.

  4. 1980–89 Samuel Doe leads a coup and assumes power. Doe wins elections in 1985.

  5. 1989–97 Liberia’s first civil war between Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) and six other major factions.

  6. 1997 Charles Taylor wins the presidential election.

  7. 1999–2003 Liberia’s second civil war.

  8. 2001 The UN Security Council imposes sanctions on Liberia because of Taylor’s support of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in Sierra Leone.

  9. 2002 The Special Court for Sierra Leone established to address serious crimes against civilians during the country’s civil war.

  10. 2003 Liberian peace talks in Ghana. The Special Court for Sierra Leone unseals an indictment against Taylor. Taylor resigns and accepts asylum in Nigeria. A peace (p.181) agreement is signed, which establishes a two-year transitional government. The UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) takes over peacekeeping operations.

  11. 2005 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Act is passed. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf wins the presidential election.

  12. 2006 Charles Taylor is arrested and transferred to the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The work of the TRC begins.

  13. 2007 Taylor’s trial begins.

  14. 2008 Volume 1 of the TRC’s final report is released.

  15. 2009 Complete TRC final report released.

  16. 2011 Johnson-Sirleaf is re-elected as president of Liberia.

  17. 2012 Taylor found guilty by the Special Court for Sierra Leone for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Colombia Timeline

  1. 1948 Riots in Bogota give rise to a 10-year period of civil conflict.

  2. 1960s The emergence of several non-state armed groups in remote areas of the country, in particular, the ELN and FARC, that ignite the current conflict.

  3. 1980s The emergence of paramilitary groups to provide private security for important economic and political sectors in Colombia.

  4. 1997 Various paramilitary groups consolidate with the creation of an umbrella body—the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC).

  5. 1999 Clinton administration announces Plan Colombia.

  6. 2002 Álvaro Uribe is elected as president of Colombia.

  7. 2003 The Colombian government and the AUC sign a framework peace accord committing paramilitaries to full demobilization by the end of 2005.

  8. 2005 The Justice and Peace Law is passed.

  9. 2008 14 AUC leaders are extradited to the United States.

  10. 2010 Juan Manuel Santos is elected as president of Colombia.