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US Foreign Policy on Transitional Justice$

Annie R. Bird

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199338412

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199338412.001.0001

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(p.157) Appendix 1: Interview Data

(p.157) Appendix 1: Interview Data

Source:
US Foreign Policy on Transitional Justice
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

In addition to extensive background research of US government documents, UN and NGO reports, academic sources, and the media, this book drew on 190 semistructured interviews conducted with members of key stakeholder groups in the United States and the case study countries. Fieldwork in Washington, DC, from January to April 2010 was possible because of financial support from the Marshall Commission. While in DC, I was a visiting researcher at Georgetown University. Fieldwork in Liberia was undertaken while carrying out an impact assessment of the TRC for Benetech in November–December 2009. Fieldwork in Cambodia undertaken in June–July 2010 and The Hague in January 2012 was possible due to funding from LSE’s International Relations Department. Fieldwork in Colombia was undertaken in July–August 2010 and was possible due to funding from the Abbey Santander Grant.

A cross section of views from key stakeholder groups was taken in order to ensure a mix between case study country actors and international actors. A mix between government and nongovernmental actors was also achieved. Additionally, within each stakeholder group, a variation of views was sought. For example, within the US government, officials from the State Department, USAID, and Congress were interviewed. Interviews with a range of national and international NGOs were conducted. In addition, different perspectives within these groups were sought.

(p.158) Interviewees were initially identified through personal contacts knowledgeable about transitional justice. Each interviewee was asked if he or she could suggest other possible interviewees, which created a “snowball effect.” The same individuals would often be recommended numerous times, and served as a useful cross-check to ensure that key persons were interviewed.

Semistructured interviews were conducted with an interview guide prepared beforehand that provided a framework for the interview. All interviewees were first explained the purpose of the project and asked if the interview could be recorded. They were also asked whether or not the interview could be attributed to the individual. Those interviews conducted on a nonattributable basis were attributed in the way the interviewee requested. Interviews lasted from one to two hours.

Each interview covered similar topics, but left room for certain areas to be explored more thoroughly. Depending on the interviewee’s position and perspective, some issues were more relevant than others. Generally speaking, however, each interview solicited views about US involvement in the development of transitional justice more generally, or more specifically, about the establishment and operations of the transitional justice processes explored in this study. Interviews were then analyzed in order to draw out trends and divergences within and across stakeholder groups.

Interviews generated a wealth of material in terms of background information, confirmation of perceptions and views, and usable quotes. The quotations used in this book have been chosen to characterize or typify views or perceptions that have been commonly articulated by interviewees. Only a small proportion of the transcribed material from interviews is reproduced in quote format in this book. Nevertheless, the richness of material gathered through the many interviews and discussions underpins much of the analysis and conclusions reached in this research.

(p.159) Interview List

Types of Interviews Conducted

Number

Total interviews conducted

190

Total related to case studies

147

  Cambodia

38

  Liberia

55

  Colombia

58

Total other/general

39

US government

55

Cambodia

6

Liberia

15

Colombia

16

Other

18

Transitional justice measures

23

Cambodia

4

Liberia

9

Colombia

4

Other

6

Case study governments

11

Cambodia

0

Liberia

2

Colombia

9

International organizations

16

Cambodia

4

Liberia

7

Colombia

4

Other

1

International NGOs

34

Cambodia

8

Liberia

11

Colombia

9

Other

6

Local NGOs

19

Cambodia

6

Liberia

10

Colombia

7

Academia

19

Cambodia

9

Liberia

0

Colombia

2

Other

8

Media

3

Cambodia

1

Liberia

0

Colombia

2

US implementing partners (Colombia)

5

Foreign state government

1

(p.160) Cambodia Interviews

Types of Interviews Conducted for Cambodia Case Study

Number

Total interviews conducted

38

US government

6

State Department

6

Transitional justice measure

4

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC)

4

International organizations

4

United Nations

4

International NGOs

8

Open Society Justice Initiative

3

Human Rights Watch

2

International Center for Transitional Justice

1

National Endowment Democracy

2

Cambodian NGOs

6

Documentation Center of Cambodia

3

Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association

1

Cambodian Human Rights Action Committee

1

Center for Justice and Reconciliation

1

Academia

9

Media

1

(p.161) Cambodia Interview List

Name and Position

Organization

Date

Kent Wiedemann, former US Ambassador to Cambodia

State Department

21 July 2010

US official 1

State Department

4 August 2010

US official 2

State Department

4 April 2010

US official 3

State Department

23 February 2010

State Department official

State Department

18 March 2010

State Department official

State Department

14 April and 4 August 2010

Craig Etcheson, Lead Investigator, Office of Co-Prosecution; Khmer Rouge scholar

ECCC

20 July 2010

Bophal Keat, former head of Victims’ Unit (2008–9)

ECCC

23 July 2010

Richard Rogers, Chief of Defence Support Section

ECCC

8 August 2010

Steve Heder, Investigator, ECCC/ Lecturer, SOAS

ECCC / School of Oriental and Asian Studies

28 October 2009

Ton Vong, Legal Associate

UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

14 July 2010

David Tolbert, former UN Special Expert on UN Assistance to the Khmer Rouge Trials

UN

10 May 2010

UN official

UN

17 June 2010

UN official

UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

13 November 2009

Long Panhavuth, Program Officer

Open Society Justice Initiative

19 July 2010

Heather Ryan, Monitor of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal

Open Society Justice Initiative

29 July 2010

James Goldston, Executive Director

Open Society Justice Initiative

23 February 2010

Cambodia expert

28 April 2010

Sophie Richardson, Asia Advocacy Director

Human Rights Watch

17 March 2010

Caitlin Reiger, Director, International Policy Relations

International Center for Transitional Justice

3 November 2009

John Knaus, Senior Program Officer for Asia

National Endowment for Democracy

13 April 2010

Lynn Lee, Program Officer for East Asia

National Endowment for Democracy

13 April 2010

Youk Chhang, Director

Documentation Center of Cambodia

15 July 2010

Anne Heindel, Legal Advisor

Documentation Center of Cambodia

15 July 2010

John Ciorciari, Legal Advisor /Assistant Professor

Documentation Center of Cambodia /University of Michigan

10 March and 27 July 2010

President

Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association

19 July 2010

Program Officer

Cambodian Human Rights Action Committee

20 July 2010

Theary Seng, Founder and President

Center for Justice and Reconciliation

8 August 2010

Fred Z. Brown, Lecturer / former US foreign service officer

Johns Hopkins University

6 November 2009

Kenton Clymer, Professor

Northern Illinois University

22 July 2010

David Chandler, Professor

Monash University

24 July 2010

Ben Kiernan, Professor and Director of the Genocide Studies Program

Yale University

20 February 2010

Jaya Ramji-Nogales, Assistant Professor of Law

Temple University

2 November 2009

Pamela Sodhy, Visiting Associate Professor

Georgetown University

1 March 2010

David Steinberg, Professor /former USAID official

Georgetown University / USAID

18 February 2010

Robert Sutter, Visiting Professor

Georgetown University

18 February 2010

Beth Van Schaack, Associate Professor of Law

Santa Clara University

31 October 2009

Journalist

17 July 2010

(p.162) (p.163)

(p.164) Liberia Interviews

Types of Interviews Conducted for Liberia Case Study

Number

Total interviews conducted

55

US government

15

State Department

9

USAID

3

Congress

2

Department of Justice

1

Transitional justice measures

9

Special Court for Sierra Leone

3

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)

6

Liberian government

2

Executive

1

Legislature

1

Foreign state government

1

International Contact Group on Liberia

1

International organizations

7

UN Mission in Liberia

6

UNDP-Monrovia

1

International NGOs

11

International Center for Transitional Justice

2

Carter Center

3

American Bar Association

1

Search for Common Ground

1

Open Society Initiative of West Africa

1

Human Rights Watch

1

US Institute of Peace

1

Benetech

1

Liberian NGOs

10

Justice and Peace Commission

1

Liberian Council of Churches

1

Transitional Justice Working Group

2

Women’s NGO Secretariat of Liberia

1

Civil society and youth leaders

5

(p.165)

Liberia Interview List

Name and Position

Organization

Date

Jendayi Frazer, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (2005–9)

State Department

9 April 2010

Pamela Bridgewater, Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs (2002–4)

State Department

21 April 2010

Chester Crocker, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (1981–89)

State Department

16 February 2010

Michael Arietti, Director, Office of West African Affairs (2001–4)

State Department

9 May 2011

US official

State Department

16 March 2010

US official

State Department

18 May 2010

US official 1

State Department

10 December 2009

US official

State Department

10 December 2009

US official 2

State Department

25 January 2010

US official

USAID

3 December 2009

DOJ official

Department of Justice

8 December 2009

USAID official, Office of Transition Initiatives

USAID

7 April 2010

USAID official

USAID

13 April 2010

Congressional staff member

Senate

24 March 2010

Congressional staff member

House of Representatives

12 April 2010

David Crane, Chief Prosecutor

Special Court for Sierra Leone

19 April 2010

Gregory Townsend, Senior Legal Officer

Special Court for Sierra Leone

12 January 2012

Chris Mahony, Consultant

Special Court for Sierra Leone and Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Sierra Leone

29 January 2012

Jerome Verdier, TRC Chairman

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

9 December 2009

Gerald B. Coleman, TRC Commissioner

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

10 December 2009

Pearl Brown Bull, TRC Commissioner

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

7 December 2009

Salif Massalay, statement coder

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

23 November 2009

TRC staff member

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

26 January 2010

Senior TRC staff member

Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

3 December 2009

Natty Davis, Minister of State Development and Reconstruction

Office of the President, Liberia

2 December 2009

Rep. G. Wesseh Blamoh, Chairman, Standing Committee on Peace and National Reconciliation

Legislature of Liberia

3 December 2009

Member

International Contact Group on Liberia

28 November 2009

International rule of law advisor

UNMIL

8 December 2009

International observer 1

UNMIL

30 November 2009

International observer 2

UNMIL/OHCHR

28 November 2009

International observer

UNMIL

26 November 2009

International observer

UNMIL

26 November 2009

International observer

UNDP, Monrovia

30 November 2009

Macdonald Metzger, Media Consultant for ICTJ / Radio Producer for UNMIL

International Center for Transitional Justice / UNMIL

28 November 2009

International NGO staff member

International NGO

9 December 2010

ICTJ staff member

International Center for Transitional Justice

2 December 2009

Liberia Country Director

American Bar Association, Rule of Law Initiative

7 December 2009

Staff member

Search for Common Ground / Talking Drums

7 December 2009

Staff member

Open Society Initiative of West Africa

27 November 2009

Tom Crick, Associate Director

Carter Center

28 June 2009

Project Officer

Carter Center

8 December 2009

Pewee Flomoku, Project Coordinator

Carter Center

8 December 2009

Elise Keppler, Senior Counsel, International Justice Program

Human Rights Watch

23 February 2010

Abiodun Williams, Vice President of the Centre for Conflict Analysis and Prevention

US Institute of Peace

26 February 2010

Kirsten Cibelli, Program Manager

Benetech

21 November 2009

Augustine Toe, National Director

Justice and Peace Commission

2 December 2009

Benjamin Lartey, General Secretary

Liberian Council of Churches

3 December 2009

James Yarsiah, Coordinator of the Transitional Justice Working Group and Executive Director of Rights and Rice Foundation

Transitional Justice Working Group/ Rights and Rice Foundation

28 November 2009

Kanio Gbala, Coordinator of the Transitional Justice Working Group and Programme Manager of the PRS Tracking Network

Transitional Justice Working Group / PRS Tracking Network

27 November 2009

Staff member

Women NGO Secretariat of Liberia

27 November 2009

Alex Ballo, community leader

Sinje, Grand Cape Mount

1 December 2009

Civil society leader 1

Focus group in Buchanan, Grand Bassa

4 December 2009

Civil society leader 2

Focus group in Buchanan, Grand Bassa

4 December 2009

Youth leader 1

Focus group in Kakata, Margibi

26 November 2009

Youth leader 2

Focus group in Kakata, Margibi

26 November 2009

(p.166) (p.167) (p.168)

(p.169) Colombia Interviews

Types of Interviews Conducted for Colombia Case Study

Number

Total interviews conducted

58

US government

16

State Department

7

USAID

6

Senate

1

Department of Justice

2

US implementing partners

5

International Organization of Migration

2

Management Sciences for Development

3

Transitional justice measures

4

Justice and Peace Unit

2

National Commission for Reparation and Reconciliation

2

Colombian government

9

Prosecutor-General

1

Acción Social

3

National Planning Department

2

Office of the High Commissioner for Reintegration

1

Office of the High Commissioner for Peace

1

Ministry of the Interior and Justice

1

International organizations

4

Organization of American States

1

United Nations

2

World Bank

1

International NGOs

9

International Center for Transitional Justice

3

Center for International Policy

1

Washington Office on Latin America

2

Human Rights First

1

Woodrow Wilson Center

1

US Institute of Peace

1

Colombian NGOs

7

Colombia Commission of Jurists

1

Fundación Ideas para la Paz

1

Arco Iris

1

Fundación Social

1

País Libre

1

Iniciativa de Mujeres Colombianas por la Paz

1

Independent consultant

1

Academia

2

Media

2

(p.170)

(p.171) Colombia Interview List

Name

Organization

Date

Director, Demobilization and Reintegration Program

USAID/Colombia

31 August 2010

Sandra Pabón, Assistant Director, Demobilization and Reintegration Program

USAID/Colombia

31 August 2010

USAID official 1

USAID/Colombia

18 August 2010

USAID official

USAID/Colombia

18 August 2010

USAID official

USAID

9 March 2010

USAID official

USAID

9 March 2010

Myles Frechette, US Ambassador to Colombia (1983–87)

US Embassy in Colombia

7 April 2010

Embassy official

US Embassy in Colombia

23 August 2010

State Department official

State Department

23 March 2010

State Department official, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor

State Department

12 March 2010

State Department official, Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization

State Department

12 April 2010

State Department official, Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization

State Department

22 March 2010

State Department official, Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization

State Department

22 March 2010

Janet Drew, staff member

Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control

24 March 2010

DOJ official 1

Department of Justice

6 September 2010 (interview) / 7–8 September 2010 (email communication)

DOJ official 2

Department of Justice

27 August 2010

Project Coordinator

International Organization of Migration

9 September 2010

Staff member

International Organization of Migration

7 September 2010

Staff member

Management Sciences for Development

1 September 2010

Staff member

Management Sciences for Development

1 September 2010

Staff member

Management Sciences for Development

31 August 2010

Luis González León, Director, Justice and Peace Unit

Prosecutor General’s Office

3 September 2010

Loreley Oviedo, staff member, International Cooperation, Justice and Peace Unit

Prosecutor General’s Office

3 September 2010

Eduardo Pizarro, President

National Commission for Reparations and Reconciliation

7 September 2010

Executive Director

National Commission for Reparations and Reconciliation

26 August 2010

Patricia Linares Prieto, former delegate of the Procuradora to CNRR

Procuradora

26 August 2010

Sandra Alzate, Director

Acción Social

25 August 2010

Viviana Cañon Tamayo, Assessor, Office of International Cooperation

Acción Social

20 September 2010

Gloria Gomez, Assessor, Office of International Cooperation

Acción Social

3 September 2010

Luis Carlos Restrepo, High Commissioner for Peace

Office of the High Commissioner for Peace

21 September 2010

Paola Buendia, Director of the Justice and Security Unit

National Planning Department

19 August 2010

Paula Aponte, staff member, Justice and Security Unit

National Planning Department

19 August 2010

Heidi Abuchaibe, Director of Transitional Justice

Ministry of the Interior and Justice

1 September 2010

Colombian government official

Office of the High Commissioner for Reintegration

10 September 2010

Daniel Millares, Justice and Peace Manager, Mission to Support the Peace Process in Colombia

Organization of American States

23 August 2010

Veronica Hinestroza, Consultant

World Bank

20 August 2010

UN official

UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations

22 February 2010

UN official

UN Department of Political Affairs

23 February 2010

Michael Reed, Colombia expert

Independent

27 August 2010

Angelica Zamora, staff member, Colombia office

International Center for Transitional Justice

19 March 2010

Cristina Rivera, Communications Associate, Colombia office

International Center for Transitional Justice

25 August 2010

Adam Isacson, Director

Center for International Policy

2 March 2010

Gimena Sanchez, Senior Associate for the Andes

Washington Office on Latin America

18 March 2010

Anthony Dest, Intern

Washington Office on Latin America

18 March 2010

Andrew Hudson, Senior Associate

Human Rights First

8 September 2009

Colombia expert

Woodrow Wilson Center

10 March 2010

Virginia Bouvier, Senior Program Officer for Latin America

US Institute of Peace

25 February 2010

Gustavo Gallón, President

Colombia Commission of Jurists

10 September 2010

Maria Victoria Llorente, Director

Fundación Ideas para la Paz

24 August 2010

Lucho Celis, Coordinator

Arco Iris

24 August 2010

Paula Gaviria, Director of Public Policy

Fundación Social

8 September 2010

Coordinator of Victims’ Attention Center

País Libre

7 September 2010

Angela Cerón, Director

Iniciativa de Mujeres Colombianas por la Paz

1 September 2010

Álvaro Cordoba, Consultant

UNDP/USAID/CNRR

25 October 2009

Florian Huber, Doctoral Candidate

University of Göttingen

16 October 2009

Lerber Lisandro, Investigator

National University of Colombia

6 September 2010

Marta Ruiz, Editor, Security and Justice Section

Semana

24 August 2010

Toby Muse, Independent Media Consultant

Independent

28 August 2010

(p.172) (p.173) (p.174)

(p.175) General Interviews

Types of General Interviews

Number

Total interviews conducted

39

US government

18

Transitional justice measures

6

International organizations

1

NGOs

6

Academia

8

(p.176) List of General Interviewees

Name

Organization

Date

David Scheffer, Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues (1997–2001)

State Department

12 March 2012

Pierre Prosper, Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues (2001–5)

State Department

22 April 2010

Clint Williamson, Ambassador- at-Large for War Crimes Issues (2006–9)

State Department

21 April 2010

Stephen Rapp, Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues (2009–)

State Department

26 July 2010

Anne-Marie Slaughter, Head of Policy Planning (2009–11) / Professor

State Department / Princeton University

23 May 2012

Donald McHenry, former US Ambassador to the UN / Professor

USUN / Georgetown University

1 March 2010

Anthony Lake, former National Security Council Advisor / Professor

National Security Council / Georgetown University

18 February 2010

Victor Cha, Former Asian Affairs Director / Professor

National Security Council / Georgetown University

1 March 2010

US official

National Security Council

20 April 2010

Senate staff member

Senate

8 January 2010

David Hodgkinson, Director, Office of Human Rights and Transitional Justice, Coalition Provisional Authority

State Department

8 April 2010

Andy Loomis, Senior Conflict Prevention Officer

State Department

12 March 2010

Lisa Chandonnet-Bedoya, Program Analyst, Office of Conflict Management & Mitigation

USAID

6 April 2010

Marie Pace, Democracy Specialist, Office of Civilian Response

USAID

20 April 2010

Andrew Natsios, Administrator

USAID

22 March 2010

Grant Harris, Senior Policy Advisor

USUN

24 February 2010

Professional staff member

House Foreign Affairs Committee

16 April 2010

State Department official

State Department

14 April 2010

ICTY Special Advisor to the Prosecutor

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

13 January 2012

Matias Hellman, External Relations Advisor, Office of the President

International Criminal Court

13 January 2012

Rod Rastan, Legal Advisor, Office of the Prosecutor

International Criminal Court

13 January 2012

Court official

Special Tribunal for Lebanon

12 January 2012

Court official

Special Tribunal for Lebanon

12 January 2012

Court official

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

13 January 2012

Kaoru Okuizumi, transitional justice focal point in the judicial section

UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations

4 March 2010

Tom Melia, Senior Advisor

Freedom House

9 March 2010

Tom Malinowski, Washington Advocacy Director

Human Rights Watch

15 March 2010

Paige Arthur, Deputy Director, Institutional Development

International Center for Transitional Justice

22 February 2010

Juan Mendez, President Emeritus

International Center for Transitional Justice

9 April 2010

Morton Halperin, Senior Advisor

Open Society Foundations

19 March 2010

Neil Kritz, Senior Scholar in Residence

US Institute of Peace

16 March 2010

Charles Kupchan, Professor

Georgetown University

16 February 2010

Lynn C. Ross, Professor

Georgetown University

19 February 10

Pauline Baker, Adjunct Professor / Director of Fund for Peace

Georgetown University

4 November 2009

Erik Voeten, Associate Professor

Georgetown University

17 March 2010

Julie Shackford-Bradley, Lecturer

UC Berkeley

2 November 2009

Richard Wilson, Professor of Law / Director of the International Human Rights Law Clinic

American University

4 November 2009

Victor Peskin, Associate Professor

Arizona State University

30 June 2009

Eric Stover, Adjunct Professor of Law and Public Health; Faculty Director, Human Rights Center

UC Berkeley

12 February 2009

(p.177) (p.178)