This chapter offers a summary of the book’s key findings and points to venues for future research. It reviews the central argument that differences in institutional culture explain why some international organizations respond more quickly than others to demands for intervention. It also revisits the evidence that two relevant aspects of institutional culture—informal norms and informal relations—have been shown to influence rates of response. With respect to future directions for research, the chapter calls for more studies on the informal level of decision-making and planning that occurs at international organizations. It also calls for further research on the subject of “rapid response.” The second part of the chapter identifies key policy recommendations for institutional reform and examines what steps might be needed to see such reforms become reality. The recommendations are explained in detail with reference, where possible, to practical examples such as those from the United Nations.
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