Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
More Women Can RunGender and Pathways to the State Legislatures$

Susan J. Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199322428

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199322428.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.133) Appendix

(p.133) Appendix

More Women Can Run
Oxford University Press

Methodology, 2008 and 1981 CAWP Recruitment Studies

The 2008 CAWP Recruitment Study was administered by the research firm Abt/SRBI Inc. Data collection began in late January 2008 and continued through early September 2008. Respondents received an initial letter informing them of the study and inviting them to complete the survey online. This letter was also sent electronically to those respondents with publicly available email addresses. Respondents who did not complete the web survey after this initial invitation were sent a paper copy of the survey instrument with a postage-paid, self-addressed return envelope. Nonrespondents were subsequently recontacted with reminder messages and additional copies of the survey instrument. Toward the end of the data collection period, remaining nonrespondents received phone call reminder messages as well as invitations to complete the survey by phone. Most respondents (63.2 percent) completed the paper version of the survey although some respondents completed the web version (27.6 percent) or phone version (9.1 percent). Respondents were promised confidentiality.

The 2008 response rate was higher among women than men (the response rates were as follows: women state senators, 40.7 percent; men state senators, 27.9 percent; women state representatives, 40.7 percent; and men state representatives, 33.6 percent). We examined the response rates of women and men with a multivariate analysis, finding that professionalism negatively affected the likelihood of responding. Among women, moving from a legislature with moderate professionalism to a highly professionalized legislature decreased the likelihood of responding by 5.9 percent; among men, this effect was 8.3 percent. Among men only, chamber affected the likelihood of responding; state (p.134) representatives were 5.0 percent more likely to respond than state senators.

Data collection for the 1981 CAWP Recruitment Study took place between May and July 1981. CAWP mailed state legislators a paper copy of the survey instrument along with a postage-paid, self-addressed return envelope. Two weeks later, all nonrespondents received a second copy of the questionnaire. The 1981 response rates were as follows: women state senators, 53.3 percent; men state senators, 50.0 percent; women state representatives, 58.1 percent; and men state representatives, 52.6 percent.

Interview Questions, 2009 Semistructured Follow-up Telephone Interviews

  1. 1. Why do you think there aren’t more women in the legislature?

    • Probe:

    • Do you think women are less interested in running for office than men? If yes, why? What deters them from running?

    • Do you think women need more encouragement than men before running for office? If yes, why is that? And why aren’t they receiving it?

    • Do you think women face more obstacles in running for office? If yes, what are they?

  2. 2. Nationally, Democratic women state legislators outnumber Republican women state legislators by about 2:1 while men state legislators are about equally divided between the two parties. And in recent years the increases in the number of women legislators have been greater in the Democratic Party than in the Republican Party. Why do think there are fewer Republican women legislators than Democratic women legislators?


    • Do you think term limits have helped or hurt in terms of the number of women serving in the legislature in your state?

    • Probe:

    • Are women running for term-limited seats?

    • Are efforts being made to recruit women to run for term-limited seats? By whom? How successful are these?

  4. (p.135) 4. What kinds of qualifications and experience, if any, do you think women need to have before they run for the legislature?

  5. 4a. We find on several measures that women have had more political experience than men before they run for the legislature. Why do you think this is the case?

    • Probe:

    • Do you think it is because women hold themselves to higher standards?

    • Do you think it is because voters or party leaders expect women to be more qualified?

  6. 5. We find in our study that women legislators are more likely than men to say that party support was very important in their decisions to run for the legislature. Why do you think that is the case?

    • Follow-up:

    • How active is your party in recruiting candidates for the legislature in your state?

    • How supportive is your party of women candidates in your state?

  7. 6. In your state are any organizations other than the parties playing a role in getting women to run for office and in supporting their candidacies? If so, can you describe which organizations are important and what their role is?

  8. 7. We found in our survey that women legislators tend to think that it is harder for women candidates to raise money while most men in legislatures think that fund-raising is equally hard for women and men. Can you help us explain this finding? Why do you think women think women have a harder time raising money while men do not think raising money is tougher for women?

  9. 8. We also find in our study that women are more likely than men to have attended a campaign training or workshop. Do you think campaign trainings and workshops are important to women?

    • Probe: Why do you think they’re important to women?

  10. 9. Do you think considerations regarding children and spouses or partners affect women’s and men’s decisions to run for office in about the same ways and to about the same extent, or do you think in deciding to run for the legislature women and men weigh considerations about children and spouses differently? (p.136)