Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Historic FirstsHow Symbolic Empowerment Changes U.S. Politics$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Evelyn M. Simien

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199314171

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199314171.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy).date: 14 December 2018

Chisholm ’72

Chisholm ’72

Toward a Theory of Symbolic Empowerment

(p.20) Chapter 2 Chisholm ’72
Historic Firsts

Evelyn M. Simien

Oxford University Press

Chapter 2 details the process by which Chisholm went from Black female lawmaker in the U.S. House of Representatives to presidential hopeful. The goal of this chapter is threefold: (1) to advance a theory of symbolic empowerment illustrated by Chisholm’s historic candidacy, (2) to demonstrate the utility of that theory for examining intragroup emotion and political behavior as mutually reinforcing, and (3) to assess ways in which race and gender were pervasive forces affecting almost all aspects of Chisholm’s campaign and people’s reactions to it. Focusing on ways in which her candidacy was rejected by Black civil rights and women’s liberation organizations, this chapter illuminates how future American presidential candidates would be similarly challenged on the basis of race and gender. It relies on archival data, including speeches, congressional files, oral interviews, newspaper clippings, constituent letters, and campaign materials from special collections at Brooklyn College and Rutgers University to inform it.

Keywords:   Shirley Chisholm, intragroup emotion, race and gender, women’s liberation

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .