This chapter focuses on the development of conservation and kinetic equations which govern nonequilibrium material processes. First, it discusses the concepts of mass and mass species conservation. Mass balance equations are developed in the general case, where transport is occurring simultaneously with chemical reactions. This is followed by a discussion of the conservation equations of momentum and energy, which is given in a form that is useful for solving practical problems in material processes. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes are then used to derive equations for mass and heat flow. Diffusion in solids is discussed from both microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints. Finally, it is shown that the Onsager reciprocity relations can provide links between the transport of heat, mass, and electric current, which is generally encountered in CVD and plasma processing of materials.
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