This concluding chapter summarizes the discussions in the preceding chapters. This book argues that the typological change of the Chinese language is reflected in the increasing requirement of explicit devices at syntactic level, while earlier, OC used implicit devices at phonological, morphological, and lexical levels. In other words, the grammatical relations in OC were unmarked syntactically but in contemporary Chinese they are marked syntactically. Verbs were phonologically, morphologically, and lexically marked in OC by changes of tone, the voicing of initials and the alternation of some vowels, the choice of verbs, and so forth. From the evolution traced in this book, it is clear that an NP can be syntactically marked in contemporary Chinese.
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