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Educating WomenSchooling and Identity in England and France, 1800-1867$

Christina de Bellaigue

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199289981

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199289981.001.0001

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(p.240) Select Bibliography

(p.240) Select Bibliography

Educating Women
Oxford University Press

Manuscript Sources


British and Foreign School Society Archive, Brunel University:

319: Middle class schools: women.

437–49: Applications and testimonials to Borough Road College (women), 1817–58.

814: Home and Colonial Training School Society Reports, 1836–1900.

College of Preceptors Archive, Institute of Education Archives, University of London: GB/366/DC/COP

Girton College, Cambridge:

GCPP Davies 9: Papers of the London Association of Schoolmistresses, 1866–88.

GCPP Parkes 1: MS writings, 1843–83.

GCPP Parkes 6: Major correspondents, 1846–72.

Harris Manchester College, Oxford: MSS J. Martineau 1, 2, 3, 8.

Keele University Library, Special Collections and Archives: Wedgwood Papers, E13, E50, E55.

King's College, Cambridge: Papers of E. M. Forster, GBR/0272/EMF/21/1.

Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington: Gill MSS.

London Metropolitan Archives:

Governess papers, I: 1846–7

E4: GBI Ladies' Accounts

North London Collegiate School Archives:

Frances Mary Buss and Family, History of the school, B1.

Place of the School in History, Rs7iv.

Register of applications for admission to North London Collegiate School, 1871, 1881.

Regent's Park College, Oxford, Angus Library, Acc. 142 Ryland/ Saffery.

Tudor Hall School, Banbury, Prospectuses and miscellaneous papers on the history of the school.

University of Sheffield, Special Collections Department, Elizabeth Firth Manuscripts, MS 58/A–B.

Whitelands College, London, Archives, Register of Mistresses, 3 vols., 1842–9


Archives Nationales: Sous‐série F17: Instruction publique 2680, 6843–9, 9763–71, 12431, 12432, 12433, 12448, 20215–22999.

Archives Départementales:

Gironde: principally séries T (Instruction publique) and Depot Vt III 3e E: Brevets de Capacité.

Nord: principally séries T (Instruction publique) and J (Archives privées).

Seine: principally séries VD (Fonds des mairies), D2 T1 (Personnel enseignant dans les écoles privées de jeunes filles 1836–49), DT Supplément (Déclarations d'ouverture), séries Q (Enregistrement), D10 (Faillites), and séries U (Justice).

(p.241) Archives Municipales de Bordeaux: Fonds Ploux, Fonds Ferrere.

Archives Municipales de Douai: series R (Instruction publique).

Printed Primary Sources

When these works are comparative or European in perspective, they are classified by language. For instance, C. Campbell‐Orr (ed.), Wollstonecraft's daughters: womanhood in England and France, 1780–1920 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996), is to be found in the sources on England.


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Barbauld, Anna Laetitia, A legacy for young ladies, consisting of miscellaneous pieces in prose and verse by the late Mrs Barbauld, ed. Lucy Aikin (Boston, 1826).

Beale, Dorothea, ‘On the education of girls, by a Utopian’, Fraser's Magazine, 74 (Oct. 1866), 509–24.

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Beale, D. and Soulsby, L., Work and play in girls' schools (London, 1898).

Beard, John Relly, ‘What should a woman learn?’, Monthly Repository, 5 (Aug. 1831), 526–31.

Bennet, George (ed.) The Christian governess: a memoir and selection from the correspondence of Miss Sarah Bennet (London, 1862).

Bennet, Georgiana, Remarks on female education (London, 1842).

Boucherett, Jessie, ‘The condition of women in France’, Contemporary Review, 5 (1867), 98–113.

Broadhurst, Frances, A word in favour of female schools (London, 1826).

Brontë, Anne. Agnes Grey, 2nd edn. (Edinburgh, 1850).

Brontë, Charlotte, Jane Eyre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

—— Villette (London: Penguin Books, 1979).

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Chirol, John Louis, An enquiry into the best system of female education, or boarding school and home education attentively considered (London, 1809).

Clough, Anne Jemima, ‘Hints on the organization of girls’ schools’, Macmillan's Magazine, 14 (Oct. 1866), 434–9.

Clough, Blanche Athena, A memoir of Anne Jemima Clough (London, 1897).

Cobbe, Frances Power, Female education and how it would be affected by university examinations, 2nd edn. (London, 1862).

—— Life of Frances Power Cobbe by herself (London, 1894).

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(p.242) Crockford's Scholastic Directory for 1861 (London, 1861).

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Down, T. C., ‘Schooldays with Miss Clough’, Cornhill Magazine, 3rd series, 48 (1920), 674–8.

Eastlake, Elizabeth, ‘Vanity Fair, Jane Eyre and the Governesses Benevolent Institution’, Quarterly Review, 84 (Dec. 1848), 153–85.

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Ellis, Mildred, ‘Education of Young Ladies’, Central Society for Education, First Publication (1838).

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—— The home life and letters of Mrs Ellis, compiled by her nieces (London, 1893).

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Fawcett, Millicent Garrett, What I remember (London: F. Unwin, 1924).

Fitton, Sarah, How I became a governess (London, 1861).

Fraser, Mary Crawford, A diplomatist's wife in many lands, 2 vols. (London: Hutchinson & Co., 1911).

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Haldane, Mary Elizabeth, Mary Elizabeth Haldane, a record of a hundred years, 1825–1925 (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1925).

Harrison, Jane Elizabeth, Reminiscences of a student's life (London: Hogarth Press, 1925).

Havergal, Maria, Memorials of Frances Ridley Havergal (London, 1880).

Herford, William Henry, In Memoriam: Louisa Carbutt and Brooke House, 1860–1870 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1907).

Hints to a young governess on beginning a school (London, 1857).

‘An inquiry into the state of girls’ fashionable schools’, Fraser's Magazine, 31 (1845), 703–12.

Jolly, Sarah, Thoughts on the vocation and profession of the teacher (London, 1854).

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Kavanagh, Julia, Nathalie, 3 vols. (London, 1850).

Keary, Eliza, Memoir of Annie Keary (London, 1882).

Kemble, Frances Ann, Records of a girlhood: an autobiography, 3 vols. (London, 1878).

Lachlan, Elizabeth, Jehovh‐Jireh, or the provisions of a faithful God (London, 1850).

A Legacy of affection, advice and instruction from a retired governess to the present pupils of an establishment near London for female education (London, 1827).

Lumsden, Louisa, Yellow leaves: memories of a long life (Edinburgh: Blackwood & Sons, 1933).

McCrindell, Rachel, The schoolgirl in France, 4th edn. (New York, 1846).

Mair, Robert H., The educator's guide for teachers, parents and guardians (London, 1866).

(p.243) Elizabeth Malleson: autobiographical notes and letters, ed. Hope Malleson (London: privately printed, 1926).

Martineau, Harriet, ‘Female industry’, Edinburgh Review, 222 (1859), 293–337.

—— ‘Middle class education in England’, Cornhill Magazine, 10 (1864), 549–68.

—— ‘On female education’, Monthly Repository, 18 (1823), 77–81.

—— Autobiography (London: Virago, 1983).

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Harriet Martineau's letters to Fanny Wedgwood, ed. Elizabeth Arbuckle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983).

Maurice, Mary, Governess life: its trials, duties and encouragements (London, 1836).

—— Mothers and governesses (London, 1847)

The life of Mary Russell Mitford, related in a selection from her letters to her friends, ed. A. G. L'Estrange, 3 vols. (London, 1870).

More, Hannah, Strictures on the modern system of female education with a view of the principles and conduct prevalent among women of rank and fortune, 2 vols. (London, 1826).

Nevinson, Margaret Wynne, Life's fitful fever: a volume of memories (London: A. & C. Black, 1920).

Pankhurst, Emmeline, My own story (London: Eveleigh Nash, 1914).

Parkes, Bessie Rayner, Essays on women's work (London, 1865).

Parliamentary papers XXVIII: Reports of the Schools Inquiry Commission (London, 1868).

Pendered, Anne Eliza, Remarks on female education, adapted particularly to the regulation of schools (London, 1823)

Pitman, Emma, My governess life (London, 1883).

Reeve, Clara, Plans of education, with remarks on the system of other writers (London, 1792).

Ridout, S. F., Letters to a young governess on the principles of education (London, 1838).

Robinson, Clare, Notes and letters (Frome: Limpsfield & Co., 1906).

Ruskin, John, The Winnington Letters: John Ruskin's correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the children at Winnington Hall, ed. John Van Aikin Burd (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1969).

Sewell, Elizabeth, Principles of education drawn from nature and revelation and applied to female education in the upper classes, 2 vols. (London, 1865).

—— ‘The reign of pedantry in girls’ schools’, Nineteenth Century, 23 (1888), 216–38.

—— Autobiography of Elizabeth Missing Sewell (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1907).

The life of Mrs Sherwood (chiefly autobiographical), ed. Sophia Kelly (London, 1854)

Shirreff, Emily, Intellectual education and its influence on the character and happiness of women (London, 1858)

Shorter, Clement (ed.), The Brontës: life and letters, 2 vols., 2nd edn. (New York: Haskell House Publishers, 1969).

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Smith, Charlotte, Anne Cave, 2 vols. (London, 1864).

Smith, Mary, Autobiography of Mary Smith, schoolmistress and non‐conformist, 2 vols. (London, 1892).

The letters of S.S.S and L.H.M.S: Mrs and Miss Soulsby, ed. E.A, B.H.S., and P.H. (London: privately printed, 1929).

Squier, J. O., The character and mission of women (London, 1837).

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(p.244) Stoddart, Anna, Life and letters of Hannah E. Pipe (London, 1908).

Taylor, Ann, Hints on the education of girls (London, 1814).

Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1859–65.

Ward, Mrs Humphry, A writer's recollections, 2 vols. (London: William Collins, 1918).

Webb, Beatrice, My apprenticeship, 2nd edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

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—— Lettres sur l’éducation des femmes (Paris, 1848).

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Secondary Literature


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Bamford, T. W., The rise of the public schools (London: Nelson, 1967).

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Bellaigue, C. de, ‘The development of teaching as a profession for women before 1870’, Historical Journal, 44 (2001), 963–88.

—— ‘ “Educational homes” and “barrack‐like schools”: cross‐Channel perspectives on secondary education for boys in mid‐nineteenth century England and France’, Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, 14/2 (2004).

Binfield, C., Belmont's Portias: Victorian non‐conformist education for girls (London: Dr William's Trust, 1981).

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—— The London experience of secondary education (London: Athlone Press, 1986).

Burstall, S., The story of Manchester High School for Girls (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1911).

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Caine, B., Destined to be wives: the sisters of Beatrice Webb, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Campbell‐Orr, C. (ed.), Wollstonecraft's daughters: womanhood in England and France, 1780–1920 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996).

Carpenter, J. E., The life and work of Mary Carpenter (London, 1879).

Casteras, S., Images of Victorian womanhood in English Art (London: Associated University Presses, 1987).

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