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Representing Europe's Citizens?Electoral Institutions and the Failure of Parliamentary Representation$

David M. Farrell and Roger Scully

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199285020

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285020.001.0001

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(p.209) Appendices: Principal Data Sources Used in This Study

(p.209) Appendices: Principal Data Sources Used in This Study

Source:
Representing Europe's Citizens?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The empirical analysis developed in this book draws on several sources of data. Details about each source are given where relevant in the text; here, we summarize the major sources used.

The 1996 MEPMNP Survey

The 1996 survey data analysed in this book were produced as part of the broader European Representation Study, which included surveys of MEPs (alongside parallel surveys of Members of National Parliaments). These surveys were coordinated by Jacques Thomassen and Bernhard Wessels. Fieldwork for the MEP study was conducted in May–June 1996, with the survey returning 314 responses, a return rate of 50.2 per cent. For further details regarding this survey and the data-set produced, see Katz and Wessels (1999).

The MEP2000 Survey

The MEP2000 Survey was co-authored by Simon Hix and Roger Scully, on behalf of the European Parliament Research Group, and funded by a grant to Simon Hix under the ‘One Europe or Several?’ research programme of the Economic and Social Research Council of the United Kingdom (Grant: L213252019).

The survey was administered as a mail survey in September 2000; response rates by nation were as detailed in the table below.

Further details about the survey, the complete data-set and an English version of the entire questionnaire used are available from the website (p.210)

No. respondents

No. MEPs

Response rate (%)

Austria

2

21

9.5

Belgium

6

25

24.0

Denmark

7

16

43.8

Finland

7

16

43.8

France

22

87

25.3

Germany

27

99

27.3

Greece

8

25

32.0

Ireland

4

15

26.7

Italy

23

87

26.4

Luxembourg

5

6

83.3

Netherlands

15

31

48.4

Portugal

11

25

44.0

Spain

17

64

26.6

Sweden

10

22

45.5

UK

35

87

40.2

Total

199

626

31.8

of the European Parliament Research Group: http://www.lse.ac.uk/ Depts/eprg/.

The 2006 MEP Survey

The MEP2000 Survey was co-authored by David Farrell, Simon Hix, and Roger Scully in collaboration with Katarina Thomson and Mark Johnson from the National Centre for Survey Research. Core funding for the survey was provided by the Economic and Social Research Council of the United Kingdom (Grant RES-000-22-1554) as well as under the EU's Framework 6 programme (resulting from David Farrell's involvement in the CIVICACTIVE project directed by Richard Sinnott at University College Dublin). In addition, we are grateful for the financial support provided by Claes de Vreese (University of Amsterdam) who supplied some of his budget from a Dutch National Science Foundation grant, and also from Susan Banducci (University of Twente).

The survey was administered via the Internet in spring 2006. The survey was arranged across several discrete ‘pages’, and there was some attrition of respondents between the first and final pages. The number of respondents who completed at least some substantial part of the survey was as follows.

(p.211)

No. respondents

No. MEPs

Response rate (%)

Austria

7

18

38.9

Belgium

13

24

54.2

Cyprus

5

6

83.3

Czech Rep.

11

24

45.8

Denmark

6

14

42.9

Estonia

3

6

50.0

Finland

5

14

35.7

France

23

78

29.5

Germany

34

99

34.3

Greece

2

24

8.3

Hungary

8

24

33.3

Ireland

7

13

37.2

Italy

29

78

37.2

Latvia

4

9

44.4

Lithuania

6

13

46.2

Luxembourg

3

6

50.0

Malta

1

5

20.0

Netherlands

9

27

33.3

Poland

22

54

40.7

Portugal

9

24

37.5

Slovakia

3

14

21.4

Slovenia

5

7

71.4

Spain

11

54

20.4

Sweden

9

19

47.4

UK

37

78

47.4

Total

272

732

37.2

Further details about the survey, the complete data-set and an English version of the entire questionnaire used are available from the website of the European Parliament Research Group: http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/ eprg/.

Interviews

From late 2001 through to early 2003 we carried out detailed face-to-face interviews with 61 British MEPs, 73 per cent of the (then) British contingent to the EP. Funding for this part of the project was provided by the ESRC (R000239231). The breakdown of these interviews by party was: Conservatives (24), Labour (21), Liberal Democrats (8), and other parties (8). The breakdown by electoral region was: North West (8), Scotland (8), East (6), East Midlands (6), London (6), West Midlands (p.212) (6), South East (5), Yorkshire (5), North East (4), Wales (4), and South West (3).

In addition, we visited MEPs regional offices and interviewed their key staff. In all, twenty such visits were made to offices (some of which were joint offices of two or more MEPs from the same party) across the UK. The breakdown by electoral region was: East Midlands (2), London (2), North East (1), North West (2), Scotland (5), South West (1), West Midlands (2), and Yorkshire (3).

Appendix Tables for Chapter 4

Table A.4.1. Disproportionality trends in EP elections, 1979–2004 (Gallagher index)

1979

1984

1989

1994

1999

2004

Austria

3.10

4.72

Belgium

6.56

6.86

5.74

8.99

5.50

4.52

Britain

22.31

18.54

17.50

23.90

7.81

8.24

Cyprus

10.32

Czech Rep.

6.97

Denmark

7.85

6.35

7.65

6.30

3.41

4.48

Estonia

13.12

Finland

4.80

6.55

France

6.22

8.30

5.70

9.64

4.58

10.21

Germany

3.59

5.34

2.17

9.67

4.85

4.00

Greece

2.17

3.59

4.54

5.65

3.15

Hungary

3.75

Ireland

10.09

13.90

8.80

9.70

7.00

9.77

Italy

1.05

1.05

1.24

1.16

1.30

1.50

Latvia

13.21

Lithuania

9.15

Luxembourg

12.66

12.65

14.50

8.62

10.75

11.59

Malta

10.54

Netherlands

5.78

3.97

4.66

3.55

2.50

3.88

N. Ireland

13.26

15.44

12.88

10.23

17.62

17.78

Poland

3.65

Portugal

4.79

3.09

6.26

2.83

Slovak Rep.

8.64

Slovenia

12.43

Spain

4.35

3.50

3.47

2.56

Sweden

2.77

3.34

(p.213)

Table A.4.2. Effective number of (Parliamentary) parties trends in EP elections, 1979–2004 (Laakso–Taagepera index)

1979

1984

1989

1994

1999

2004

Austria

3.47

3.45

Belgium

6.00

7.29

7.41

9.62

9.92

8.02

Britain

1.56

2.00

2.00

1.69

3.13

4.12

Cyprus

3.60

Czech Rep.

4.18

Denmark

6.10

5.45

5.12

5.82

5.33

4.91

Estonia

3.00

Finland

5.33

4.46

France

3.85

2.58

4.50

5.00

6.79

4.14

Germany

2.67

2.80

3.74

2.94

3.14

3.96

Greece

3.00

2.91

3.24

3.49

2.94

Hungary

2.50

Ireland

3.69

3.28

3.81

3.16

3.69

3.76

Italy

4.22

4.22

4.95

6.02

7.99

5.78

Latvia

3.53

Lithuania

4.32

Luxembourg

2.57

2.57

2.57

3.60

3.60

3.00

Malta

1.92

Netherlands

3.11

3.57

3.49

4.68

5.24

5.58

N. Ireland

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

Poland

6.12

Portugal

3.68

3.14

2.68

2.50

Slovak Rep.

4.91

Slovenia

3.76

Spain

3.52

3.00

3.00

2.41

Sweden

5.23

5.91

(p.214)

Table A.4.3. Proportion of women MEPs elected to the EP, 1979–2004

1979

1984

1989

1994

1999

2004

Austria

38.10

38.89

Belgium

8.33

16.67

16.67

32.00

32.00

29.17

Britain

14.10

14.81

14.81

19.05

24.14

25.33

Cyprus

0.00

Czech Rep.

20.83

Denmark

31.25

37.50

37.50

43.75

37.50

35.71

Estonia

33.33

Finland

43.75

35.71

France

22.22

20.99

23.46

28.74

40.23

43.59

Germany

14.81

19.75

30.86

34.34

36.36

31.31

Greece

8.33

4.17

16.00

16.00

29.17

Hungary

33.33

Ireland

13.33

13.33

6.67

26.67

33.33

38.46

Italy

12.35

9.88

12.35

12.64

9.20

19.23

Latvia

22.22

Lithuania

38.46

Luxembourg

16.67

33.33

50.00

33.33

0.00

50.00

Malta

0.00

Netherlands

20.00

28.00

28.00

32.26

35.48

44.44

N. Ireland

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

33.33

Poland

12.96

Portugal

12.50

12.00

20.00

25.00

Slovak Rep.

35.72

Slovenia

42.86

Spain

15.00

32.81

34.37

33.33

Sweden

40.91

57.90

(p.215)

Table A.4.4. Ratio of MEPs per voting age population in the EP, 1979–2004

1979

1984

1989

1994

1999

2004

Austria

278,460

336,067

Belgium

283,358

290,653

295,678

288,452

293,739

314,677

Britain

519,615

537,401

546,026

503,496

514,904

574,461

Cyprus

79,318

Czech Rep.

345,145

Denmark

232,827

237,791

245,221

246,512

250,600

286,619

Estonia

145,634

Finland

259,527

301,500

France

434,328

455,317

473,434

448,503

461,293

532,290

Germany

572,802

548,790

564,492

610,310

614,009

623,054

Greece

324,596

347,807

338,385

359,045

414,119

Hungary

335,260

Ireland

145,920

160,893

163,563

175,483

190,957

240,888

Italy

520,906

548,627

577,845

556,008

566,417

639,158

Latvia

154,996

Lithuania

204,161

Luxembourg

35,457

35,739

36,337

37,339

37,001

35,720

Malta

60,857

Netherlands

391,990

419,046

444,859

374,796

382,645

450,699

N. Ireland

343,163

354,678

373,502

383,434

396,733

357,556

Poland

543,978

Portugal

322,081

342,467

344,026

361,266

Slovak Rep.

300,747

Slovenia

232,703

Spain

486,013

486,630

513,584

622,655

Sweden

302,918

359,022

Sources: Times Guides to the European Parliament (various); www.europarl.eu.int/election/default.htm.

(p.216) Appendix Table for Chapter 6

Table A.6.1. Country codes for the modified Shugart index

B

V

M

Total

Austria

2

2

1

5

Belgium

2

2

1

5

Britain

1

1

1

3

Cyprus

2

2

1

5

Czech Republic

2

2

1

5

Denmark

2

3

2

7

Estonia

2

3

2

7

Finland

2

4

2

8

France

1

1

1

3

Germany

1

1

1

3

Greece

1

1

1

3

Hungary

1

1

1

3

Ireland

3

4

2

9

Italy

2

3

2

7

Latvia

2

2

1

5

Lithuania

2

3

2

7

Luxembourg

2

3

2

7

Malta

3

4

2

9

Netherlands

2

2

1

5

Northern Ireland

3

4

2

9

Poland

1

1

1

3

Portugal

1

1

1

3

Slovakia

2

2

1

5

Slovenia

2

2

1

5

Spain

1

1

1

3

Sweden

2

2

1

5