This chapter surveys some of the substantive syntactic properties of the most widely studied class of clitics, those traditionally analysed as pronominals. It begins by examining the nature of (predicate-argument) agreement, comparing it with well-known phenomena arising in the analysis of special clitics. This requires an elaboration of the analysis of the Morphosyntactic Representations of categories to account for phenomena such as (the presence versus absence versus optionality of) clitic doubling, clitic climbing, and the like. While the bulk of the literature devoted to pronominal clitics focuses on object clitics, some languages (including several spoken in northern Italy and in nearby areas of Switzerland) also have special clitics referring to subjects. Their properties are explored, including those of Surmiran and a range of northern Italian dialects. The significance of the morphological approach to special clitics for the syntax of functional categories and the proposal that all such categories constitute syntactically autonomous heads (each with its own projection) in syntactic representation are discussed.
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