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Ancient Greek AccentuationSynchronic Patterns, Frequency Effects, and Prehistory$

Philomen Probert

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199279609

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279609.001.0001

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(p.351) Appendix 3 Data for Chapter 8

(p.351) Appendix 3 Data for Chapter 8

Source:
Ancient Greek Accentuation
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

3.1 Adjectives with suffix ‐νο‐

Appendix 3 Adjectives with suffix ‐νο‐

The following abbreviations are used to encode information at the end of each entry: F = finally accented; R = recessive; I = intermediate accentuation; U = uncertain or variable accentuation, i.e. both final and recessive accentuation are attested and no decision could be made between them. Where more than one accent is attested but some decision could be reached, this decision has been explained in the note and the word has been classified as either F or R.

στεγανόϛ, ή, όν ‘covering so as to keep out water, water‐tight; enclosing; closely covered’. Aeschylus (A. 358)+. ET.: στέγω ‘cover closely’. ACCENT: Sch. Il. 14. 172a1 (A). F.

σϕριγαν όϛ, ή, όν ‘plump, fresh’. Hippocrates (in Tim. Lex. 407. 4)+. ET.: σϕριγάω ‘be full to bursting, be plump’. F.

δᾱν όϛ, ή, όν ‘parched’. Hom. (Od. 15. 322)+. ET.: From *δαƑεσ‐νός (Frisk 1960–72: i. 342, s.v. δαίω). Cf. δάος, τό ‘firebrand, torch’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 13. 34. F.

ἐδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘edible’. Aeschylus (A. 1408+). ET.: ἔδω ‘eat’. ACCENT: A finally accented ἐδανός is given by the MS reading at Hrd. μον. 912. 15, emended by Lehrs to ἑδανός. The epithet of oil (see the next word below) may well be intended. On the hesitation in the grammatical tradition between rough and smooth breathing for ἑδανός epithet of oil, see Lejeune (1963: 82). F.

ἑδανόϛ (or ἐδανόϛ) epithet of oil. Hom. (Il. 14. 172). ET.: Lejeune (1963) connects to the pronoun  < *su̯e; cf. Risch (1974: 101). West (2001: 122–3) now derives from the IE root *u̯ed h‐ of ἔεδνα/ ἕδνα, τά ‘bride‐price, wedding gifts’, NE wed, with ‐δ‐ for expected ‐θ‐ by analogy with the related noun ἔεδνα/ ἕδνα (with loss of aspiration here next to a nasal); he takes the word to mean ‘suitable for the wedding day’. For older views, also involving a suffix ‐(α) νο‐, see West (2001: 122–3); Solmsen (1901: 283–5). ACCENT: Sch. Il. 14. 172a1 (A). On Hrd. μον. 912. 15, see s.v. ἐδανός ‘edible’ above. F.

ῥῑγεδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘making one shudder’. Hom. (Il. 19. 325)+. ET.: Cf. ῥῖγος, τό ‘frost, cold’; ῥῑγίων ‘more horrible’; ῥῑ́γιστος ‘most horrible’, ῥῑγέω ‘shudder, bristle with fear’ (Risch 1974: 106). ACCENT: Arc. 73. 16. F.

(p.352) ληθεδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘causing forgetfulness’. Lucian (Philops. 39+). ET.: λήθη ‘forgetting, forgetfulness’. ACCENT: Sch. Il. 1. 293b (A). F.

πευκεδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘sharp, piercing’. Hom. (Il. 10. 8)+. ET.: Cf. ἐχε‐πευκής ‘sharp, piercing’; περι‐πευκής ‘very sharp, very painful’; πύκα ‘thickly, solidly’; πυκινός ‘close, compact’, πυκνός ‘close, compact’, πευκάλιμος (meaning obscure): Risch (1974: 106). ACCENT: Implied by Sch. Il. 1. 293b (A); πυκὶναι at Il. 5. 93 on P. Oxy. ii. 223, col. 4 (3rd cent. AD). F.

πεδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘low‐growing, short; light’. Ion (in Hesychius π 1181 Schmidt = Ion fr. 4 S–K); Nicander (Ther. 226+)+. ET.: πέδον ‘ground, earth’. ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 912. 15. F.

ἠπεδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘weak’. Hom. (Il. 8. 104+)+. ET.: Adjective in ‐εδανός (cf. e.g. ῥῑγεδανός ‘making one shudder’, above); etymology disputed (see Frisk 1960–72: i. 639–40). F.

σϕεδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘vehement, violent’. Nicander (Ther. 642)+; n. sg. attested as an adverb in Homer. ET.: σϕοδρός ‘vehement, violent’. However, the difference in root vocalism between σϕεδανός and σϕοδρός suggests that we should perhaps take seriously the suggestion of an old *r/n‐stem on this root; see Benveniste (1935: 20); Chantraine (1968–80: 1075). ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 912. 15; Sch. Il. 16. 372a (Aint). F.

ἰδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘fair, comely’. Callimachus (in Sch. Il. 14. 172a1 (A) = Callimachus fr. 114. 9 Pf. (= P. Oxy. xix. 2208 fr. 3. 9; unaccented on the papyrus) ). ET.: ἰδεῖν (aor. inf.) ‘to see’. ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 912. 13–14; Sch. Il. 14. 172a1 (A). F.

χλιδανόϛ, ή, όν ‘luxurious, delicate, voluptuous’. Aeschylus (Pers. 544)+. ET.: χλιδή ‘delicacy, luxury’. F.

οὐτιδανός/ οὐτίδανοϛ, η, ον ‘of no account, worthless’. Hom. (Il. 1. 231+)+. ET.: Formed to οὔτι or *οὔτιδ ‘nothing’; see Risch (1974: 101). ACCENT: Disputed in antiquity: see Sch. Il. 1. 293b (A). Arc. 73. 15 prescribes final accentuation. U.

ῥοδανόϛ ‘wavering’. Hom. (Il. 18. 576, but Zenodotus read ῥαδαλόν). ET.: Cf. περιρρηδής ‘sprawling’. On the choice between ῥοδανόν and ῥαδαλόν at Il. 18. 576, see West (2001: 133–5). ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 912. 15. F.

πιθανόϛ, ή, όν ‘persuasive, plausible’. Aeschylus (A. 485+)+. ET.: πείθω, aor. ἔπιθον ‘persuade’. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 12, 73. 20; Hrd. μον. 912. 13; Sch. Il. 14. 172a1 (A). F.

κάγκανοϛ, ον ‘dry’. Hom. (Il. 21. 364+)+. ET.: Lith. keñkti ‘cause pain’ (see Frisk 1960–72: i. 750; Fraenkel 1962: 240). R.

Also 60 further post‐Homeric finally accented ‐νο‐ adjectives.

πέπανος/ πεπανόϛ, ον ‘ripe, mild’. Artemidorus Daldianus (1. 73. 1, 2. 25. 3)+. ET.: πέπων ‘ripe, mild’. ACCENT: Pack prints πέπανα at Artemidorus Daldianus 1. 73. 1, πεπανὸν at 2. 25. 3. U.

ὀρϕανόϛ, (ή), όν ‘without parents, fatherless’. Hom. (Od. 20. 68)+. ET.: Based on the form *ὀρϕος cognate with Lat. orbus ‘bereaved, bereft’, (p.353) Arm. orb ‘orphan’, and preserved in Hesychius’ glosses ὀρϕοβόται ‘guardians of orphans’ (Hesychius ο 1361 Latte), ὀρϕοβοτία ‘guardianship’ (Hesychius ο 1362 Latte); cf. ὤρϕωσεν ‘orphaned’ (Hesychius ω 388 Schmidt; on the text see Schmidt ad loc.), aorist of a denominative verb *ὀρϕόω: Frisk (1960–72: ii. 431). Cf. App. 3.2 s.v. ὀρϕανός, ὁ, ‘orphan’. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 20; Hrd. μον. 912. 15. F.

ἁγνόϛ, ή, όν ‘holy’. Hom. (Od. 5. 123+)+. ET.: ἅζομαι ‘stand in awe of’. ACCENT: Arc. 70. 11. F.

λάγνοϛ, η, ον ‘lecherous, lustful’. Critias (in Aelian, VH 10. 13 = Critias fr. B44 D–K)+. ET.: λαγαίω ‘release’. Cf. App. 3.2 s.v. λάγανον, τό ‘thin broad cake’. ACCENT: Arc. 70. 11; Sch. Il. 14. 351a (A). Schwyzer (1953: 489) suggests, without elaborating, that the recessive accent of λάγνος is due to the recessive accent of (some) substantivized words in ‐νο‐. R.

ἀλαπαδνόϛ (and λαπαδνόϛ), ή, όν ‘feeble’. Hom. (Il. 2. 675+)+. ET.: ἀλαπάζω ‘exhaust’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 172. 23–4) includes ἀλαπαδνός in his reconstruction of Herodian's Περὶ καθολικῆς προσῳδίας, taking the word from Hrd. διχρ. 14. 29 (not from Hrd. μον., despite his reference), but Herodian does not mention the word's accent in the Περὶ διχρόνων. F.

κεδνόϛ, ή, όν ‘careful’. Hom. (Il. 17. 28+)+. ET.: Cf. κήδομαι ‘care for’, κῆδος, τό ‘care’, κήδιστος ‘most cared for’; see Risch (1974: 98–9). ACCENT: Arc. 70. 11. F.

μακεδνόϛ, ή, όν ‘tall, taper’. Hom. (Od. 7. 106)+. ET.: Cf. μῆκος, τό ‘length’; περι‐μήκης ‘very tall or long’; μακρός ‘long’; μάσσων ‘greater’; μήκιστος ‘greatest’; see Risch (1974: 106). F.

ψεδνόϛ, ή, όν ‘thin, spare, scanty’. Hom. (Il. 2. 219)+. ET.: Root of ψῆν (pres. inf.) ‘rub, wipe’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1131–2). F.

παιδνόϛ, ή, όν ‘of childish years, childish’. Hom. (Od. 21. 21+)+. ET.: Cf. παῖς, ὁ/ ἡ, gen. παιδός ‘child’ < *pau̯‐id‐. For the root *pau‐(< *peH 2 u‐), cf. e.g. παῦ‐ρος ‘few’, Lat. pau‐per ‘poor’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 463). F.

σμερδνόϛ, ή, όν ‘fearful’. Hom. (Il. 5. 742+)+. ET.: Cf. OHG smerzan ‘be in pain’, σμερδαλέος ‘fearful’; see Risch (1974: 98–9). F.

ὀλοϕυδνόϛ, ή, όν ‘lamenting’. Hom. (Il. 5. 683+). ET.: ὀλοϕῡ́ρομαι ‘lament’; see Risch (1974: 98). ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 172. 24) includes ὀλοϕυδνός in his reconstruction of Herodian's Περὶ καθολικῆς προσῳδίας, taking the word from Hrd. διχρ. 14. 29 (not from Hrd. μον., despite his reference), but Herodian does not mention the word's accent in the Περὶ διχρόνων. F.

πετεηνόϛ (and πετηνόϛ, πετεινόϛ, πετεεινόϛ), ή, όν ‘able to fly’. Hom. (Il. 2. 459+)+. ET.: πετεηνός and πετεεινός are lengthened forms of πετηνός, πετεινός (Risch 1974: 100). Cf. ὑψι‐πέτης ‘high‐flying’, διειπετής ‘fallen from heaven’, attesting an s‐stem form (as second member) (p.354) that could have been the base for πετεινός < *πετεσ‐νός (see Risch 1974: 100). ACCENT: Implied by Theognost. 68. 1. F.

ἀκμηνός/ ἄκμηνοϛ, η, ον ‘full‐grown’. Hom. (Od. 23. 191)+. ET.: ἀκμή ‘point, edge’, ἀκή ‘point’, etc. ACCENT: Disputed in antiquity. According to Eust. 1944. 38–40, Aristarchus gave ἀκμηνός ‘full‐grown’ a final accent but accented ἄκμηνος ‘fasting’ recessively, while others accented ἀκμηνος recessively in both meanings. Cf. Sch. Od. 23. 191 (V) and (somewhat differently) EM 49. 43. Von der Muehll on Od. 23. 191 records that the MSS unanimously contradict Aristarchus' doctrine in reading ἄκμηνος. U.

ἁδινόϛ, ή, όν ‘close, thick, crowded’. Hom. (Il. 16. 481+)+. ET.: Cf. ἁδρός ‘thick, stout, bulky’, [004]δην/ [001]δην (adverbial acc.) ‘to one's fill’. ACCENT: Sch. Opp. Hal. 2. 363; Choer. Orth. 180. 4; EM 17. 34; Ep. Hom. alph. α 19. F.

ῥαδινόϛ, ή, όν ‘slender’. Hom. (Il. 23. 583)+. ET.: Root of περι‐ρρηδής ‘sprawling’: Risch (1974: 99). ACCENT: Choer. Orth. 180. 4. F.

ϕαεινόϛ (and contracted ϕᾱνόϛ), ή, όν ‘shining, radiant’. Hom. (Il. 3. 247+)+. ET.: ϕάος < *ϕάƑος, τό ‘light’. Cf. App. 3.2 s.v. ϕᾱνός, ὁ ‘torch’. ACCENT: Arc. 75. 7; Choer. Orth. 179. 25, 273. 30; Ep. Hom. alph. ϕ 46. Arc. 72. 3 prescribes final accentuation for the form ϕᾱνός, making no distinction between the adjective and the noun ϕᾱνός ‘torch’. F.

ἀλεγεινόϛ, ή, όν ‘causing pain’. Hom. (Il. 2. 787+)+. ET.: Risch (1974: 100) assumes an old s‐stem *ἄλεγος, semantically identical to ἄλγος, τό ‘pain’, and compares δυσηλεγής ‘bringing bitter grief’. ACCENT: EM 58. 55. F.

δεινόϛ, ή, όν ‘fearful’. Hom. (Il. 1. 49+)+. ET.: δείδω < *de‐du̯oi̯‐a (old perf.) ‘fear’, aor. ἔδεισα < *e‐du̯ei̯‐s‐m̥. ACCENT: Arc. 72. 13–14; Theognost. 67. 28; Choer. Orth. 190. 27. F.

κελαδεινόϛ, ή, όν ‘noisy’. Hom. (Il. 16. 183+)+. ET.: No s‐stem attested. The word was probably formed directly to κέλαδος, ὁ ‘din’, on the model of other adjectives in ‐εινο‐ (Frisk 1960–72: i. 813). ACCENT: Choer. Orth. 232. 29. F.

ἐλεεινόϛ, ή, όν ‘pitied, piteous’. Hom. (Il. 21. 273+)+. ET.: Cf. νηλεής ‘pitiless’. The s‐stem simplex ἔλεος, τό ‘pity’ is not attested until the Hellenistic period, Homeric ἔλεος ‘pity’ being a masculine o‐stem. The adjective ἐλεεινός is either derived from an s‐stem form or analogical on ἀλεγεινός ‘causing pain, grievous’ (Chantraine 1968–80: 336). ACCENT: Theognost. 67. 27; Choer. Orth. 179. 27; EM 58. 51. F.

αἰπεινόϛ, ή, όν ‘high’. Hom. (Il. 2. 573+)+. ET.: αἶπος, τό ‘height’. ACCENT: Choer. Orth. 179. 27–8. F.

ἐρατεινόϛ, ή, όν ‘lovely’. Hom. (Il. 2. 532+)+. ET.: No s‐stem attested. The word was probably formed directly to a related word such as ἐρατός ‘lovely’; see pp. 197–8. ACCENT: Choer. Orth. 210. 19. F.

(p.355) ϕυζακινόϛ, ή, όν ‘flying, runaway, shy’. Hom. (Il. 13. 102). ET.: ϕύζα ‘headlong flight’. For an attempt to explain the combination of suffixes, see Bechtel (1914: 330). ACCENT: Sch. Il. 13. 102a (A), Choer. Orth. 180. 4; Theognost. 67. 30; Ep. Hom. alph. ϕ 46. F.

πυκινόϛ, ή, όν ‘close, compact’. Hom. (Il. 2. 55+)+. ET.: Cf. πυκι‐μηδής ‘shrewd’, πύκα ‘solidly’, περι‐πευκής ‘very sharp’, ἐχε‐πευκής ‘sharp’; see Risch (1974: 99). ACCENT: Ep. Ps. 131. 32, 139. 10; Sch. Opp. Hal. 2. 363; Choer. Orth. 180. 4; EM 17. 34, 58. 54; Ep. Hom. alph. α 19. F.

εἰαρινόϛ (and ἠαρινόϛ, ἠρινόϛ, ἐαρινόϛ), ή, όν ‘of spring’. Hom. (Il. 2. 89+)+. ET.: ἔαρ, gen. ἔαρος ‘spring’. ACCENT: Arc. 220. 15; Sch. Il. 13. 102a (A); Theognost. 67. 25; Choer. Orth. 180. 3–4; Hrd. διχρ. 14. 37; Phryn., PS 114. 16. F.

ὀπωρῑνός/ ὀπωρινόϛ, ή, όν ‘of late summer’. Hom. (Il. 5. 5+)+. ET.: ὀπώρᾱ ‘late summer’. The Homeric form ὀπωρῑνός may be metrically lengthened, or the long ‐ῑ‐ could be due to compensatory lengthening if the pre‐form has a variant suffix *‐inu̯o‐ seen also in Mycenaean pe‐ru‐si‐nu‐wo ‘of last year’; see Ventris and Chadwick (1973: 571, s.v.); Aura Jorro (1985–93: ii. 113–14, s.v.), with bibliography. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 1; Choer. Orth. 243. 2. F.

πυκνόϛ, ή, όν ‘compact’. Hom. (Il. 14. 349+)+. ET.: Cf. πυκι‐μηδής ‘shrewd’, πύκα ‘solidly’, περι‐πευκής ‘very sharp’, ἐχε‐πευκής ‘sharp’. ACCENT: Arc. 70. 16; Sch. Il. 5. 292 (A); Et. Gen. quoted by Erbse on Sch. Il. 5. 292; Sch. Il. 14. 351a (A); EM 591. 31; presupposed by Io. Al. 29. 1–2. F.

ἐρεμνόϛ, ή, όν ‘dark’. Hom. (Il. 4. 167+)+. ET.: ἔρεβος, τό ‘place of nether darkness’. ACCENT: Arc. 71. 14. F.

γυμνόϛ, ή, όν ‘naked’. Hom. (Il. 16. 815+)+. ET.: The history of this form is unclear. Related forms include Lat. nūdus ‘naked’, NHG nackt ‘naked’, Lith. núogas ‘naked’; see Frisk (1960–72: i. 333). Nussbaum (1976: 92–3) argues that in Gk the suffix was originally ‐mo‐ rather than ‐no‐. ACCENT: Arc. 71. 9; Et. Gen. quoted by Erbse on Sch. Il. 5. 292. F.

ἐραννόϛ, ή, όν ‘lovely’. Hom. (Il. 9. 531+)+. ET.: Cf. ἔρως, ὁ ‘love’, probably an s‐stem in origin (so Frisk 1960–72: i. 547). ACCENT: Arc. 71. 19. F.

ἐρεβεννόϛ, ή, όν ‘dark’. Hom. (Il. 5. 659+)+. ET.: From *ἐρεβεσ‐νός. Cf. ἔρεβος, τό ‘place of nether darkness’. ACCENT: Arc. 71. 20. F.

ἀργεννόϛ, ή, όν ‘white’. Hom. (Il. 3. 141+)+. ET.: Cf. ἐν‐αργής ‘visible’, ἀργι‐όδους ‘white‐toothed’; ἀργός ‘white, swift’ = Skt r̥jrá‐ ‘swift’  < *H 2 r̥ĝrós. ACCENT: Arc. 71. 19. F.

στιλπνόϛ, ή, όν ‘glittering, glistening’. Hom. (Il. 14. 351)+. ET.: στίλβω ‘glitter, gleam’. ACCENT: Sch. Il. 14. 351a (A). F.

(p.356) τερπνόϛ, ή, όν ‘delightful, pleasant’. Hom. (v.l. at Od. 8. 45), Tyrtaeus (in Stobaeus 4. 10. 6 = Tyrtaeus fr. 12. 38 West)+. ET.: τέρπω ‘delight’. ACCENT: Arc. 70. 16. F.

χαῦνοϛ, (η), ον ‘porous, spongy, loose; frivolous’. Solon (in e.g. Plutarch, Solon 16. 3 = Solon fr. 34. 4 West+)+. ET.: χάος < *χάƑος, τό ‘chaos; space’. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 6. Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1073) comments on the ‘auffallender Barytonese’. R.

μόρϕνοϛ epithet of an eagle. Hom. (Il. 24. 316, if an adjective there)+. ET.: At Il. 24. 316 and Hesiod, Scutum 134, μόρϕνος could be taken as either an adjective or a noun in apposition to another noun. The word is thought to be a colour term in origin, perhaps related to Lith. márgas ‘colourful’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 258); Risch (1974: 98). I have also listed μόρϕνος as a noun, since the word was taken to be substantival at least in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC; see App. 3.2 s.v. μόρϕνος, ὁ kind of eagle. ACCENT: Sch. Il. 24. 316a1 (A), Eust. 1352. 5, and EM 591. 25 prescribe recessive accentuation. Arc. 70. 19 specifically treats μόρϕνος as a recessive adjective. Some MSS have μορϕνὸν at Il. 24. 316 (see West ad loc.), but the textual tradition as a whole favours μόρϕνον in agreement with the grammatical tradition. R.

λίχνοϛ, (η), ον ‘gluttonous’. Euripides (Hipp. 913+)+. ET.: λείχω ‘lick up’ (see Frisk 1960–72: ii. 102). Schwyzer (1953: 489) suggests that the recessive accent is due to that of (some) substantivized words in ‐νο‐ (cf. λάγνος above). ACCENT: Arc. 70. 17, Sch. Il. 14. 351a (A). R.

γρῶνοϛ, η, ον ‘eaten out’. Lycophron (Al. 20+)+. ET.: From *γρωσ‐νος; cf. γράω < *gr̥s‐ō (?) ‘gnaw, eat’. See Frisk (1960–72: i. 326, 330). R.

ϕῶνοϛ, ον ‘loud‐voiced’. Eupolis (in Sch. Ar. Av. 42a = Eupolis fr. 309 K–A); cf. Theognost. 66. 17 (ϕῶνος ὁ μεγαλόϕωνος). ET.: ϕημί ‘say’; cf. ϕωνή ‘speech, voice’, μεγαλόϕωνος ‘loud‐voiced’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 177. 13) includes ϕῶνος in his reconstruction of Herodian's Περὶ καθολικῆς προσῳδίας on the evidence of Theognost. 66. 17, but Theognostus does not discuss the accent. R.

Examples of excluded words: ἀγανός (etymology unclear: Frisk (1960–72: i. 7) ); ἄγανος ‘broken’ (ghost word: see LSJ Revised Supplement, s.v.).

3.2 Nouns with suffix ‐νο‐

Appendix 3 Nouns with suffix ‐νο‐

The following abbreviations are used to encode information at the end of each entry: (a) F = finally accented; R = recessive; I = intermediate accentuation; U = uncertain or variable accentuation, i.e. more than one accentuation pattern is attested and no decision could be made between them. Where more than one accentuation is attested but some decision could be reached, this decision has been explained in the note and the word has been classified as F, R, or I. (b) FREQ.: the figure given (p.357) after ‘FREQ.’ is the number of occurrences of the word in the Perseus Digital Library corpus (Crane 1999), which contained c.3,400,000 words at the time of use (January 1999). This number is used as a frequency index.

τρίβανον, τό measure of capacity. (Ps.‐) Galen (19. 774. 1+)+. ET.: τρίβω ‘rub, wear away, spend’. R. FREQ.: 0.

λάγανον, τό ‘thin broad cake’. Diocles Medicus (in Athenaeus 3. 110b = Diocles Medicus fr. 116 Wellmann)+. ET.: Formed on the root of λαγαίω ‘release’ (although not directly a derivative of this verb), according to Frisk (1960–72: ii. 68). Frisk, following Benveniste (1935: 18), suggests an old *r/n‐stem *λάγαρ/ ν‐. However, there is little evidence for an *r/n‐stem beyond the existence of λαγαρός ‘hollow, thin’, a derivative in ‐ρο‐ beside the ‐νο‐ adjective λάγνος ‘lecherous, lustful’ and our noun λάγανον. These forms cannot now be considered sufficient evidence for an *r/n‐stem (cf. Introduction n. 1). R. FREQ.: 0.

σπάργανον, τό ‘swathing band’. Homeric Hymns (4. 151+)+. ET.: σπάρξαν (3rd pl. aor. at Homeric Hymns 3. 121) ‘they swathed’. R. FREQ.: 25.

ὄργανον, τό ‘instrument, implement’. Pindar (in Athenaeus 5. 181b = Pindar fr. 107b. 2 S–M)+. ET.: Root of ἔργον ‘work’, ἔοργα (1st sg. perf.) ‘have done’, etc.; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 411). On the root vocalism see Hamp (1985: 103). R. FREQ.: 179.

ϕρῡ́γανον, τό ‘dry stick, firewood’. Herodotus (4. 69. 1+)+. ET.: ϕρῡ́γω ‘roast, parch’. R. FREQ.: 13.

ϕώγανον, τό ‘vessel for roasting barley’. Pollux (10. 109). ET.: ϕώγω ‘roast’. ACCENT: The only attestation of the word is in the dative singular ϕωγάνῳ, which is ambiguous between recessive and intermediate accentuation. Given the total lack of clear cases of intermediate accentuation among nouns in ‐ανο‐, however, we may take ϕώγανον to be recessive. R. FREQ.: 0.

ἐρευθέδανον, τό and ἐρυθρόδανον, τό ‘madder’ (a plant). Herodotus (4. 189. 2)+. ET.: ἐρυθρός ‘red’, ἐρεύθω ‘make red’. R. FREQ.: 1.

πευκέδανον, τό and πευκέδανοϛ, ἡ ‘sulfur‐wort’. Theophrastus (HP 9. 14. 1)+. ET.: πεύκη ‘pine’, περι‐πευκής ‘very sharp’. Cf. the adjective πευκεδανός ‘sharp, piercing’, attested from Homer on, and see Risch (1974: 106). R. FREQ.: 0.

γλαυκιδανόν / γλαυκίδανον, τό an eye‐salve. Galen (12. 746. 10). ET.: Derivative on the root of γλαυκός ‘gleaming’. ACCENT: Kühn prints γλαυκιδανόν at Galen 12. 746. 10; LSJ print ‐ίδανον. U. FREQ.: 0.

μυρτίδανον, τό myrtle‐like plant. Hippocrates (Mul. 1. 34 (viii. 82. 6 Littré)+)+. ET.: μύρτος, ἡ ‘myrtle’, μυρτίς, gen. ‐ίδος ‘myrtle‐berry’. R. FREQ.: 0.

(p.358) νωτιδανόϛ, ὁ kind of dog‐fish or small shark. Aristotle (in Athenaeus 7. 294d = Aristotle fr. 310. 4 Rose). ET.: νῶτον ‘back’. F. FREQ.: 0.

πύρδανον, τό ‘small wood for burning’. Lyrica adespota (P. Oxy. iv. 661. 19 = Lyrica adespota fr. 31. 19 Powell). ET.: πῦρ, gen. πυρός ‘fire’. ACCENT: Accented πυρδάνωι at P. Oxy. iv. 661. 19 (late 2nd cent. AD). R. FREQ.: 0.

ἑανόϛ and εἱανόϛ, ὁ ‘fine robe’. Hom. (Il. 3. 385+)+. ET.: Root of ἕννῡμι ‘put clothes on (another)’ < *u̯es‐nū‐mi. ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 912. 21 (implicit). F. FREQ.: 7.

πλάθανον, τό dish or mould in which bread, cakes etc. were baked. Theocritus (15. 115)+. ET.: πλάσσω ‘mould’ < *πλάθ‐ι̯ω. R. FREQ.: 0.

ἄκανοϛ, ὁ kind of thistle. Theophrastus (HP 1. 10. 6+). ET.: Root of ἀκή ‘point’; see Frisk (1960–72: i. 51). R. FREQ.: 0.

δελκανόϛ, ὁ kind of fish. Euthydemus (in Athenaeus 3. 118b). ET.: Formed from the river name Δέλκων, gen. Δέλκωνος. F. FREQ.: 0.

δόκανα, τά ‘two upright parallel bars joined towards each end (symbols of the Dioscouroi at Sparta)’. Plutarch (Moralia 478a). ET.: δοκός, ἡ(/ ὁ) ‘bearing‐beam, main beam’. R. FREQ.: 0.

πλόκανον, τό ‘plaited work, basketwork; wicker winnowing‐fan’. Plato (Ti. 52e+)+. ET.: πλέκω ‘plait or make by plaiting’, πλόκος, ὁ ‘lock or braid of hair’. R. FREQ.: 3.

χάσκανον, τό ‘broadleaved burweed’. Dioscorides (4. 136. 1). ET.: Related at least during the course of its history to χάσκω ‘yawn’; see Strömberg (1940: 152). R. FREQ.: 0.

τραύξανα, τά ‘dry chips, waste that falls from the manger’. Pherecrates (in e.g. Suda τ 916 = Pherecrates fr. 275 K–A)+. ET.: A contamination between τρώξανον ‘twig’ and θραύω ‘break in pieces’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 919) and cf. Schwyzer (1953: 346). R. FREQ.: 0.

τρώξανα, τά ‘dry twigs’. Theophrastus (CP 3. 2. 2). ET.: τρώγω ‘gnaw, nibble, munch’. R. FREQ.: 0.

ξόανον, τό ‘image carved in wood; image, statue; musical instrument’. Sophocles (in Athenaeus 14. 637a = Sophocles fr. 238. 2 Radt)+. ET.: ξέω ‘shave or plane timber, carve wood’. R. FREQ.: 128.

χόανοϛ, ὁ ‘melting‐pot’. Hom. (Il. 18. 470)+. ET.: χέω ‘pour’. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 11. R. FREQ.: 2.

σκέπανον, τό ‘covering’. Greek Anthology (6. 298. 4). ET.: σκέπω ‘cover, shelter’. R. FREQ.: 0.

σκέπανοϛ, ὁ a fish, perhaps a kind of tunny. Oppian (H. 1. 106+). ET.: Apparently from σκέπω ‘cover, shelter’. R. FREQ.: 0.

δρέπανον, τό ‘sickle; pruning‐knife’. Hom. (Od. 18. 368)+. ET.: δρέπω ‘pluck’. R. FREQ.: 25.

τύμπανον (and τύπανον), τό ‘kettle‐drum’. Homeric Hymns (14. 3)+. ET.: Derived from τύπτω < *τύπ‐ι̯ω ‘beat, strike’. The ‐μ‐ of the form τύμπανον may be analogical or inherited. Alternatively, the word may (p.359) be a borrowing, with the form τύπανον due to popular etymology with τύπτω; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 945). R. FREQ.: 21.

κόπανον, τό ‘chopper’. Aeschylus (Ch. 860). ET.: κόπτω < *κόπ‐ι̯ω ‘cut, strike’. ACCENT: The only occurrence of the word, at Aeschylus, Ch. 860, is in the genitive plural κοπάνων. This form is ambiguous between recessive and intermediate accentuation. Given the total lack of clear cases of intermediate accentuation among nouns in ‐ανο‐, however, we may take κόπανον to be recessive. R. FREQ.: 1.

πόπανον, τό ‘round cake’. Aristophanes (Pl. 680+)+. ET.: πέσσω ‘cook’ < *pek wι̯ō. R. FREQ.: 5.

τρῡ́πανον, τό ‘borer’. Hom. (Od. 9. 385)+. ET.: Root of τρῡπάω ‘bore’. R. FREQ.: 7.

ἕδρανον, τό ‘seat, abode’. Hesiod (in Strabo 7. 7. 10 = Hesiod fr. 319 M–W)+. ET.: ἕδρᾱ ‘seat’. R. FREQ.: 10.

κόπρανα, τά ‘excrements’. Hippocrates (Epid. 1. 26 β  (ii. 686. 16 Littré)+). ET.: κόπρος, ἡ ‘excrement’. R. FREQ.: 0.

οὐρανόϛ, ὁ ‘heaven, sky’. Hom. (Il. 1. 317+)+. ET.: Formed on the root of Skt varṣá‐ n./m. ‘rain’, várṣati ‘rain’; possibly related most immediately to the iterative preserved in Gk οὐρέω < *u̯orséi̯ō ‘urinate’. See Frisk (1960–72: ii. 446–7). ACCENT: Arc. 73. 11; Hrd. μον. 912. 16 (implicit); Ep. Ps. 79. 11. F. FREQ.: 488.

πτίσανον, τό ‘peeled barley’. Nicander (Ther. 590). ET.: πτίσσω ‘winnow grain’. R. FREQ.: 0.

εὔσανα, τά ‘marks burnt in’. Pollux (6. 91). ET.: εὓω < *eusō. R. FREQ.: 0.

ϕᾱνόϛ, ὁ ‘torch’. Xenophon (Lac. 5. 7)+. ET.: Contracted from ϕαεινός < ϕαƑεσ‐νός, a derivative of ϕάος < *ϕάƑος, τό. Cf. App. 3.1 s.v. ϕαεινός (and contracted ϕᾱνός) ‘shining, radiant’. ACCENT: Arc. 72. 3 prescribes final accentuation for the form ϕᾱνός, making no distinction between the noun and the adjective. F. FREQ.: 2.

ῥάϕανοϛ, ἡ ‘cabbage’. Aristophanes (in Stobaeus 4. 14. 2 = Aristophanes fr. 111. 4 K–A)+. ET.: Related to ῥάϕυς ‘French turnip’. R. FREQ.: 0.

στέϕανοϛ, ὁ ‘crown, wreath’. Hom. (Il. 13. 736)+. ET.: στέϕω ‘put round’. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 10; Ep. Ps. 79. 13. R. FREQ.: 361.

ὀρϕανόϛ, ὁ ‘orphan’. Plato (Lg. 11. 926c+)+. ET.: See App. 3.1 s.v. ὀρϕανός ‘without parents, fatherless’. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 20 (quoting ὀρϕανός as a word of three genders). F. FREQ.: 50.

γλύϕανοϛ, ὁ ‘tool for carving, knife, chisel’. Homeric Hymns (4. 41)+. ET.: γλύϕω ‘carve’. R. FREQ.: 1.

κελῡ́ϕανον, τό ‘sheath, case’. Lycophron (Al. 89)+. ET.: κέλῡϕος, τό ‘sheath, case’. ACCENT: The only certain occurrence of the word, at Lycophron, Al. 89, is in the genitive singular κελῡϕάνου. This form is ambiguous between recessive and intermediate accentuation. Given the complete lack of clear cases of intermediate accentuation among nouns in ‐ανο‐, however, we may take κελῡ́ϕανον to be recessive. R. FREQ.: 0.

(p.360) λιχανός/ λίχανοϛ, ἡ ‘string struck with the forefinger; note made by the string struck with the forefinger’. Aristotle (Pr. 919a17)+. ET.: λείχω ‘lick’. Cf. the adjective λιχανός ‘licking’. ACCENT: Both final and recessive accentuation occur in printed texts; cf. Chandler (1881: 83). U. FREQ.: 0.

ὄχανον, τό ‘shield‐holder’. Anacreon (in e.g. Strabo 14. 2. 27 = Anacreon fr. 56. 2 Page)+. ET.: ἔχω ‘have, hold’. R. FREQ.: 6.

λεπῡ́χανον, τό ‘coat (of an onion, etc.), rind’. Theopompus (in Eust. 1863. 51 = Theopompus fr. 34. 3 K–A)+. ET.: Related to λεπυρός ‘in a husk, peel, rind’ and λέπῡρον ‘rind, shell, husk’. Perhaps influenced by λάχανον ‘garden herb’ (Frisk 1960–72: ii. 106). R. FREQ.: 0.

λείψανον, τό ‘piece left, remnant’. Sophocles (El. 1113)+. ET.: λείπω ‘leave; leave behind’. R. FREQ.: 25.

ὄψανον, τό ‘vision, apparition’. Aeschylus (Ch. 534). ET.: ὄψομαι, suppletive future of ὁράω ‘see’. R. FREQ.: 1.

λέπαδνον, τό ‘yoke‐strap’. Hom. (Il. 5. 730+)+. ET.: Likely to be connected to λεπάς, gen. ‐άδος ‘limpet’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 104–5), who also raises an objection. R. FREQ.: 5.

ἕδνον, τό and Homeric ἔεδνα, τά ‘bride‐price, wedding gift; gift’. Hom. (Il. 16. 178+)+. ET.: Formed on the root of Lith. vèsti ‘lead’. R. FREQ.: 25.

σίπυδνοϛ, ἡ ‘meal‐tub’. Oracle (in Lucian, Alex. 25 ad fin.). ET.: σιπύη ‘meal‐tub’. R. FREQ.: 0.

τιθηνόϛ, ὁ and ‘foster‐father, nurse’. Nicander (Alex. 31)+. ET.: Built on a reduplicated stem from the root of θῆσθαι (aor. inf. middle) ‘suck; suckle’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 899). F. FREQ.: 0.

ἀγρηνόν, τό ‘net, netlike woollen robe worn by soothsayers’. Pollux (4. 116). ET.: ἄγρᾱ ‘the hunt; prey’, ἀγρέω ‘take, seize’. F. FREQ.: 0.

πετηνά, τά, πετεινόν, τό, and Homeric πετεηνόν, τό ‘bird, winged creature’. Hom. (Il. 8. 247+)+. ET.: From *πετεσ‐νό‐. Derived from an s‐stem nominal form on the root of πέτομαι ‘fly’, preserved in the compounds ὑψιπέτης ‘high‐flying’, διειπετής ‘fallen from heaven’; see Risch (1974: 100). ACCENT: Final accentuation is implied for the adjective πετηνός ‘able to fly’ (see App. 3.1 s.v. πετεηνός) by Theognost. 68. 1. F. FREQ.: 10.

καρκίνοϛ, ὁ ‘crab’. Epicharmus (in Athenaeus 3. 91c = Epicharmus fr. 47. 1 K–A)+. ET.: Related to Latin cancer ‘crab’ < *kar‐kro‐, with dissimilatory loss of the second ‐r‐ and the addition of a suffix ‐ino‐(Frisk 1960–72: i. 789). ACCENT: Choer. Orth. 236. 17 (common noun and personal name Καρκίνος not distinguished). Cf. Arc. 74. 19. The latter passage is textually problematic but intermediate accentuation appears to be prescribed, with some hesitation as to the length of the ‐ι‐ (which, if it were long, would have a circumflex). See also Lentz (1867–70: i. 183. 8–11), with notes ad loc. Cf. Ch. 8 n. 11. For (p.361) the accentuation of the personal name Καρκίνος, see Sch. Ar. Pax 782b. I. FREQ.: 10.

ἑλινός/ ἕλινοϛ, ὁ ‘vine, vine‐tendril’. Nicander (Alex. 181)+. ET.: Root of εἰλέω ‘wind, turn round’; see Frisk (1960–72: i. 495). ACCENT: Both final and recessive accentuation occur in printed texts. Gow and Scholfield print ἑλίνοιο at Nicander, Alex. 181; Gaisford prints ἘΛΙΝΟ´Σ at EM 330. 39. U. FREQ.: 0.

σπίνοϛ, ὁ ‘chaffinch; kind of stone’. Aristophanes (Av. 1079+)+. ET.: Related to σπίζω ‘pipe, chirp’, probably with influence from the adjective σπινός ‘thin, lean’ (Frisk 1960–72: ii. 766). ACCENT: Ep. Hom. alph. ρ 12. R. FREQ.: 2.

ῥῑνόϛ, ἡ/ ὁ ‘skin’. Hom. (Il. 4. 447+)+. ET.: Frisk (1960–72: ii. 657–8) derives the word from a lost verb that would also lie behind ῥῑ́νη ‘file, rasp’ and OS wrītan ‘tear, scratch, write’. ACCENT: Ep. Hom. alph. ρ 12. F. FREQ.: 31.

σειρίνα/ σείρινα, τά ‘light summer clothes’. Lycurgus (in Harpocration σ 2). ET.: σείριος, ὁ ‘dog‐star’. ACCENT: Keaney (on Harpocration σ 2) records both recessive and intermediately accented manuscript variants from various sources. U. FREQ.: 0.

τέκνον, τό ‘child’. Hom. (Il. 1. 362+)+. ET.: τίκτω ‘bring into the world, engender; beget’, aor. ἔτεκον. R. FREQ.: OVER 500.

λίκνον, τό ‘winnowing‐fan’. Sophocles (in e.g. Plutarch, Moralia 99a = Sophocles fr. 844. 3 Radt)+. ET.: Frisk (1960–72: ii. 123) assumes an original *νίκνον, with regressive dissimilation giving λίκνον and progressive dissimilation the form νίκλον found in Hesychius (ν 574 Latte) and glossed as τὸ λίκνον. This hypothesis allows a connection with Lith. niekóti ‘winnow’ (cf. Fraenkel 1962: 502). R. FREQ.: 7.

περκνός/ πέρκνοϛ, ὁ kind of eagle. Hom. (Il. 24. 316)+. ET.: πέρκος, ὁ kind of hawk, πέρκη ‘perch’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 515). ACCENT: Disputed in antiquity. Aristarchus gave the word a recessive accent, but final accentuation was generally accepted. Sch. Il. 24. 316a1 (A) and Eust. 1352. 18–22 report the dispute; Sch. Il. 24. 316a2 (T) and EM 591. 31 simply prescribe final accentuation. U. FREQ.: 1.

κύκνοϛ, ὁ ‘swan’. Hom. (Il. 2. 460+)+. ET.: Likely to be connected to Skt śuk‐rá‐ ‘bright’, śócati ‘shine’; for bibliography on this and other suggestions, see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 45–6). ACCENT: Arc. 71. 1; Sch. Il. 18. 319a1 (A). R. FREQ.: 35.

θάμνοϛ, ὁ ‘bush, shrub’. Hom. (Il. 11. 156+)+. ET.: θαμέες (nom. pl. masc.) ‘crowded, close‐set’. ACCENT: Arc. 71. 4. R. FREQ.: 23.

ῥάμνοϛ, ἡ ‘prickly shrub’. Eupolis (in Plutarch, Moralia 662e = Eupolis fr. 13. 5 K–A)+. ET.: Probably from *ῥάβνος, and connected to ῥάβδος, ἡ ‘rod, wand’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 641). ACCENT: Arc. 71. 4. R. FREQ.: 2.

(p.362) κρημνόϛ, ὁ ‘overhanging bank’. Hom. (Il. 12. 54+)+. ET.: κρεμάννῡμι ‘hang up’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 16). F. FREQ.: 61.

καπνόϛ, ὁ ‘smoke’. Hom. (Il. 1. 317+)+. ET.: Probably related to Lith. kvãpas ‘breath’, kvẹ̃pti ‘breathe’; see Fraenkel (1962: 325–6) and Frisk (1960–72: i. 782) for further possibly related forms and discussion of difficulties. ACCENT: Arc. 71. 2. F. FREQ.: 89.

στέρνον, τό ‘breast, chest’. Hom. (Il. 2. 479+)+. ET.: Root *ster(H 3)‐ of στρατός, ὁ ‘army, host’ (q.v., App. 2.2), Skt str̥ṇā́ti ‘spread, spread about’. R. FREQ.: 97.

πόρνοϛ, ὁ ‘catamite’. Aristophanes (Pl. 155)+. ET.: πέρνημι ‘sell’, 3rd sg. aor. ἐπέρασσε. Formed secondarily from the feminine noun πόρνη ‘prostitute’ (Frisk 1960–72: ii. 581). ACCENT: Sch. Il. 24. 316a1 (A); Eust. 1352. 16. R. FREQ.: 9.

τόρνοϛ, ὁ ‘tool for drawing a circle’. Theognis (805)+. ET.: Root of τείρω < *τέρ‐ι̯ω ‘oppress’, τετραίνω ‘bore through’, aor. inf. τορεῖν ‘bore through’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 913–14). ACCENT: Sch. Od. 15. 312 (BHQ). R. FREQ.: 6.

κεραυνόϛ, ὁ ‘thunderbolt’. Hom. (Il. 8. 133+)+. ET.: Derived from a lost primary verb that also lies behind κεραΐζω ‘ravage, plunder’ (Frisk 1960–72: i. 828). Frisk assumes that κεραυνός is a thematization of an athematic *r/n‐stem *κεραƑαρ, but there is no evidence for an athematic form. ACCENT: Arc. 73. 5–6. F. FREQ.: 110.

βόθῡνοϛ, ὁ ‘hole, trench’. Cratinus (in Antiatt. 85. 4 = Cratinus fr. 219. 2 K–A)+. ET.: Root of βόθρος, ὁ ‘hole, trench’, Lith. bèsti ‘dig’, Lat. fodiō ‘dig’, etc. (see Frisk 1960–72: i. 248–9). ACCENT: Arc. 75. 12. R. FREQ.: 2.

πλυνόϛ, ὁ ‘wash‐trough’. Hom. (Il. 22. 153+)+. ET.: πλῡ́νω ‘wash’, πλυτός ‘washed’. ACCENT: Arc. 72. 17. F. FREQ.: 5.

ϕρῡνός/ ϕρῦνοϛ, ὁ(/ ) ‘toad’. Aristotle (HA 609a 24+)+. ET.: Likely to be in origin the IE word for ‘brown’, *b h ruHno‐, OHG brūn, on the same root as e.g. Avestan bawra‐ ‘beaver’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1047). ACCENT: Final accent implied by Hrd. διχρ. 10. 12–14, but recessive accentuation sometimes transmitted in manuscripts: see e.g. the note at Lentz (1867–70: i. 177). U. FREQ.: 2.

στρίϕνοϛ, ὁ ‘tough meat’. Septuagint (Job 20. 18). ET.: Likely to be related to στρίϕος, with which the Suda (λ 603) glosses λίσπος (‘smooth’) as applied to vertebrae; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 810). Cf. the adjective στριϕνός ‘firm, hard, solid’, attested from Hippocrates on. R. FREQ.: 0.

μόρϕνοϛ, ὁ kind of eagle. Hom. (Il. 24. 316, if a noun there)+. ET.: At Il. 24. 316 and Hesiod, Scutum 134, μόρϕνος could be taken as either an adjective or a noun in apposition to another noun. The word was taken to be a noun in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC: see Aristotle, HA 618b25 and Lycophron, Al. 838 (cf. LSJ s.v.). For the etymology see (p.363) App. 3.1 s.v. μόρϕνος epithet of an eagle. ACCENT: See again App. 3.1 s.v. μόρϕνος epithet of an eagle. R. FREQ.: 2.

λάχνοϛ, ὁ ‘wool’. Hom. (Od. 9. 445). ET.: Formed with the complex suffix *‐sno‐ (beside the more common λάχνη ‘wool’, with suffix *‐snā‐), probably on the IE root *u̯l̥k̂‐ of Avestan varǝsa‐ m./n. ‘hair’ and cognates; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 93). R. FREQ.: 1.

λύχνοϛ, ὁ ‘lamp’ (pl. λύχνοι, οἱ and λύχνα, τά). Hom. (Od. 19. 34)+. ET.: From *λύκσνος. Root of λεύσσω < *λεύκ‐ι̯ω ‘look, see’ and cognates (see Frisk 1960–72: ii. 148). ACCENT: Sch. Il. 18. 319a1 (A). R. FREQ.: 49.

ὦνοϛ, ὁ ‘price paid for a thing’. Hom. (Il. 21. 41+)+. ET.: Possibly from *Ƒόσνος, if Skt vasná‐ n. ‘price’ is connected. The root would be that of the Hitt. 3rd sg. form waši ‘he buys’ (see Frisk 1960–72: ii. 1149). On the phonological difficulties of a direct equation between ὦνος and Skt vasná‐ n., see Bechtel (1914: 338); Penney (1978: 276 n. 36); cf. Chantraine (1968–80: 1302–3). The relationship, if any, with Mycenaean o‐na‐to ‘portion of land’ and o‐no ‘payment’ is an additional problem. ACCENT: Arc. 72. 18; Eust. 377. 45. R. FREQ.: 8.

οἰωνόϛ, ὁ ‘large bird, bird of prey’. Hom. (Il. 1. 5+)+. ET.: Probably related either to Latin auis ‘bird’ and cognates, or to the family of οἶμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘rush, swoop’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 373). ACCENT: Arc. 75. 16; Theognost. 68. 17. F. FREQ.: 122.

υἱωνόϛ, ὁ ‘grandson’. Hom. (Il. 2. 666+)+. ET.: υἱός, ὁ ‘son’. ACCENT: Theognost. 68. 17. F. FREQ.: 6.

Examples of excluded words: βάλανος (etymology obscure; see Chantraine (1968–80: 160) ); πελανός/ πέλανος (etymology disputed: Frisk (1960–72: ii. 494) ); χόννος (attested before Eust. (1153. 42) only in Hesychius (χ 630 Schmidt), inscriptionally, and at Athenaeus 11. 502b; in the latter place the word is transmitted without accent and hence printed in capitals by Kaibel); ὓπνος ‘sleep’ (likely to be an r/n‐stem in origin; see Frisk (1950; 1960–72: ii. 966 s.v. ὓπαρ, 971 s.v. ὓπνος) ); πέταχνον (transmitted, apart from a possible attestation on an ostracon, only without accent at Athenaeus 11. 496a. At Athenaeus 3. 125f = Alexis fr. 60. 2 K–A, πετάχνωι is an emendation by Casaubon for πεταχμωι. See Kaibel and Kassel–Austin ad locc.); κύλιχνος (only attested as a doubtful reading at Pollux 6. 98; see Bethe ad loc.); κοινωνός (probably back‐formed from κοινωνέω: see Leumann (1950: 224 n. 20) ).

Notes:

(1) As a main guide, I have preferred Frisk's etymological dictionary to Chantraine's (1968–80) because of Chantraine's greater tendency to reconstruct heteroclitic athematic forms (especially r/n‐stems) for which there is no evidence other than various formations (thematic or athematic, nominal or verbal) with suffixes containing different consonants, a procedure that Chantraine owed to Benveniste (see Benveniste 1935, passim). While I do not wish to deny that thematization was available in the Indo‐European parent language and may even have been the ultimate origin of certain thematic suffixes such as ‐ro‐ and ‐no‐, it is now generally accepted that Benveniste went too far in postulating athematic pre‐forms to account for words that are more easily regarded as derived directly by means of a thematic suffix such as ‐ro‐ or ‐no‐ (see e.g. Wachter 1997, esp. 5–6). The parent language, at least at its directly reconstructable stage, had various thematic suffixes including ‐ro‐ and ‐no‐, and these are often found added directly to roots that are also found with a series of other primary suffixes, but not with the suffixes in paradigmatic alternation.

(11) Schwyzer (1953: 490) asks himself whether καρκίνος is ‘statt *ινός’ (presumably by Wheeler's law, on which see pp. 88–96, but there are otherwise no survivals of Wheeler's law accentuation among nouns or adjectives with ‐νο‐). The textually difficult passage Arc. 74. 19 suggests hesitation over the choice of καρκίνος or καρκῖνος as the correct form (see Schmidt ad loc.). The ‐ι‐ is in reality short, but the apparent uncertainty in the grammatical tradition suggests that the word was regarded as akin to animal names with the suffix ‐ῖνο‐ (e.g. κεστρῖνος ‘mullet’).