Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Ancient Greek AccentuationSynchronic Patterns, Frequency Effects, and Prehistory$

Philomen Probert

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199279609

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279609.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.317) Appendix 1 Data for Chapter 6

(p.317) Appendix 1 Data for Chapter 6

Ancient Greek Accentuation
Oxford University Press

1.1 Adjectives with suffix ‐ρο‐

Appendix 1 Adjectives with suffix ‐ρο‐

The following abbreviations are used to encode information at the end of each entry: F = finally accented; R = recessive; U = uncertain or variable accentuation, i.e. both final and recessive accentuation are attested and no decision could be made between them. Where more than one accent is attested but some decision could be reached, this decision has been explained in the note and the word has been classified as either F or R. In cases of doubt I have aimed to err on the side of caution.

ἀργόϛ, ή, όν < *ἀργρός ‘white, swift’. Hom. (Il.. 578+)+. ET.: From *H 2 r̥ĝrós = Skt r̥jrá‐ ‘swift’; cf. ἀργί‐πους ‘swift‐footed’. ACCENT: Final accentuation is prescribed for a word ἀργός by Arc. 51. 17. It is not explicitly specified whether ἀργός ‘white, swift’ or ᾱ̓ργός ‘idle’ is at issue, but words giving any impression of being compounds are explicitly excluded from the relevant rule assigning final accentuation. Arcadius gives μάργος ‘mad’ (etymologized as privative μα plus ἔργον ‘work’) as an example of a compound word; it is therefore unlikely that by ἀργός he intends ᾱ̓ργός ‘idle’ (α‐ privative plus ἔργον ‘work’). On the other hand, if Göttling's conjecture Ἄργος for MSS γάγγος or σάγγος is accepted at Arc. 51. 18, with Lentz (1867–70: i. 139. 33), one would need to take into account Sch. D. Thr. 130. 29–30 and Olympiodorus, In Categorias 33. 14, which juxtapose ᾱ̓ργός ‘idle’ and Ἄργος (proper name) in connection with accentuation. Manuscript evidence: e.g. ἀργοὶ at Il. 18. 578 in codex Venetus Marc. 822. F.

στιβαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘strong, stout, sturdy’. Hom. (Il. 3. 335+)+. ET.: στείβω ‘tread on’. F.

σοβαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘rushing, violent’. Aristophanes (Nu. 406+)+. ET.: σοβέω ‘move rapidly’. F.

λαγαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hollow, sunken’. Xenophon (Cyn. 4. 1)+. ET.: Related to λαγαίω ‘release’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 68). ACCENT: Arc. 80. 15. F.

κλαδαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘quivering’. Polybius (6. 25. 5)+. ET.: Root of κλάω ‘break’, perhaps with interference from κραδαίνω ‘swing’, etc.: Chantraine (1968–80: 537); cf. Frisk (1960–72: i. 864: inherited root‐extension ‐δ‐). F.

(p.318) πλαδαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘moist, damp; insipid’. Hippocrates (VM 14 (i. 602. 10–11 Littré)+)+. ET.: πλαδάω ‘be flaccid’. ACCENT: Arc. 100. 5 (not totally explicit, but non‐recessive accentuation is definitely implied). F.

μαδαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘wet’. Hippocrates (Epid. 7. 83 (v. 438. 15 Littré)+)+. ET.: μαδάω ‘be moist’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 16. 32. Cf. Arc. 100. 5. F.

ϕλυδαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘wet’. Hippocrates (in Galen 19. 152. 12). ET.: ϕλυδάω ‘have an excess of moisture’. F.

νεαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν (and later contracted νηρόϛ) ‘young, fresh’. Hom. (Il. 2. 289)+. ET.: νέος, α, ον ‘young; new’ < *νέƑ‐ος. Cf. Arm. nor ‘new’ from *neu̯erós vel sim.: Frisk 1960–72: ii. 306. F.

ἰθαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘cheerful, glad; pure’. Simias (Greek Anthology 15. 22. 6 = Simias 25. 6 Powell; with v.l. καθαρᾶν); restored and unaccented on papyrus at Alcaeus 5. 8 V.; comparative at Alcaeus 58. 18 V. The Myc. personal name I‐ta‐ra‐jo may be a derivative, and if so would guarantee the antiquity of ἰθαρός. ET.: Root of ἰθαίνω ‘have kind mind (?)’ (Hesychius ι 382 Latte; on the meaning see Latte ad loc.). Skt vīdhrá‐ (= vi‐idhrá‐) n. ‘clear sky, sunshine’ is normally compared: see Chantraine (1968–80: 459); Mayrhofer (1986–2001: ii. 568–9). F.

λιαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘warm, lukewarm’. Hom. (Il. 11. 477+)+. ET.: Related to ἐλιάνθηι ἐχλιάνθη (‘was warmed’; Hesychius ε 2059 Latte), but this verb is attested very late. Rhyming synonym of χλιαρός ‘warm’. F.

χλιαρόϛ, (ᾱ́), όν ‘warm’. Ps.‐Epicharmus (in Athenaeus 14. 648d = Ps.‐Epicharmus fr. 289 K–A)+. ET.: χλιαίνω ‘warm’; χλιόεις ‘warm’. ACCENT: Arc. 80. 14–15. F.

μιαρόϛ (and μιερόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘stained (with blood)’. Hom. (Il. 24. 420)+. ET.: μιαίνω ‘to stain’. F.

ἀνῑᾱρόϛ (and ἀν ιᾱρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν (and ἀνῑηρόϛ, ή, όν) ‘grievous, troublesome, annoying’. Hom. (Od. 17. 220+)+. ET.: ἀνῑάω ‘grieve, distress’, ἀνῑ́ᾱ ‘grief, sorrow’. ACCENT: Implied by Hrd. διχρ. 16. 33. F.

μνιαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘mossy’. Greek Anthology (6. 250. 3)+. ET.: μνίον, τό ‘seaweed’. F.

βριαρόϛ (and βριερόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘strong’. Hom. (Il. 11. 375+)+. ET.: βριάω ‘make strong, be strong’, βρῑ́θω ‘be heavy’, βρῖ= τὸ βριθύ καὶ βριαρόν ‘heavy and strong’ (Hesiod in Strabo 8. 5. 3 = Hesiod fr. 329 M–W). F.

λᾱρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘pleasant to the taste, dainty, sweet’. Hom. (Il. 17. 572+)+. ET.: ἀπο‐λαύω ‘have enjoyment of’. From *λαƑαρός or *λαƑερός: Risch (1974: 69). ACCENT: Arc. 77. 16. Cf. Hrd. μον. 940. 26, with Lentz on 940. 22, 23. F.

ϕάλᾱροϛ, ᾱ, ον (Ionic ϕάληροϛ) ‘having a crest or patch of white’. Theocritus (8. 27)+. ET.: ϕαλ[λ] ός: λευκός ‘white’ (Hesychius ϕ 122 Schmidt). ACCENT: Arc. (81. 13–14) prescribes recessive accentu (p.319) ation for a word ϕάληρος, but this word appears in a list of recessive common nouns, proper names, and adjectives lacking a separate feminine form, so that Φάληρος as a proper name is probably meant. Schmidt capitalizes the word accordingly. R.

χαλαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘slack, loose’. Aristophanes (Th. 263+)+. ET.: χαλάω ‘slacken’. ACCENT: Arc. 80. 14. F.

ἱλαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘cheerful, merry’. Xenophon (Mem. 2. 7. 12)+. ET.: Root of ἵλαος, ον ‘propitious’, ἱλάσκομαι ‘appease’, etc. F.

νᾱρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘flowing, liquid’. Aeschylus (in Photius 286. 8 Porson = Aeschylus fr. 347 Radt; unaccented in the codex: see Radt's apparatus ad loc.); Sophocles (in e.g. Orion 110. 1 = Sophocles fr. 621 Radt). ET.: νάω ‘flow’. ACCENT: Lehrs conjectured νᾱρός for MS λαρός at Hrd. μον. 940. 22–3 (see Lentz ad loc.), and Lentz (1867–70: i. 190. 14) conjectured νᾱρός for MSS βλαρός at Arc. 77. 17. F.

σθεν αρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘strong, mighty’. Hom. (Il. 9. 505)+. ET.: σθένος, τό ‘strength, might’. F.

πιναρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dirty, squalid’. Cratinus (in Pollux 7. 28 = Cratinus fr. 388 K–A)+. ET.: πίνος, ὁ ‘dirt, filth’. F.

σιναρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hurt, damaged’. Hippocrates (Fract. 33 (iii. 534. 3 Littré)+)+. ET.: σίνομαι ‘harm’. F.

λαπαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘slack, loose’. Hippocrates (Morb. 2. 26 (vii. 40. 13 Littré)+)+. ET.: Root of λαπάσσω ‘empty, soften’. F.

λιπαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘oily, shiny with oil’. Hom. (Il. 2. 44+)+. ET.: λίπα (adv.) ‘richly(?)’, λιπαίνω ‘oil, anoint’. ACCENT: Arc. 80. 14. F.

ῥυπαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘filthy, dirty’. Teleclides (in Pollux 10. 164 = Teleclides fr. 3 K–A)+. ET.: ῥύπος, ὁ ‘dirt, filth’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 14, 16. 32–3. F.

γεραρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of reverend bearing, majestic’. Hom. (Il. 3. 170)+. ET.: γέρας, τό ‘gift of honour’; γέρων, ὁ ‘old man’. F.

μυσαρόϛ (and μυσερόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘foul, dirty’. Herodotus (2. 37. 2)+. ET.: μύσος, τό, ‘uncleanness’. F.

ψαϕαρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘friable, powdery’. Aeschylus (Th. 323)+. ET.: Root of ψῆϕος, ἡ ‘pebble’. ACCENT: Arc. 80. 15. F.

ψεϕαρός/ ψέϕαροϛ, ᾱ, ον ‘gloomy, cloudy’. Hippocrates (in Galen 19. 156. 6). ET.: ψέϕος, τό ‘darkness’. ACCENT: Kühn prints ψέϕαρα at Galen 19. 156. 6. Schmidt (on Hesychius ψ 138 Schmidt) quotes the same word from Galen as ψεϕαρά. U.

λάβροϛ, ον ‘furious, boisterous’. Hom. (Il. 2. 148+)+. ET.: λαβεῖν (aor. inf.), λάζομαι ‘take’ are usually compared. Lat. rabiēs ‘madness, frenzy’ has also been suggested, with dissimilation of the initial consonant in Greek: see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 66–7). R.

λίβρος/ λιβρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dark, black; dewy’. Tragica adespota (in Photius λ 295 Theodoridis = Photius 222. 25 Porson; cf. Tragica adespota fr. 232 K–S (from Hesychius λ 943 Latte) )+. ET.: Probably root of λείβω (p.320) ‘pour’. ACCENT: At Photius λ 295 Theodoridis, Theodoridis reports that MS ‘g’ has λιβρον, unaccented (so also Porson's apparatus ad loc.) while ‘z’ has λΐβρον. Theodoridis prints Porson's λιβρόν. Final accentuation is often printed elsewhere (e.g. EM 564. 49; Greek Anthology 15. 25. 1). Lentz (1867–70: i. 203. 1) includes λιβρός for Herodian but only, as he says, ‘exempli causa’. U.

λυγρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘baneful, mournful’. Hom. (Il. 2. 873+)+. ET.: λευγαλέος ‘in sad or sorry plight, wretched’. Cf. ἐρευθαλέος ‘ruddy’ beside ἐρυθρός ‘red’ and ἔρευθος, τό ‘redness’. *λεῦγος, τό is not attested but may have existed. Cf. also Lat. lūgeō ‘mourn’, lūgubris ‘indicative of mourning or sorrow’. See Frisk (1960–72: ii. 108). ACCENT: Arc. 84. 9. F.

στενυγρόϛ, ή, όν ‘narrow’. Semonides (in Galen 17(1). 897. 8 ≈ Semonides in Galen 18(1). 411. 15 = Semonides fr. 14. 3 West)+. ET.: Root of στενός ‘narrow’, with velar element and ‐ρο‐ suffix: see Chantraine (1933: 225). F.

ἁδρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘thick, stout’. Herodotus (1. 17. 1+)+. ET.: Root ἅδ‐ of ἅδην ‘to one's fill’, adverbial acc. of *ἅδη ‘satiety’. ACCENT: Eust. 1447. 59. F.

ϕαιδρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘bright, beaming’. Pindar (in Polybius 4. 31. 6 = Pindar fr. 109. 2 S–M)+. ET.: Root of ϕαίδιμος, (α), ον, ‘shining’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 13. F.

κῡδρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘glorious, renowned’. Hom. (Il. 18. 184+)+. ET.: κῦδος, τό ‘glory, renown’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 13–14. F.

ψυδρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘lying, untrue’. Theognis (122)+. ET.: Root of ψευδής ‘lying, false’. F.

βλαβερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘harmful’. Hesiod (Op. 365)+. ET.: βλάβη ‘harm’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 13. F.

ϕοβερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘fearful’. Aeschylus (Supp. 891+)+. ET.: ϕόβος, ὁ ‘panic flight, panic fear’. ACCENT: Arc. 108. 21–2 and Ep. Ps. 97. 12 prescribe the same accent for f. ϕοβερᾱ́ as for m. ϕοβερός, but without specifying the position of the accent. However, a non‐recessive accent is implied since unlike ϕοβερός, recessive βαρύτερος (with f. βαρυτέρᾱ) receives a special comment in Arcadius, and recessive δίκαιος (with f. δικαίᾱ) a similar comment in Ep. Ps., owing to the different locations of the recessive accent in m. and f. F.

γλαγερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘full of milk’. Greek Anthology (6. 154. 8)+. ET.: γάλα, gen. γάλακτος ‘milk’. F.

παγερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘frosty, cold’. Dio Chrysostom (30. 11 (2. 297. 23 von Arnim) )+. ET.: πάγος, ὁ ‘frost’. F.

ϕλογερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘blazing, flaming’. Euripides (El. 991+)+. ET.: ϕλόξ, gen. ϕλογός ‘flame’. F.

μογερόϛ, (ᾱ́), όν ‘toiling; toilsome’. Aeschylus (Th. 827+)+. ET.: μόγος, ὁ ‘toil’. F.

(p.321) ψογερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘fond of blaming’. Pindar (P. 2. 55)+. ET.: ψόγος, ὁ ‘blameable fault; blame’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 10. F.

στυγερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hated, abominated, loathed, hateful’. Hom. (Il. 2. 385+)+. ET.: στυγέω ‘hate’; στύγος, τό ‘hatred’. ACCENT: στυγὲρος at Il. 5. 47 on P. Oxy. ii. 223, col. 2 (3rd cent. AD). F.

σταθερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘standing fast’. Aeschylus (in Suda σ 982 ≈ Photius 534. 2 Porson = Aeschylus fr. 276 Radt)+. ET.: Root of στάθμη ‘carpenter's line’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 196. 16) takes Theognost. 70. 33–4 as evidence for final accentuation. Theognostus' list explicitly includes both ὀξύτονα and βαρύτονα, but the ὀξύτονα appear to come first; σταθερός would be the last word in this first part of the list. F.

ἱερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν (with dialectal variants, essentially ἱαρόϛ and ῑ̒ρόϛ: see García‐Ramón 1992: 183) ‘filled with or manifesting divine power’. Hom. (Il. 1. 99+)+. ET.: The word corresponds to Skt iṣirá‐ ‘powerful, swift’, which is a derivative on the root iṣ‐ of iṣṇā́ti, íṣyati ‘set in motion, hasten’ and eṣati ‘glide’. García‐Ramón (1992: 203) concludes that there may have been two adjectives formed on the root or roots *H 1 ei̯s‐ and/or *H 1 ei̯sH 1‐ in IE, one in *‐ro‐ and one in *‐r‐o‐(the latter derived either from an *r/n‐stem or from a ‘locative’ in ‐er). Alternatively, there was only one adjective in IE, in which case it was the one in *‐ro‐. In either case, the Gk form would derive wholly or in part from an IE adjective in *‐ro‐. Cf. App. 1.2 s.v. ἱερόν/ ῑ̒ρόν, τό ‘offering; temple’. ACCENT: Arc. 78. 10; Sch. Il. 9. 150a1 (A); Hrd. Part. 179. 13; Theognost. 69. 33 (as common noun); implied by Eust. 743. 20. F.

διερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘active, alive’ (later ‘wet, liquid’). Hom. (Od. 6. 201+)+. ET.: διαίνω ‘wet, moisten’. Some have connected διερός ‘active, alive’ to δέος ‘fear’, δείδω ‘be alarmed’ (root *δƑι‐), separating διερός ‘wet, liquid’: rejected by Chantraine (1968–80: 281); cf. Frisk (1960–72: i. 390). F.

σκιερόϛ (and σκιαρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘shady, giving shade’. Hom. (Il. 11. 480+)+. ET.: σκιόεις ‘shady, shadowy’. F.

πλακερόϛ (v.l. πλοκερόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘broad’. Theocritus (7. 18). ET.: πλάξ, gen. πλακός ‘anything flat and broad; flat land’. F.

νοσακερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘liable to sickness, sickly’. Aristotle (Pol. 1279a15–16+)+. ET.: Derivative of νόσος, ἡ ‘sickness’, with an unusual velar element. Cf. διψακερός ‘thirsty’. F.

τακερόϛ (and τακηρός), ᾱ́, όν ‘melting in the mouth, tender’. Pherecrates (in Athenaeus 9. 366d = Pherecrates fr. 89 K–A)+. ET.: τήκω ‘melt’. F.

γλυκερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘sweet to the taste or smell’. Hom. (Il. 10. 4+)+. ET.: γλυκόεις ‘sweet’, γλυκύς ‘sweet’. ACCENT: Arc. 115. 9–10. F.

θαλερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘stout, sturdy, buxom’. Hom. (Il. 2. 266+)+. ET.: θάλλω < * θάλ‐ι̯ω ‘sprout, grow, thrive’, θάλος, τό ‘scion; child’. F.

(p.322) μαλερόϛ (and σμαλερόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘fierce, raging’. Hom. (Il. 9. 242+)+. ET.: Perhaps connected to μάλα ‘very’, μᾶλλον ‘more’, μάλιστα ‘most of all’. F.

σϕαλερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘likely to make one stumble or trip’. Aeschylus (Eu. 375)+. ET.: σϕάλλω ‘make to fall’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 196. 15) takes Theognost. 70. 33 as evidence for final accentuation. Theognostus' list includes both ὀξύτονα and βαρύτονα, but the ὀξύτονα appear to come first; σϕαλερός is in this first part of the list. F.

δολερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘deceitful’. Sophocles (El. 124+)+. ET.: δόλος, ὁ ‘bait, trick’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 196. 15) takes Theognost. 70. 33 as evidence for final accentuation. Theognostus' list explicitly includes both ὀξύτονα and βαρύτονα, but the ὀξύτονα appear to come first; δολερός is in this first part of the list. F.

θολερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘muddy, foul, turbid’. Herodotus (4. 53. 2+)+. ET.: θολός, ὁ ‘mud, dirt’. F.

χείμεροϛ, ον ‘wintry, stormy’. Aratus (797+). ET.: χεῖμα, τό ‘winter weather, cold’. According to Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1080), extracted from compounds such as δυσχείμερος ‘wintry, stormy’. R.

τρομερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘trembling’. Euripides (HF 231+)+. ET.: τρόμος, ὁ ‘trembling’. F.

ϕανερόϛ, (ᾱ́), όν ‘visible, manifest’. Pindar (O. 6. 73+)+. ET.: Root of ϕαίνω <* ϕάν‐ι̯ω ‘cause to appear’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 13–14. F.

πλενν ερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘like mucus’. Hippocrates (in Galen 19. 131. 7). ET.: πλένναι ιμύξαι (‘mucus’; Hesychius π 2525 Schmidt). F.

ϕθονερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘envious, jealous’. Theognis (770)+. ET.: ϕθόνος, ὁ ‘envy’. F.

γοερόϛ (and γοηρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘mournful’. Aeschylus (A. 1176)+. ET.: γόος, ὁ ‘weeping’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 9. F.

νοερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘intellectual’. Aristotle (Pr. 954a35+)+. ET.: νόος, ὁ ‘mind’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 10. F.

νοσερόϛ (and νοσηρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘diseased’. Euripides (Hipp. 131+)+. ET.: νόσος, ἡ ‘sickness’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 196. 16) takes Theognost. 70. 33 as evidence for final accentuation. Theognostus' list explicitly includes both ὀξύτονα and βαρύτονα, but the ὀξύτονα appear to come first; νοσερός is in this first part of the list. Final accentuation is given for the form νοσηρός by Ammonius (Ammonius 405 = Trypho fr. 15 Velsen); the word may or may not derive from Trypho, whom Ammonius is quoting or paraphrasing here. F.

δροσερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dewy, watery’. Euripides (Ba. 865+)+. ET.: δρόσος, ἡ ‘dew’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 10. F.

κρατερόϛ (and καρτερόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘strong, stout, mighty’. Hom. (Il. 1. 25+)+. ET.: κρατέω ‘be strong’, κρατύς ‘strong’, κάρτος/κράτος, τό ‘strength, might’. ACCENT: Arc. 80. 20–1; Sch. Il. 1. 280b (A). Further grammatical sources cited by Erbse on Sch. Il. 1. 280b. F.

(p.323) νύκτεροϛ, ον ‘nightly’. Aeschylus (Pr. 797+)+. ET.: νύξ, gen. νυκτός ‘night’. R.

νοτερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘damp, moist’. Thucydides (3. 21. 4)+. ET.: νότος, ὁ ‘south wind’. F.

κρυερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘icy, cold, chilling’. Hom. (Il. 13. 48+)+. ET.: κρυόεις ‘chilling’, κρύος, τό ‘icy cold, frost’. F.

τραϕερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘well‐fed, fat’ (in Homer τραϕερή (sc. γῆ) = ‘dry land’). Hom. (Il. 14. 308+)+. ET.: τρέϕω ‘nourish’; ταρϕύς ‘thick, close’; τάρϕος, τό ‘thicket’. F.

ζοϕερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dusky, gloomy’. Hesiod (Th. 814)+. ET.: ζόϕος, ὁ ‘nether darkness’. F.

δνοϕερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dark, murky’. Hom. (Il. 9. 15+)+. ET.: δνόϕος, ὁ ‘darkness’. F.

τρυϕερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘delicate, dainty’. Aristophanes (V. 1169+)+. ET.: τρυϕή, ἡ ‘softness, delicacy’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 10. F.

τροχερόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘running, tripping’. Aristotle (Rh. 1409a1)+. ET.: Derived from τροχός, ὁ ‘wheel’ or τρόχος, ὁ ‘running, course’, nominal forms on the root of τρέχω ‘run’. F.

πνῑγηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘choking, stifling’. Aristophanes (Ra. 122)+. ET.: πνίζω ‘choke’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 17. F.

σῑγηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘silent’. Menander (Mon. 240)+. ET.: σῑγή, ἡ ‘silence’. F.

ἀλγηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘painful’. Septuagint (Je. 10. 19+)+. ET.: ἄλγος, τό ‘pain’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 17. F.

δηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘long, too long’. Hom. (Il. 14. 206+)+. ET.: δήν (adv.) ‘for a long while’ < *δƑᾱ‐. Cf. Skt dūrá‐ ‘far’, with different vocalism. ACCENT: δὴρον at Il. 5. 120 on P. Oxy. ii. 223, col. 5 (3rd cent. AD). F.

γεηρόϛ, όν ‘of earth, earthy’. Plato (R. 10. 612a)+. ET.: γέη= γῆ ‘earth’. ACCENT: Hrd. Part. 179. 9. F.

ἀνθηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘flowery, blooming’. Sophocles (Ant. 960)+. ET.: ἄνθη ‘full bloom’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 17. F.

πενθηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or for mourning’. Anaxilas (in Hrd. διχρ. 15. 24 = Anaxilas fr. 36 K–A)+. ET.: πένθος, τό ‘grief’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 22. F.

ὀλισθηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘slippery’. Pindar (P. 2. 96)+. ET.: Root of ὀλισθάνω, aor. ὤλισθον ‘slip’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 17; Theognost. 71. 10; Ammonius 405 (= Trypho fr. 15 Velsen; the word perhaps comes from Trypho). F.

ὀχθηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hilly’. Euphorion (in EM 228. 21 = Euphorion fr. 120 Powell)+. ET.: ὄχθη ‘height or rising ground’. F.

μοχθηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν (Attic μόχθηροϛ: see below) ‘suffering hardship; knavish’. Aeschylus (Th. 257+)+. ET.: μόχθος, ὁ ‘toil, hardship’. ACCENT: Eust. (341. 16–20) and Arc. (81. 17–20) suggest that recessive accentuation is found only in Attic, and they and Ammonius (405) also report a tradition that in Attic different meanings are associated (p.324) with different accentuations. Trypho (in Ammonius 405 = Trypho fr. 15 Velsen) disagrees vigorously with this tradition and claims that the Athenians give the word a recessive accent not to distinguish meanings but because they liked recessive accents. Theognost. (71. 10) and Ep. Hom. alph. (ο 89) simply include the word in a list of finally accented words. According to Göttling (1835: 304–5), the manuscripts of Aristophanes regularly have recessive accentuation for the vocative μόχθηρε ‘wretched’ but final accentuation for the other cases. I have checked this assertion for codex Ravennas 137, 4, A by consulting the facsimile edition and found the convention to be followed almost consistently. Cf. Ch. 12 n. 13. F (but Attic R).

ἐλαιηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or for oil’. Hippocrates (Morb. 2. 66 (vii. 100. 18 Littré)+)+. ET.: ἔλαιον ‘olive‐oil’. F.

ὑγιηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘wholesome’. Pindar (N. 3. 18)+. ET.: ὑγιής ‘healthy’. F.

ποιηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘grassy’. Euripides (Cyc. 45+)+. ET.: ποίη ‘grass’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 17 (with Lentz's note on the text). F.

ἀνθρακηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘belonging to charcoal’. Alexis (in Pollux 10. 111 = Alexis fr. 211.3 K–A). ET.: ἄνθραξ, gen. ‐ακος ‘charcoal’. F.

ὀστρακηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of the nature of earthenware’. Aristotle (PA 679b12+)+. ET.: ὄστρακον ‘sherd’. F.

ὀγκηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘bulky, swollen’. Hippocrates (Fract. 30 (iii. 518. 17 Littré)+)+. ET.: ὄγκος, ὁ ‘bulk, size, mass’. F.

γυναικηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or belonging to women, feminine’. Diocles (in Antiatt. 87. 2 = Diocles fr. 4 K–A; possibly corrupt); Phryn. (PS 55. 16). ET.: γυνή, gen. γυναικός ‘woman’. F.

κροκηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘made with saffron’. Galen (13. 182. 9)+. ET.: κρόκος, ὁ(/ ἡ) ‘saffron’. F.

λῆροϛ ‘silly’. Lucian (Gall. 6+)+. ET.: Likely to be a derivative on the root of Lith. lóti ‘shout’, Arm. lam ‘whine’, Lat. lāmentum ‘lament’, etc.; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 118). Used earlier as a noun ‘trash, trumpery’ (see App. 1.2 s.v. λῆρος, ὁ). The use in λῆρον … ποιητήν ‘silly poet’ (Lucian, Gall. 6) may be appositional, at least in origin. ACCENT: Arc. 78. 6 (primarily intending the noun, although the epithet μονογενές ‘of one gender’ is probably applicable both to noun and adjective, the latter only being attested in the masculine). R.

σκληρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hard’. Hesiod (Th. 839 (n. sg. as adv.) )+. ET.: Related to σκέλλομαι ‘be parched’. ACCENT: Arc. 78. 5–6. F.

ὀχληρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘troublesome, irksome’. Euripides (Hel. 452+)+. ET.: ὄχλος, ὁ ‘crowd, throng’. F.

αἱμηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘bloodstained’. Philodemus (De Ira fr. 6. 15)+. ET.: αἷμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘blood’. ACCENT: The word is unaccented in the Philodemus papyrus but is also used e.g. by Andromachus in Galen 14. 33. 6; finally accented in printed editions. F.

(p.325) λιμηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘furnished with a good harbour’. Apollodorus (in Strabo 8. 6. 1); in Thucydides (4. 56. 2+) as epithet of Laconian Epidaurus. ET.: λιμήν, gen. ‐ένος ‘harbour’. F.

λῑμηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hungry, causing hunger’. Theocritus (10. 57)+. ET.: λῑμός, ὁ(/ ἡ) ‘hunger’. F.

τολμηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘audacious’. Euripides (Supp. 305+)+. ET.: τόλμη ‘courage’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 17–18; Ammonius 405 (= Trypho fr. 15 Velsen; the word perhaps comes from Trypho). F.

ὀσμηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘smelling, odorous’. Nicander (in Athenaeus 15. 684b = Nicander fr. 74. 57 G–S). ET.: ὀσμή ‘smell, odour’. F.

αὐχμηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dry, without rain’. Sophocles (in Pollux 10. 55 = Sophocles fr. 475. 2 Radt+)+. ET.: αὐχμός, ὁ ‘drought’. ACCENT: e.g. αὐχμηρὸν at Euripides, Or. 387 in codex Parisinus Graecus 2713. F.

βαλανηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of the acorn type’. Theophrastus (HP 1. 11. 3). ET.: βάλανος, ἡ ‘acorn’. F.

δαπανηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘lavish, extravagant’. Xenophon (Mem. 2. 6. 2)+. ET.: δαπάνη ‘cost’. F.

λαχανηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of vegetable kind’. Theophrastus (HP 7. 1. 1+). ET.: λάχανον ‘garden herb’. F.

οἰνηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or belonging to wine’. Anacreon (in Pollux 6. 23 = Anacreon fr. 109 Page)+. ET.: οἶνος, ὁ ‘wine’. F.

δακνηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘biting’. Philodemus (De ira col. 37. 19; unaccented on papyrus); Stobaeus (1. 49. 44). ET.: δάκνω ‘bite’. F.

ὀκνηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘shrinking, timid’. Hippocrates (Acut. 28 (ii. 284. 3 Littré) )+; comparative in Pindar (N. 11. 22). ET.: ὄκνος, ὁ ‘shrinking, hesitation’. F.

πονηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν (Attic πόν ηροϛ: see below) ‘oppressed by toils; worthless’. Aeschylus (Ch. 1045)+; superlative in Hesiod (frr. 248, 249 M–W = Hesiod in CAG: xx. 155. 7, 8). ET.: πόνος, ὁ ‘work, toil’. ACCENT: Eust. (341. 16–20) and Arc. (81. 17–20) suggest, as for μοχθηρός/ μόχθηρος (q.v.), that recessive accentuation is found only in Attic. They and Ammonius (405) also report a tradition that the Athenians used different accentuations for different meanings; Ep. Hom. alph. ο 89 simply states that the word is accented differently in different meanings. Trypho (in Ammonius 405 = Trypho fr. 15 Velsen) disagrees: see above s.v. μοχθηρός. Theognost. (71. 11) simply includes πονηρός in a list of finally accented words. According to Göttling (1835: 304–5), the same distribution of accentuations is found in the manuscripts of Aristophanes as for μόχθηρος: vocative recessive and other cases finally accented. Again, the convention is followed almost consistently in codex Ravennas 137, 4, A, which I have been able to consult in facsimile. Cf. Ch. 12 n. 13. F (but Attic R).

(p.326) ὑπνηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘drowsy’. Hippocrates (Aër. 24 (ii. 92. 1 Littré) ). ET.: ὓπνος, ὁ ‘sleep’. F.

ἐτνηρόϛ, ή, όν ‘like soup’. Phaenias (in Athenaeus 9. 406c). ET.: ἔτνος, τό ‘thick soup’. F.

ὀδυνηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘painful’. Mimnermus (in Stobaeus 4. 20. 16 = Mimnermus fr. 1. 5 West+)+. ET.: ὀδύνη ‘pain of body’. ACCENT: Hrd. Part. 179. 10. F.

ὀξηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or for vinegar’. Sophocles (in Append. prov. 4. 27 = Sophocles fr. 306 Radt)+. ET.: ὄξος, τό ‘vinegar’. F.

λαμπηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘foamy’. Hippocrates (in Galen 19. 117. 11). ET.: λάμπη ‘scum’. ACCENT: Final accentuation is prescribed for a word λαπηρός by Arc. 81. 16. Schmidt in his apparatus ad loc. equates this with Hippocrates' λαμπηρός. F.

λῡπηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘painful, distressing’. Sophocles (El. 553+)+. ET.: λῡ́πη ‘pain’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 197. 13) includes the word in his reconstruction of Herodian, but his evidence is obscure to me. F.

οἰσυπηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘with the grease in it’. Aristophanes (Ach. 1177)+. ET.: οἰσύπη ‘the grease extracted from sheep's wool’. F.

σιωπηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘silent’. Greek Anthology (7. 199. 4+); comparative in Xenophon (Smp. 1. 9). ET.: σιωπή ‘silence’. F.

ὀμβρηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘rainy’. Hesiod (Op. 451)+. ET.: ὄμβρος, ὁ ‘storm of rain’. F.

ὑδρηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or for water’. Diog. Sinop. (in Stobaeus 4. 33. 17 = Diog. Sinop. fr. 7. 6 S–K); possibly to be read at Aeschylus fr. 96. 2 Radt (see Radt ad loc.); unaccented on 1st‐cent. AD papyrus of Sophron PSI xi. 1214d 12 (= Sophron fr. 4. 46 K–A). ET.: ὓδωρ, gen. ὓδατος ‘water’. F.

ὀτρηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘quick, nimble, busy’. Hom. (Il. 1. 321+)+. ET.: ὀτρῡ́νω ‘stir up, rouse’, ὀτραλέως ‘quick, nimble’. ACCENT: Ep. Hom. alph. ο 89. F.

μυρηρόϛ (or μυραρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘of sweet oil’. Aeschylus (in Athenaeus 1. 17d = Aeschylus fr. 180. 5 Radt)+. ET.: μύρον ‘sweet oil’. F.

ἄσηρος/ἀσηρόϛ (or ἀσᾱρόϛ), όν ‘causing discomfort; feeling disgust’. Sappho (at P. Oxy. xxi. 2294. 11 = Sappho 103. 8 V.; unaccented on the papyrus); Hippocrates (Fract. 22 (iii. 490. 9 Littré)+)+. ET.: ἄση ‘surfeit, loathing, nausea’. ACCENT: Theognost. 71. 17 clearly assumes recessive accentuation. Lentz (1867–70: i. 197. 17) wrongly adduces Theognostus as evidence for final accentuation in Herodian. Printed texts, however, give the word final accentuation. U.

κνῑσηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘full of the steam of burnt sacrifice’. Achaeus (in Athenaeus 9. 368a = Achaeus fr. 7. 2 S–K). ET.: κνῖσα, ἡ ‘steam and odour of fat which exhales from roasting meat’. F.

πισσηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of pitch’. Hippocrates (Fract. 24 (iii. 502. 3 Littré)+)+. ET.: πίσσα, ἡ ‘pitch’. F.

(p.327) ᾱ̓τηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘blinded by [001]τη’. Theognis (433+)+. ET.: [001]τη ‘bewilderment, infatuation caused by delusion sent by the gods’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 17; Hrd. Part. 179. 9; Ep. Hom. alph. ο 89. F.

καματηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘toilsome, wearisome’. Homeric Hymns (5. 246)+. ET.: κάματος, ὁ ‘toil’. ACCENT: Theognost. 71. 10; Hrd. Part. 179. 9; Ammonius 405 (= Trypho fr. 15 Velsen; the word perhaps comes from Trypho). F.

αἱματηρόϛ, (ᾱ́), όν ‘bloodstained’. Aeschylus (A. 815+)+. ET.: αἷμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘blood’. ACCENT: Theognost. 71. 11; Ep. Hom. alph. ο 89. F.

δειματηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘fearful, timid’. Apollonius Dyscolus (Synt. 260. 9). ET.: δεῖμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘fear’. F.

καυματηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘very hot’. Strabo (15. 3. 1+). ET.: καῦμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘burning heat’. F.

μελιτηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or for honey’. Aristophanes (in Pollux 10. 93 = Aristophanes fr. 525 K–A; on the text, and for other attestations of μελιτηρός, see Kassel and Austin ad loc.)+. ET.: μέλι, gen. μέλιτος ‘honey’. ACCENT: Ammonius 405 (= Trypho fr. 15 Velsen; the word perhaps comes from Trypho). F.

σῑτηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of corn’. Hippocrates (Acut. 10 (ii. 244. 7–8 Littré) )+. ET.: σῖτος, ὁ ‘grain’. F.

ἀλϕιτηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or belonging to groats’. Antiphanes (in Pollux 10. 179 = Antiphanes fr. 64 K–A, with variant reading ἀλϕιτήριον accepted by Dindorf and Bethe but not by Kassel and Austin. The word ἀλϕιτηρός is clearly attested at Herodas 7. 73, though there without accent). ET.: ἄλϕιτον ‘groats’, ἄλϕι ‘groats’. F.

πλακουντηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘like a cake’. Chrysippus Tyaneus (in Athenaeus 14. 647d). ET.: πλακοῦς, gen. ‐οῦντος ‘flat cake’. F.

ἀταρτηρόϛ, όν ‘mischievous, baneful’. Hom. (Il. 1. 223+)+. ET.: Looks like a derivative of the verb ἀταρτᾶταιι βλάπτει. πονεῖ. λυπεῖ (‘harms, hurts, grieves’; Hesychius α 8021 Latte), although the verb is only attested in Hesychius and could be back‐formed from the adjective. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 16–17. F.

αὐστηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘harsh, rough, bitter’. Hippocrates (Fract. 29 (iii. 514. 12 Littré)+)+. ET.: Related to αὖος ‘dry’. Apparently a derivative of a derived nominal form in *‐t‐, e.g. *αὖστος, τό (Schwyzer 1953: 482 n. 14; Frisk 1960–72: i. 189) or *αὐστός (Chantraine 1968–80: 141). ACCENT: Hrd. Part. 179. 9. F.

πλουτηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘enriching’. Xenophon (Oec. 2. 10). ET.: πλοῦτος, ὁ ‘wealth’. F.

αὐηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dry, parched’. Rhianus (Greek Anthology 12. 121. 6 = Rhianus 72. 6 Powell). ET.: αὖος ‘dry’. ACCENT: αὐηρὴν at Greek Anthology 12. 121. 6 in codex Palatinus 23. F.

ἰχθυηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘fishy, scaly’. Aristophanes (Pl. 814+)+. ET.: ἰχθῦς, gen. ‐ύος ‘fish’. F.

(p.328) καρυηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘nutlike’. Theophrastus (HP 1. 11. 3+). ET.: κάρυον ‘nut’. F.

βοτρυηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of the grape kind’. Theophrastus (HP 1. 11. 5). ET.: βότρυς, gen. ‐υος ‘bunch of grapes’. F.

σταχυηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘enclosed in an ear of corn’. Theophrastus (HP 9. 16. 4). ET.: στάχῡς, gen. ‐υος ‘ear of corn’. Cf. App. 1.2 s.v. σταχυηρά, τά ‘plants that bear ears, cereals’. F.

καρϕηρόϛ (or καρϕῡρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘of dry straw’. Euripides (Ion 173). ET.: κάρϕος, τό ‘dry stalk’. F.

ταρῑχηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘of or for pickled food’. Sophocles (in Pollux 6. 65 = Athenaeus 2. 67c = Sophocles fr. 606 Radt)+. ET.: τάρῑχος, ὁ/ τό ‘meat preserved by pickling’. F.

τρῡχηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘ragged; wearing, tormenting’. Euripides (Tr. 496 (bis) )+. ET.: τρῦχος, τό ‘worn out, tattered garment’. F.

τυχηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘lucky, fortunate’. Aeschylus (A. 464)+. ET.: τύχη ‘fortune’. ACCENT: Arc. 81. 17. F.

αἰψηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘quick, speedy, sudden’. Hom. (Il. 19. 276+)+. ET.: αἶψα ‘quickly’; see Risch (1974: 69). ACCENT: e.g. αἰψηρήν at Il. 19. 276 in codex Venetus Marc. 822 (15th‐cent. replacement for lost part of the codex). F.

διψηρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘thirsty’. Hippocrates (Aër. 7 (ii. 28. 1 Littré) )+. ET.: δίψα, ἡ ‘thirst’. F.

ἐρυθρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘red’. Hom. (Il. 9. 365+)+. ET.: ἐρεύθω ‘make red’; Skt rudhirá‐ ‘red’. ACCENT: Arc. 85. 14. F.

ἐχθρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hated, hateful, hating’. Hom. (Il. 9. 378+)+. ET.: ἔχθος, τό ‘hate’. Cf. App. 1.2 s.v. ἐχθρός, ὁ ‘enemy’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 18. F.

νωθρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘sluggish, slothful’. Hippocrates (Epid. 4. 23 (v. 164. 3 Littré)+)+. ET.: Root of νωθής ‘sluggish, slothful’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 18. F.

δαῖρος/δαιρόϛ ‘capable of burning’. Herodian (in Arc. 79. 15–16). ET.: δαίω < *δάƑ‐ι̯ω ‘kindle’. Pre‐form apparently *δαƑ‐ιρος. ACCENT: Arc. (79. 15–16) and Theognost. (70. 20–1) report that there is hesitation about the accent. (On the text of the Theognostus passage, see Schmidt's apparatus to Arc. 79. 16.) U.

νειρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘lowest’. Lycophron (Al. 896)+. ET.: Root of νειόθεν ‘from the bottom’. F.

ἄκροϛ, ᾱ, ον ‘at the furthest point’. Hom. (Il. 5. 336+)+. ET.: See App. 1.2 s.v. ἄκρον, τό ‘highest or furthest point’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 24. R.

μακρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘long, tall, large’. Hom. (Il. 1. 402+)+. ET.: μᾶκος (Att.‐Ion. μῆκος), τό ‘length’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 22. F.

νεκρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dead’. Pindar (in Zenobius 5. 59 = Pindar fr. 203. 2 S–M)+. ET.: νέκῡς/ νέκυς ‘corpse’; Lat. nex ‘death’. The form νῶκαρ ‘lethargy, coma’ (Nicander, Ther. 189; Hesychius ν 778 Latte) is attested too sparsely and too late to be a likely source of νεκρός: see Chantraine (p.329) (1968–80: 741; analogical explanation of νῶκαρ). Cf. App. 1.2 s.v. νεκρός, ὁ ‘corpse’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 5, 84. 22 (adj. and noun not distinguished). F.

μῑκρόϛ (and σμῑκρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘small, little’. Hom. (Il. 5. 801+)+. ET.: A stem (σ) μῑκ‐ or (σ) μικ‐ is attested in the gloss μικύθινονι τὸ μικρόνι καὶ νήπιον (‘small; and childish’; Hesychius μ 1346 Latte) and in personal names, e.g. Μίκκος, f. Μίκκα; Μίκυθος; Σμικυθίων. But the comparative μείων ‘smaller’ (cf. Myc. me‐wi‐jo, me‐u‐jo) and superlative μεῖστος ‘smallest’ suggest that the ‐k‐was not originally part of the root. The form (σ) μῑκρός is likely to have been influenced by μακρός ‘large’. Szemerényi (1968: 32–3) proposes the following solution: the stem μῑκ‐ comes from *μῑκος, an ‐ικος derivative of *miyo‐, formed on the root *mei‐/mi‐. This was transformed to μῑκρός under the influence of μακρός. The ‐w‐/‐u‐ of the Mycenaean forms would have an analogical origin. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 22. F.

πικρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘pointed, sharp, keen’. Hom. (Il. 4. 118+)+. ET.: ποικίλος ‘many‐coloured’ is etymologically related. Root *pik̂‐ attested e.g. in the Skt nasal‐infix pres. piṃśáti ‘cut, adorn’, Lith. piẽšti ‘draw’. The OCS adj. pĭstrŭ ‘many‐coloured’ is an exact correspondent. See Frisk (1960–72: ii. 535, 572–3); Risch (1974: 68); Chantraine (1933: 224; 1968–80: 901). ACCENT: Arc. 84. 22. F.

θαλυκρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hot, glowing’. Callimachus (?) (in e.g. EM 71. 30 = Callimachus fr. 736 Pf.). ET.: Cf. θαλυσσόμενοςι ϕλεγόμενος ‘blazing up’ (Hesychius θ 67 Schmidt), from *t h alúk‐i̯omai (and perhaps ultimately *d h alk wi̯omai, but see Frisk (1960–72: i. 650) ). F.

σαπρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘rotten’. Theognis (1362)+. ET.: σήπω ‘make rotten’. ACCENT: Arc. 85. 3. F.

λεπρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘scaly, rough’. Hippocrates (Liqu. 4 (vi. 128. 3 Littré) )+. ET.: λέπος, τό ‘rind, husk, scale’. ACCENT: Arc. 85. 3. F.

λαμπρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘bright, radiant’. Hom. (Il. 1. 605+)+. ET.: λάμπω ‘shine’. ACCENT: Arc. 85. 2. F.

λυπρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘distressful, wretched, poor, causing pain’. Hom. (Od. 13. 243)+. ET.: λῡ́πη ‘pain’, λῡπέω ‘grieve, vex’. ACCENT: Arc. 85. 3. F.

ἀλῑτρόϛ, όν ‘sinful, wicked’. Hom. (Il. 8. 361+)+. ET.: ἀλιταίνω, aor. ἤλιτον ‘sin or offend against’. But note ἀλείτης ‘sinner’, which seems to have the agentive suffix ‐της and may result from reanalysis of ἀλῑτρός as having the suffix ‐τρο‐: see Chantraine (1968–80: 56–7). Frisk (1960–72: i. 67) suggests extension from a lost r/n‐stem, but there is not enough evidence for an athematic noun. Cf. App. 1.2 s.v. ἀλῑτρός, ὁ ‘sinner’. ACCENT: e.g. ἀλιτρὸς at Il. 8. 361 in codex Venetus Marc. 822. F.

οἰκτρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘pitiable’. Hom. (Il. 11. 242+)+. ET.: οἶκτος, ὁ ‘pity, compassion’. ACCENT: Arc. 85. 7. F.

(p.330) γαῦροϛ, ον ‘exulting in’. Archilochus (in e.g. Dio Chrysostom 33. 17 (1. 302. 14 von Arnim) = Archilochus fr. 114. 2 West)+. ET.: Related to γάνυμαι ‘brighten up, be glad’, γαίω < *γάƑ‐ι̯ω ‘rejoice’ (root gau‐, perhaps from *geH 2 u‐); see Chantraine (1968–80: 213); Vine (2002: 339). ACCENT: Sch. Hsd. Th. 832 (implicit). See also below s.v. ἀγαυρός/ ἄγαυρος ‘proud, stately’. R.

ἀγαυρός/ ἄγαυροϛ, ον ‘proud, stately’. Hesiod (Th. 832)+. ET.: Related to γάνυμαι ‘brighten up, be glad’, γαίω < *γάƑ‐ι̯ω ‘rejoice’ (root γαυ‐); see above s.v. γαῦρος ‘exulting in’. ACCENT: Recessive accent prescribed by Sch. Hsd. Th. 832. Eust. 1444. 9 assumes final accentuation for ἀγαυρός, recessive for γαῦρος. The comment at Eust. 705. 64 is consistent with either final or recessive (but not intermediate) accentuation for ἀγαυρος, but the transmitted reading is ἄγαυρος. Cf. Sch. Il. 8. 178a (A). U.

παῦροϛ, ον ‘little, small’. Hom. (Il. 2. 675+)+. ET.: Root of Lat. pau‐cus ‘few, little’, Goth. faw‐ai ‘few’: see Chantraine (1968–80: 865); Risch (1974: 70). R.

γῡρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘rounded, curved, crooked’. Hom. (Od. 19. 246)+. ET.: Formed on the root *geu‐/*gu‐ of γύαλον ‘hollow’, Avestan gav‐‘hand’: see Frisk (1960–72: i. 335–6, 330–1). Cf. App. 1.2 s.v. γῦρος, ὁ ‘ring, circle’. ACCENT: Eust. 638. 59, 907. 5, 1864. 5. F.

ϕλεγυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘burning, inflamed’. Cratinus (in Athenaeus 8. 344e = Cratinus fr. 62. 2 K–A)+. ET.: ϕλέγω ‘burn’. Leumann (1953: 223 n. 2) suggests a dissimilation from *ϕλεγυλός. F.

λιγυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘clear, shrill’. Hom. (Il. 5. 526+)+. ET.: λιγύς ‘clear, shrill’. Schwyzer (1953: 258) and Leumann (1953: 223 n. 2) suggest a dissimilation from *λιγυλός. ACCENT: Arc. 82. 13–14. F.

ὀϊζῡ̆ρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘woeful, miserable’. Hom. (Od. 3. 95+)+. ET.: ὀϊζῡ́ς ‘woe, misery’, ὀϊζύω ‘wail, mourn’. ACCENT: An. Ox. 2. 323. 24. F.

ψαθυρόϛ, όν ‘friable, crumbling’. Aristotle (HA 510b26+)+. ET.: ψαθάλλω ‘scratch, rub’. F.

βδελυρόϛ,, ᾱ́, όν (Attic βδέλυροϛ: see below) ‘disgusting’. Aristophanes (Nu. 446+)+. ET.: One of a series of words of related senses built on a stem βδελυ‐; cf. βδελύσσομαι ‘feel a loathing for food; be sick’; see Frisk (1960–72: i. 229–30). Leumann (1953: 223 n. 2) suggests a dissimilation from *βδελυλός. ACCENT: Eust. 341. 14 says that the Ἀττικοί accent the word βδέλυρος and implies that in the Koine it is βδελυρός. F (but Attic R).

λαμυρός/ λάμυροϛ, ᾱ, ον ‘full of abysses; gluttonous’. Epicrates (in Athenaeus 6. 262d = Epicrates fr. 5. 8 K–A)+. ET.: Root of Λάμια, ἡ fabulous monster said to feed on man's flesh. ACCENT: Kassel and Austin print λαμυρόν at Epicrates fr. 5. 8 K–A, following Meineke, who emended the MS reading λάμυρον following Lobeck. Kaibel (p.331) prints λάμυρον. Both final and recessive accentuation are found in printed texts for other authors. U.

γλαμυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘blear‐eyed’. Sophocles (in e.g. Sch. vet. Ar. Ra. 588d = Sophocles fr. 396 Radt)+. ET.: Cf. γλάμων ‘blear‐eyed’. F.

ἁλμυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘salt, briny’. Hom. (Od. 5. 100+)+. ET.: ἅλμη ‘sea water’. ACCENT: Arc. 82. 14. F.

καπυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘dried by the air’. Epicharmus (in Athenaeus 2. 52b = Epicharmus fr. 148 K–A)+. ET.: καπύσσω ‘breathe forth’. Related to καπνός, ὁ ‘smoke’. ACCENT: Arc. 82. 14. F.

λεπυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘in a husk, peel, rind’. Nicander (Ther. 136+). ET.: λέπος, τό ‘rind, husk, scale’. F.

ἀήσυροϛ, ον ‘light as air’. Aeschylus (Pr. 452)+. ET.: Root of ἄημι ‘blow’, possibly with an original t‐suffix: Frisk (1960–72: i. 26). But cf. Chantraine (1968–80: 26, s.v. ἄημι). ACCENT: e.g. ἀήσυροι at Aeschylus, Pr. 452 in codex Laurentianus 32. 9. R.

γλαϕυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘hollow, hollowed; polished; subtle, exact’. Hom. (Il. 2. 88+)+. ET.: γλάϕυ ‘hollow, hole, cavern’ (hapax at Hesiod, Op. 533), verbal form γλάϕει ‘scrape up, dig up’ (Hesiod, Scutum 431), aor. participle διαγλάψασ' ‘having scooped out’ (Od. 4. 438). Leumann (1953: 223 n. 2) suggests a dissimilation from *γλαϕυλός. ACCENT: Arc. 115. 15–17. Cf. Eust. 327. 35. F.

ἐχυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘strong, secure’. Thucydides (4. 8. 6+)+. ET.: Doublet of ὀχυρός ‘firm, lasting’, with e‐grade root that could be analogical on ἔχω ‘hold’; see Chantraine (1968–80: 392). ACCENT: Arc. 82. 14. F.

ὀχυρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘firm, lasting’. Aeschylus (A. 44+)+; superlative in Hesiod (Op. 429). ET.: o‐grade root of ἔχω ‘have, hold’. ACCENT: Arc. 82. 14. F.

ἰσχῡρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘strong’. Alcaeus (in Athenaeus 14. 627b = Alcaeus fr. 140. 9 V.)+. ET.: ἰσχύς, gen. ‐ύος ‘strength’. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 18. A non‐recessive accent is implied by Arc. 108. 22 and Ep. Ps. 97. 12; the observation made on these passages s.v. ϕοβερός (q.v.) applies here too. F.

στιϕρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘firm, solid’. Aristophanes (in Athenaeus 4. 133a = Aristophanes fr. 148. 3 K–A)+. ET.: στῖϕος, τό ‘body of men in close array’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 19. F.

ἀβληχρόϛ (and later βληχρόϛ), ᾱ́, όν ‘weak, feeble’. Hom. (Il. 5. 337+)+. ET.: Probably derived from βλᾱ́ξ, gen. βλᾱκός ‘stolid, stupid’, with Ionic vocalism and ‘expressive’ aspiration. The ἀ‐ is probably prothetic. Cf. Frisk (1960–72: i. 4, 244–5). ACCENT: Heracleides of Miletus regarded the initial ἀ‐ of the form ἀβληχρός as privative (misunderstanding the meaning of βληχρός) and prescribed recessive accentuation; the παράδοσις and those grammarians who thought the ἀ‐ was prothetic assigned final accentuation (Sch. Il. 8. 178a (A); (p.332) Eust. 705. 59–64; for further grammatical sources see Erbse on Sch. Il. 8. 178a). Hrd. Part. 179. 10 appears to include ἀβληχρός in a list of finally accented words, but the word does not fit the context. We may side with those grammarians who regarded the ἀ‐ as prothetic and the accent as final. The grammarians in any case agree on final accentuation for the form βληχρός. Cf. West's apparatus to Il. 5. 337. F.

μελιχρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘honey‐sweetened’. Teleclides (in Athenaeus 11. 485f = Teleclides fr. 27. 1 K–A)+. ET.: Derivative of μέλι, gen. μέλιτος ‘honey’, with an unusual velar element: Chantraine (1933: 225–6). ACCENT: Hrd. Part. 179. 12 (but the word does not fit the context). F.

πενιχρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘poor, needy’. Hom. (Od. 3. 348)+. ET.: Root of πένης ‘poor man’, with an unusual velar element: Chantraine (1933: 225). ACCENT: Probably implied by Sch. Il. 8. 178a (A). F.

αἰσχρόϛ, (ᾱ́), όν ‘causing shame’. Hom. (Il. 2. 119+)+. ET.: αἶσχος, τό ‘shame’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 19. F.

βδελυχρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘disgusting’. Epicharmus (in Athenaeus 7. 321d = Epicharmus fr. 56. 2 K–A). ET.: Like βδελυρός (q.v.), but with an additional velar element. F.

ψῡχρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘cold’. Hom. (Il. 5. 75+)+. ET.: ψῦχος, τό ‘cold’, ψῡ́χω ‘breathe, blow, make cool’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 18; probably implied by Sch. Il. 8. 178a (A). F.

χλωρόϛ, ᾱ́, όν ‘greenish yellow, pale green’. Hom. (Il. 7. 479+)+. ET.: Root *ĝhel‐/*ĝhol‐/*ĝhl‐ of χλόη ‘the first green shoot of plants’ and χολή ‘gall, bile’. The vocalism is unexplained; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1105–6); Chantraine (1968–80: 1265). ACCENT: Arc. 79. 11. F.

Examples of excluded words: κλαμαρός (only as a probable corruption of κλαδαρός at Greek Anthology 9. 322. 4, and at Hesychius κ 2859 Latte); ὑγρός (etymology uncertain); ὀλερός (perhaps a ghost word: see LSJ Revised Supplement, s.v.); ἀκανθηρός (only attested in the comparative); πηρός (Attic πῆρος) (etymology unclear); κοπηρός (first attested at Hrd. Part. 179. 9, probably not a genuine Herodianic treatise: no guarantee that the word falls within the date range here considered); ὑδατηρός (only exists as an uncertain reading at Aeschylus fr. 96. 2 Radt); μελετηρός (not attested in the positive until Philostratus); αἰσχυντηρός (only attested in the comparative); καυστηρός (ultimately based on καυστήρ ‘cauterizing apparatus’, with stem‐final ‐ρ).

1.2 Nouns with Suffix ‐ρο‐

Appendix 1 Nouns with Suffix ‐ρο‐

The following abbreviations are used to encode information at the end of each entry: (a) F = finally accented; R = recessive; U = uncertain or variable accentuation, i.e. both final and recessive accentuation are (p.333) attested and no decision could be made between them. Where more than one accent is attested but some decision could be reached, this decision has been explained in the note and the word has been classified as either F or R. (b) FREQ.: the figure given after ‘FREQ.’ is the number of occurrences of the word in the Perseus Digital Library corpus (Crane 1999), which contained c.3,400,000 words at the time of use (January 1999). This number is used as a frequency index. (c) TH = attested in Thucydides.

κίσθαροϛ (or κίσσαροϛ), ‘rock‐rose’. Dioscorides (1. 97. 1)+. ET.: κίσθος/ κισθός, ὁ ‘rock‐rose’. R. FREQ.: 0.

τάλαροϛ, ὁ ‘basket’. Hom. (Od. 4. 125+)+. ET.: Root of (aor.) ἐτάλασσα ‘take upon oneself, bear, suffer’. Frisk (1960–72: ii. 848) assumes a substantivized adjective. ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 927. 11. R. FREQ.: 10.

γίγγλαροϛ, ὁ ‘kind of flute or fife’. Pollux (4. 82). ET.: Derived from γίγγρος, ὁ or γίγγρᾱς, ὁ ‘small Phoenician flute or fife’, with dissimilation from *γίγγραρος: Frisk (1960–72: i. 306). R. FREQ.: 0.

κύλλαροϛ (or σκύλλαροϛ), ‘hermit crab’. Aristotle (HA 530a12). ET.: κυλλός ‘club‐footed and bandy‐legged’. ACCENT: Hrd. μον. 927. 11 (unless the proper name Κύλλαρος is meant: see Lentz ad loc.). R. FREQ.: 0.

χείμαροϛ, ὁ ‘plug in a ship's bottom’. Hesiod (Op. 626). ET.: χεῖμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘winter weather’. R. FREQ.: 1.

κόμαροϛ, ἡ ‘strawberry‐tree, arbutus’. Aristophanes (Av. 620)+. ET.: κόμη ‘hair, foliage’: Strömberg (1940: 58). ACCENT: Arc. 80. 7. R. FREQ.: 1.

οἴναρον, τό ‘vine‐leaf, tendril’. Xenophon (Oec. 19. 18)+. ET.: οἴνη ‘vine’. ACCENT: Ep. Hom. alph. μ 64. R. FREQ.: 1.

κύσσαροϛ (or κύσαροϛ), ‘anus’. Hippocrates (Nat. puer. 17 (vii. 498. 14 Littré) )+. ET.: κυσόςι ἡ πυγή (‘buttocks’; Hesychius κ 4738 Latte). R. FREQ.: 0.

ἕταροϛ, ὁ ‘companion, comrade’. Hom. (Il. 5. 534+)+. ET.: Derivative in ‐( α) ‐ρος on the stem *set‐ of OCS po‐sětiti ‘to visit’: Frisk (1960–72: i. 579). ACCENT: ετάροισι at Il. 5. 165 on P. Oxy. ii. 223, col. 7 (3rd cent. AD) and at Od. 14. 269 in P. Ryl. i. 53, fol. 17v (3rd or 4th cent. AD); ετάρου[ ς at Od. 24. 300 in P. Ryl. i. 53, fol. 97v. R. FREQ.: 176 (examples almost all Homeric).

κύτταροϛ, ὁ ‘hollow, cavity’. Aristophanes (Pax 199+)+. ET.: κύτος, τό ‘hollow’. R. FREQ.: 3.

ϕλύαροϛ, ὁ ‘silly talk’. Aristophanes (Nu. 365)+. ET.: ϕλύω ‘boil over; overflow with words’. Possibly a back‐formation from ϕλυᾱρέω ‘talk nonsense’; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1030). ACCENT: Arc. 80. 16. R. FREQ.: 2.

γαμβρόϛ, ὁ ‘connection by marriage, brother‐in‐law, son‐in‐law’. Hom. (Il. 5. 474+)+. ET.: γαμέω ‘marry’. The form γαμβρός comes from *γαμρός with epenthesis of ‐b‐. F. FREQ.: 62.

(p.334) ὄμβροϛ, ὁ ‘storm of rain, thunder‐storm’. Hom. (Il. 3. 4+)+. ET.: Root *omb h of Skt ámbhas‐ n. ‘water’. Corresponds to Lat. imber ‘rain’, with a change to i‐stem declension in Lat. ACCENT: Sch. Il. 11. 68a (A); Eust. 831. 61. R. FREQ.: 74.

ἀγρόϛ, ὁ ‘field’. Hom. (Il. 5. 137+)+. ET.: ἄγω ‘lead, carry’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 10. F. FREQ.: 224. TH.

ϕάγροϛ, ὁ ‘whetstone’. Simias (in Athenaeus 6. 327e–f = Simias fr. 27 Powell)+. ET.: Possibly from IE *b h ag‐ro‐, corresponding to Arm. bark ‘bitter’. See Frisk (1960–72: ii. 980); with reservations Clackson (1994: 181–2). ACCENT: Arc. 84. 8. R. FREQ.: 0.

χάραδροϛ, ὁ ‘mountain stream, torrent’. Plutarch (Agis 8. 1); also attested on inscriptions and as a proper name of many rivers. ET.: Variant for χαράδρᾱ. Frisk (1960–72: ii. 1088) rejects any connection with χαράσσω ‘make pointed’ and connects to χέραδος, τό ‘silt, gravel brought down by torrents’, related to χαράδρᾱ (almost) like ἕδος, τό ‘seat’ to ἕδρᾱ ‘seat’ and ἔχθος, τό ‘hatred’ to ἔχθρᾱ ‘hatred’. ACCENT: (Arc. 85. 20 prescribes recessive accentuation for the river name Χάραδρος.) R. FREQ.: 0.

κύλινδροϛ, ὁ ‘rolling stone; cylinder’. Apollonius Rhodius (2. 594)+. ET.: κυλίνδω ‘roll’. R. FREQ.: 0.

μύδροϛ, ὁ ‘red‐hot mass’. Aeschylus (in Athenaeus 7. 303c = Aeschylus fr. 307. 1 Radt)+. ET.: Possibly related to μυδάω ‘be damp’ and referring originally to molten metal: Frisk (1960–72: ii. 264). R. FREQ.: 13.

πενθερόϛ, ὁ ‘father‐in‐law’. Hom. (Il. 6. 170+)+. ET.: Root *bend h‐ of Skt bándhu‐ m. ‘kinsman’, Skt badhnā́ti ‘bind’, Goth. bindan ‘bind’. Corresponds to Lith. beñdras ‘companion’, except that Gk has substituted ‐ερο‐ for *‐ρο‐. ACCENT: Hrd. διχρ. 15. 21. F. FREQ.: 15.

ἱερόν / ῑ̒ρόν, τό ‘offering; temple’. Hom. (Il. 11. 775+)+. ET.: See App. 1.1 s.v. ἱερός ‘filled with or manifesting divine power’. ACCENT: ειρῶν (for MSS ἱρῶν) at Il. 5. 178 on P. Oxy. ii. 223, col. 7 (3rd cent. AD); ϊερὰ at Od. 23. 277 on P. Ryl. i. 53, fol. 91v (3rd or 4th cent. AD). F. FREQ.: OVER 500. TH.

δυναμερά, τά ‘potent drugs’. Ps.‐Bolus (in the title of a work, Φυσικὰ δυναμερά, in Suda β 482). ET.: δύναμαι ‘be able, be strong enough to’. F. FREQ.: 0.

ἵππεροϛ, ὁ ‘horse‐fever’. Aristophanes (Nu. 74). ET.: Formed from ἵππος, ὁ ‘horse’ on the model of names of ailments in ‐ερος, e.g. ὓδερος, ὁ ‘dropsy’, but also with a pun on ἔρως ‘love’. R. FREQ.: 1.

θαλασσερόϛ, ὁ kind of eyesalve. Galen (12. 781. 10)+. ET.: θάλασσα, ἡ ‘sea’. F. FREQ.: 0.

πτερόν, τό ‘wing’. Hom. (Il. 11. 454+)+. ET.: πέτομαι, aor. inf. πτέσθαι ‘fly’. ACCENT: Arc. 141. 18, 157. 14. F. FREQ.: 123.

(p.335) λῆροϛ, ὁ ‘trash, trumpery; idle talk’. Eupolis (in Ael. Aristid. 28. 92 = Eupolis fr. 205. 2 K–A)+. ET.: See App. 1.1 s.v. λῆρος ‘silly’. ACCENT: Arc. 78. 6. R. FREQ.: 16.

κλῆροϛ, ὁ ‘lot’. Hom. (Il. 3. 316+)+. ET.: Considered a derivative in ‐ρο‐ on the root of OIr. clār ‘board’, Gk κλῆμα, gen. ‐ατος ‘twig, branch’, the idea being that a κλῆρος was originally the object drawn as a lot. ACCENT: Arc. 78. 2. R. FREQ.: 396. TH.

μηρόϛ, ὁ (pl. μηροί, οἱ or μῆρα, τά) ‘thigh’. Hom. (Il. 4. 146+)+. ET.: Skt māṃsá‐ n., Goth. mimz ‘flesh’, from *mēmso‐. The neuter plural μῆρα is likely to be an old collective, from *mēmsreH 2; cf. Latin membra ‘limbs’; see Frisk (1960–70: ii. 230–1); Vine (2002: 333). ACCENT: Sch. Il. 1. 464a (A); cf. Sch. Il. 15. 320–1a1 (A). U. (The accent is certain, but classified here as ‘U’ because the accent of the masculine forms differs from that of the neuters.) FREQ.: No figure for the frequency of this word was obtained, because at the time of counting frequencies I thought the word μηρός should be excluded from consideration, given the plural μῆρα which suggests back‐formation from an old collective. It was only later, on reading Vine's work on ‐ro‐nouns with full‐grade roots (2002), that I learned that the same possibility arises for several other Greek ‐ρο‐ nouns and that it was therefore arbitrary to exclude μηρός while including the others. But by then the version of the Perseus corpus I had used to count frequencies (Crane 1999) was no longer available.

νηρόν, τό or νηρόϛ, ὁ ‘water’. (Condemned by) Phryn. (Ecl. 27). ET.: Contracted from νεαρός, old derivative on the root of νέος ‘young’. F. FREQ.: 0.

σταχυηρά, τά ‘plants that bear ears, cereals’. Theophrastus (HP 8. 2. 5; LSJ s.v. also take σταχυηρά as a noun e.g. at Theophrastus, HP 1. 11. 4, but this and other examples are more easily taken as adjectival). ET.: στάχῡς, gen. ‐υος ‘ear of corn’. Cf. App. 1.1 s.v. σταχυηρός ‘enclosed in an ear of corn’. F. FREQ.: 0.

βόθροϛ, ὁ ‘hole, trench’. Hom. (Il. 17. 58+)+. ET.: βόθῡνος, ὁ ‘hole, trench’. R. FREQ.: 31.

ὃρθροϛ, ὁ ‘time just before daybreak’. Homeric Hymns (4. 98)+. ET.: Probably built on the root *u̯ord h‐ of ὀρθός ‘straight’ (see Frisk 1960–72: ii. 416–17). ACCENT: Eust. 831. 61; cf. Van der Valk ad loc. R. FREQ.: 32. TH.

ἐχθρόϛ, ὁ ‘enemy’. Hesiod (Op. 342)+. ET.: ἔχθος, τό ‘hate’. Cf. App. 1.1 s.v. ἐχθρός ‘hated, hateful, hating’. ACCENT: Final accentuation is prescribed for the adjective ἐχθρός ‘hated, hateful, hating’ at Arc. 84. 18. F. FREQ.: OVER 500. TH.

ἐλαιρόϛ, ὁ liquid measure. Hero (Geom. 23. 64). ET.: ἔλαιον ‘olive oil’. F. FREQ.: 0.

(p.336) ἄκρον, τό (also ακροϛ, Schwyzer, DGE 664. 21) ‘highest or furthest point’. Hom. (Il. 5. 729+)+. ET.: ἀκμή ‘point, edge’; ἀκή ‘point’; ἀκών ‘javelin, dart’. Cf. App. 1.1 s.v. ἄκρος ‘at the furthest point’. R. FREQ.: 209. TH.

νεκρόϛ, ὁ ‘corpse’. Hom. (Il. 4. 467+)+. ET.: See App. 1.1 s.v. νεκρός ‘dead’. ACCENT: Arc. 84. 5, 84. 22 (adj. and noun not distinguished); νὲκρον at Il. 5. 298 on P. Oxy. ii. 223, col. 12 (3rd cent. AD). F. FREQ.: OVER 500. TH.

ἀλῑτρόϛ, ὁ ‘sinner’. Hom. (Il. 23. 595)+. ET.: See App. 1.1 s.v. ἀλῑτρός ‘sinful, wicked’. F. FREQ.: 1.

σταυρόϛ, ὁ ‘upright pale or stake, cross’. Hom. (Il. 24. 453+)+. ET.: Noun in ‐υ‐ρος on root *stH 2‐ of ἵστημι ‘stand’; exact correspondence with ON staurr ‘stake’ (see Risch 1974: 71; Frisk 1960–72: ii. 778). An alternative etymology (also involving a suffix ‐ro‐) is preferred by Vries (1961: 544 s.v. staurr). ACCENT: Arc. 79. 19. F. FREQ.: 20. TH.

γῦροϛ, ὁ ‘ring, circle’. Menander (in Phryn. Ecl. 393 = Menander fr. 245 K–A +)+. ET.: Formed on the root *geu‐/*gu‐ of γύαλον ‘hollow’, Avestan gav‐ ‘hand’: see Frisk (1960–72: i. 335–6, 330–1). Cf. App. 1.1 s.v. γῡρός ‘rounded, curved, crooked’. ACCENT: Eust. 638. 59, 907. 5, 1864. 5. R. FREQ.: 0.

λίγυροϛ, ὁ precious stone. Josephus (AJ 3. 168). ET.: λιγύς ‘clear, sharp’. Cf. App. 1.1 s.v. λιγυρός ‘clear, shrill’. ACCENT: At Josephus, AJ 3. 168, Niese prints λίγυρος but notes ad loc. that one MS (‘S’) has λιγυρός. R. FREQ.: 0.

ἄργυροϛ, ὁ ‘white metal, i.e. silver’. Hom. (Il. 18. 475+)+. ET.: Stem *H 2 erĝu‐ of Lat. arguō ‘make clear, show’, argūtus ‘clear, bright’; Skt árjuna‐ ‘white, bright, silvery’; Gk ἄργυϕος ‘silver‐shining, silver‐white’. ACCENT: Arc. 82. 11. R. FREQ.: 116. TH.

ἄλευρον, τό ‘wheat‐meal’. Herodotus (7. 119. 2)+. ET.: ἀλέω < *ἀλέƑω ‘grind’. ACCENT: Arc. 142. 8. R. FREQ.: 8.

ξυρόν, τό (rarely ξυρόϛ, ὁ) ‘razor’. Hom. (Il. 10. 173)+. ET.: ξύω ‘scrape, plane’; see Risch (1974: 70). ACCENT: Arc. 79. 7, 141. 10, 157. 13. F. FREQ.: 8.

λεπῡρόν / λέπῡρον, τό ‘shell, husk, rind’. Batrachomyomachia (131)+. ET.: λέπω ‘strip off the rind or husks, peel’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 387. 2) includes λέπῡρον in a list of Herodianic recessive words, taking Theognost. 131. 22 as evidence. Theognostus does not in fact mention the accent, although Cramer ad loc. prints λέπυρον. T. W. Allen likewise prints λέπυρον at Batrachomyomachia 131, but the Suda (λ 301) prescribes final accentuation. U. FREQ.: 0.

πίτῡρον, τό ‘bran’. Hippocrates (Acut. 21 (ii. 270. 9 Littré)+)+. ET.: Derivative in ‐ῡ‐ρο‐ on root of πτίσσω ‘husk, peel or winnow grain’, apparently with an anaptyctic ‐i‐. ACCENT: Arc. 142. 1–2. R. FREQ.: 2.

(p.337) ἀστυρόν / ἄστυρον, τό diminutive of ἄστυ ‘town’. Callimachus (in Et. Gen. α 1316 L–L = Callimachus fr. 261. 2 Pf.+)+. ET.: ἄστυ ‘town’. ACCENT: Lentz (1867–70: i. 387. 3) includes ἄστυρον in a list of Herodianic recessive words, taking Theognost. 131. 23 as evidence and reading there ἄστυρον for ἄτυρον (following Lobeck). Theognostus does not, however, mention the accent. Pfeiffer prints ἄστυρον at Callimachus fr. 261. 2 Pf., noting that the MSS of Et. Gen. have ἀστυρόν but appealing to Lentz (cited above) to justify recessive accentuation. Lasserre and Livadaras print ἄστυρον without comment at Et. Gen. α 1316 L–L (perhaps following Pfeiffer). At Suda α 4272 (= Callimachus fr. 260. 6 Pf.) both Adler and Pfeiffer print ἄστυρον without comment. Occurrences of the word on papyri of Callimachus are all unaccented. U. FREQ.: 0.

λάϕῡρα, τά ‘spoils taken in war’. Aeschylus (A. 578+)+. ET.: Root *?lm̥b h‐ of ἀμϕιλαϕής ‘taking in on all sides’, Skt lábhate ‘seize’, etc.; see Frisk (1960–72: ii. 91); Mayrhofer (1986–2001: ii. 435 s.v. RABH). R. FREQ.: 80.

ζέϕυροϛ, ὁ ‘westerly wind’. Hom. (Il. 2. 147+)+. ET.: According to Risch (1968), formed on the root of ζόϕος, ὁ ‘darkness’, with influence from words built on the root of δνοϕερός ‘dark’ (cf. ἰο‐δνεϕής ‘dark as the violet’), as a counterpart to *ἀργυρός ‘bright’. Risch supposes the accent changed when the word was substantivized. ACCENT: Ep. Hom. alph. ζ 2. R. FREQ.: 49.

τάϕροϛ, ἡ ‘ditch, trench’. Hom. (Il. 7. 341+)+. ET.: Root of θάπτω < *d h m̥b hi̯ō, aor. ἐτάϕην ‘pay the last dues to a corpse’; τάϕος, ὁ ‘burial, funeral, grave’. R. FREQ.: 150. TH.

δῶρον, τό ‘gift, present’. Hom. (Il. 1. 213+)+. ET.: Root *deH 3‐ of δίδωμι ‘give’. Corresponds to Arm. tur ‘gift’, OCS darŭ ‘gift, thanks’. ACCENT: Arc. 141. 13. R. FREQ.: OVER 500. TH.

Examples of excluded words: ἄσαρον (etymology unclear: see Frisk (1960–72: i. 160) ); βλέϕαρον (etymology unclear: see Frisk (1960–72: i. 243–4) ).


(13) According to Göttling (1835: 304–5), the manuscripts of Aristophanes regularly have recessive accentuation for the vocatives μόχθηρε and πόνηρε but final accentuation for the other cases of these adjectives. I have checked this assertion for codex Ravennas 137, 4, A by consulting the facsimile edition and found the convention to be followed almost consistently. If this convention reflects a genuine tradition—and it would be difficult to explain otherwise—, we would have direct evidence for the assumed paradigm in which the vocative is recessive and the other cases finally accented. As regards πῆρος, the vocative is unattested. The word is rare in all cases, however, so the non‐attestation of the vocative may be accidental.