Upholding the Pecking Order: Universities and Their Relations with Industry
This chapter examines the role Japanese universities have played in Japan's innovation system. It shows how, until recently, the Japanese system of university-industry technology transfer impeded the formation of startups. Recent reforms have improved the environment for academic collaboration with large and small companies alike. Although the legal framework governing technology transfer from universities to industry is now amenable to startup formation, the system still favours transfer of university discoveries to large rather than new companies. The chapter also shows how other institutional and social factors — for example career paths in academia, the system of research funding, and uncertainties related to conflicts of interest — contribute to an environment more suitable for large companies than for startups.
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