Raising and organizing standing armies
The first standing armies in the British Isles which contained experienced officers and could deploy sizeable field forces were the Scots Covenanting Army and the English New Model Army. The latter gradually displaced the English associational armies and eventually conquered the Three Kingdoms, and imposed a republican political settlement. Officers who were willing to learn by experience and reading military treatises came to appreciate that an expert knowledge obtained by training and drill were more valuable on the battlefield than valour and superior numbers. Many novice officers developed a more professional attitude to the business of war, but a high degree of politicization among both officers and men continued to disrupt discipline and contributed to political instability. Nonetheless, improved sources of finance and supply strengthened the military and naval forces and enabled the Commonwealth and Protectorate to lay claim to great-power status.
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