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International Competitiveness and Technological Change$

Marcela Miozzo and Vivien Walsh

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199259236

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259236.001.0001

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(p.325) Index

(p.325) Index

Source:
International Competitiveness and Technological Change
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.325) Index

Index Index
Aachen 264
Academie Royale des Sciences 39
Accenture 181
accounting 66
acquisitions 155, 245, 263
large cross‐border 284
actor‐networks concept 247–53, 278
advertising 196, 198–9, 245
often aiming to shock 259
AEG 66, 72
aerospace 57, 148, 240
Aerospatiale 239–40
AFM (Association Française contre les Myopathies) 192
AFME (l'Agence Française du Management de l'Energie) 249
agglomerations 278
agreements 242–3, 245
customer‐supplier 241
international 271, 274
purchase of technology by means of 285
sociological studies of 246
technological 275
see also CRADAs
AgrEvo 201, 239
agriculture:
modernized 115
survival of small producers with close links to 195
agrobiotechnology 239, 263
agrobusiness activities 202
agrochemicals 192, 197, 200, 201, 227, 261
agrofood sector 148, 189, 202
innovation in 192–9
AIDS activists 192
Aikenhead, G. 43
Airbus 239–42
airports 177
Akio, Morita 102
Akrich, M. 247, 250
Albu, A. 68
Alcan 214
alkaloids 186
alliances 133, 157
governments encourage 152
large and small firms 148
networks and 235–66
allocation of resources 74, 255
key mode of coordinating 253
alternative suppliers 107
Aluar 129
aluminium 213–14
AMD 108
American Cancer Society 251
Americanization 141
Amsden, A. 116, 117, 118, 221
androsterone 253
animal spirits 12, 13, 14, 28
annual bonuses 102
antitrust 161, 237
changes in policy in favour of alliances 288
penalties for collaboration 257
Aoki, M. 103, 104
AP Biotech 189
Applied Immune Sciences 201
appropriation 12
expansion in methods of 160
means of 168
new methods 189–90
private, of publicly sponsored research 158
Arcangeli, F. 258
Argentina 32, 38, 47, 113, 117, 224
crude petroleum 122–3
expansion in economic influence 129
(p.326)
machine tool consumption 124
placed by USA on ‘priority watch list’ 228
specialization 120, 121, 123
transgenic seeds 197
Ariel 276
arm's‐length transactions 245, 255, 277
greater reliance on 279
arms race 274
Arnold, E. 53
Arora, A. 271
Arrow, K. J. 225
artisan shops 259
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) 216
Asia Pacific 215
Asian crisis (1997–99) 104, 128
assembly lines 99, 103
asset specificity 255
assets 181
complementary 247, 261, 263, 285
financial 282
foreign 210, 286
intangible 218–19, 255
Astra 129
AstraZeneca 186, 189, 202, 270, 276, 284
AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) 80, 179
Athreye, A. 255, 270, 271
ATMs (automatic teller machines) 180
Australia 32, 38, 47
Austria 47, 289
automation 98, 144
partial 263
automobile industry 23, 76, 79, 95, 121, 131, 222, 277
world's second biggest producer 98
Aventis 189, 197, 201–2, 239, 270, 284
Aylen, J. 70
backward countries 114, 115, 116
backward integration 78
Bacon, Francis 43
bad loans 105
Baden‐Wurttemberg 86, 88
BAe Systems 239
balance of payments 214
balance of trade 31
bananas 224
bandwagon effects 118
Bank of Japan 95
bankruptcy risks 128
banks/banking system 97–8, 127, 128, 130, 154, 272
close links to 79
collapse of 65
concentration in City of London 67
cross‐border lending 282
development of 115
equity ownership of a firm 154
flooded with deposits 104
industrial 115
little ability or incentive to use financial leverage 66
major, nationalized 153
massive overborrowing from 128
privatization of 177
sources of easy money 105
unstable 104
Baran, P. A. 275
Barbados 224
bark collectors 252
Barras, R. 175, 176
barriers to trade 229
Bartlett, C. 276
BASF 72
batch production 103
Bayer 72, 189, 197
Bayer Crop Protection 201
Bayh‐Dole Act (US 1980) 158, 257
beef 224
beer and wine 193
BEFIEX (Brazil Fiscal Benefits for Special Export Programme) 130
Belarus 267
Belgium 39, 47, 218, 264
technological activities abroad 287, 289
Bell 240, 261
Belle Epoque 157, 271, 273
(p.327) Belussi, F. 258
Benetton 267
Benetton 90, 91, 258–9
BenQ 134
benzene 44
Berlin 75
Bessemer steel‐making 70
Best, M. 17, 76–7, 78, 79, 88, 90, 96, 97, 109, 110
big businesses 72, 75, 78
biodiversity 161, 227
lack of policing in protection of 228
biogenetic resources 228
bioinformatics 148, 260, 263–4
biological weapons 56
bio‐piracy 228
biotechnology 53, 86, 155, 161, 189, 200, 237, 245
advances in 186
agricultural 196
alliances in 148
commercialization of 201, 260
databases on 242, 243
dominance in 186
ethics of 162
first successful products of 202
impact of patenting living things 159
important basis on which wave of firms created 152
interdisciplinary combination for the design of therapeutic products 187
interfirm agreements in 246
large firm‐small firm linkages in 260–4
plant 193
specialist firms 193, 201
start‐up firms 52
venture capital funds to firms 156, 157
Birmingham 43
birth control movement 192
black box 7, 8
blood pressure 269
Bloomsbury group 13
Bocconi University 242
Boehringer 236
Boeing 224, 240
Bolivia 230
Bologna 88, 89
Bombardier 240
bonds and equities 282
boom 32, 35, 64, 274
and bust, Schumpeter's theory to explain 12, 14
Boston (Route 128) 106, 107, 108
botanical expeditions 161
botanists 252
bottlenecks 77, 170
critical 278
eliminated 78
Boulton, Matthew 143
boundaries between/within firms 106, 108, 278
bourgeoisie 274
Boyer, Robert 143
Boyle, Robert 40
brand names 190, 194, 221
foreign 132
Brazil 78, 113, 117, 124, 227
construction firms 230
important elements of industrial policy 129
important industry clusters 130
machine tool consumption 124
specialization 120, 121, 123
breast cancer 252, 253
Bresnahan, T. 133
Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) 274
BRIDGE (Biotechnology Research for Innovation, Development and Growth in Europe) 237
Bristol‐Myers Squibb 189, 257, 258
Britain 80, 114
academic scientists 40–3
de‐industrialization 214
economic and social institutions 64
economic decline 69
education and training 68–9
emergence of mass production technologies 90
foreign investment 67
genetic engineering in foods 199
(p.328)
government bonds owned abroad 270
important scientific discoveries and early innovations 144
Industrial Revolution 143, 161
industrialization 115, 116
internationalized technology 289
large electrical firms 66
legal partnership 161
loss of export market shares in manufacturing 23
manufacturing productivity growth and exports 63
medical and management schools 150
obstacles to transition to managerial capitalism 66
patenting 70
policy initiatives 152
R&D 6–7, 36–9, 46, 47, 50, 54, 55, 57, 58, 70, 186
Research Councils 151, 248, 249
service sector 148
significant innovations and innovating firms 168
start‐up firms 260
steel production 63, 70
university students 68
venture capital market 155
world trade 63
British Aerospace 239, 240
British Association for the Advancement of Science 43
‘British disease’ 64
British Dyestuffs Corporation 69–70
British Empire 67, 71
British Treasury 69
Brusco, S. 88, 89
BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) 198
bubbles 157
bulk chemical suppliers 252
Bull 237
Bureau of Land Management (US) 252, 258
bureaucracies 81, 93
Bush, George (Snr) 56, 208
business cycles 12, 14
business firms 146–9
Business Software Alliance 228
buy‐outs 156, 275
Byé, P. 195
CAD (computer‐aided design) 155, 172, 237, 258, 259, 260
Calgene 193, 239, 263
California 275
Callon, M. 46, 192, 247, 248, 249–50, 251, 255, 256
CAM (computer‐aided manufacture) 172, 182, 259
Camacari 131
Cambridge 222
Canada 31, 47, 213–14, 224, 260
cancer 51–2, 152
food that helps protect against 195
predisposition to develop 159
vitamin C and 192
see also NCI; Taxol
Cancer Research UK 46, 146
Cantwell, J. 212
capital 98
concentrated on key developmental projects 100
easily available 213
family 78
financial 67, 78, 157
globalization of 283
inducing entrepreneurs to bring 25
industrial 78
intensive sectors 134
international 113, 209
minority 132
privileged access to 127
reinvested 107
relatively unrationed 215
scarcity of 115
seed 155
self‐expansion of 209
start‐up 155
working 127
(p.329) capital accumulation 115
arbitrariness of 217
gradual 24
long‐term 208
capital formation 67
fixed 275
capital goods 119, 131, 176
complex, high‐value 167
internationally competitive 130
capital‐intensive economy 8
capital liberalization 94, 270
capital markets 65
access to foreign firms 20
constraints 102
internationalization of 280
capitalism 5
‘alliance’ 148, 235, 275
capital‐based 153
capital‐dominated 272
characterized 6
collective 86
credit‐based 153, 271
crises in 12
different models of 271
evolutionary process of 9
‘global monopoly’ 275
Golden Age of 274
internationalization of 273
proprietary 64–71
uniquely ‘vulnerable’ 13
varieties of 141, 270, 272
Capri 89
Cargill Seeds 201, 228
Caribbean 224
cartels 72, 93, 115, 235–6
CASA (Construcciones Aeronauticas SA) 239, 240
Cassier, M. 160
Catalan 228
catching‐up effort 35, 115, 116, 120, 231, 273
failure 119–35
Caterpillar 224
Cavanagh, J. H. 276, 277
Celanese 201
cell biologists 252
cell culture 161
cellular manufacturing 98
Centeon 201
Central America, see Latin America
central processing unit 110
centrally planned economies (former) 32, 34, 51
collapse of 272
legacy of 162
Cesaroni, F. 271
chaebol 118, 127–8, 133, 135, 138
Chakrabarty vs. Diamond (US Supreme Court 1980) 159
Chandler, A. D. 71
changeover times 97, 98, 99
charities 46, 146, 192
Cheer 276
chemicals 44, 69, 72, 80, 81–2, 192, 252
innovation in 186, 199–202
new techno‐economic paradigm based on 143–4
synthesis of 186
chemistry 262
combinatorial 260, 263
chemists 252
Chesnais, F. 55, 209, 210, 235, 243, 256, 258, 270, 273, 275, 280, 281, 283
Chicago 77
China 152, 216, 227
characteristics of Chinese communities abroad 162
dramatic export growth 23
entrepreneurship 162
inward stock of FDI 283
market reform 153
rapid growth of electronics exports 278
R&D 32, 33, 36, 37
Silicon Valley‐type clustering and networks 277
spectacular growth of private sector 272
transgenic seeds 197
very distinct institutions 141
virus‐resistant tobacco 197
China Xinxing Corporation 153
(p.330) Chinese Taipei 32, 47
chip design 277, 278
chip‐making equipment 109–10
Chiquita Brands 224
Choi, B .I. 231
Ciba 192, 236
Ciba‐Geigy 202
Cincinnati 240
Citicorp 129
City of London 67, 153
Clairmonte, F. F. 276, 277
classic multinationalization 207, 208, 209, 212
international production during 215
classification 219
client organization managers 181
clinical oncologists 252
clinical trials 192
Clinton administration 56
clothing industry 276, 277
CNA (Confederazione Nazionale dell'Artigianato) 92
CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) 39, 151
CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) 36, 151, 152, 248–9
Coca‐Cola 267, 269
Cofap 129
Cold War 7
end of 55, 56
collaboration 147, 155, 167, 245, 246
antitrust penalties for 257
coordination and 276
government‐industry 160
international 185
large firm‐small firm 263
profit‐making and not‐for‐profit organizations 187
promoted 237
technological, importance of 139
university‐based 237
collaborative alliances 201, 235, 236, 257
rise in establishment of 275
collateral 105
‘collective entrepreneur’ 87, 88
collective evaluation 40
Collegeville, Pennsylvania 284
colonialism 271, 273, 274
Colt, Samuel 76
commercial confidentiality 160, 190
commercial viability 260
commercialization 6, 30–1, 65, 200, 253
biotechnology 201, 260
genetically engineered foodstuffs 198
innovations in microelectronics 155
knowledge 222
modern technologies 100
penicillin 187
public sector research 151, 152, 158, 248, 249
radical new products and processes 5
technology 107
Committee of Inquiry into the Engineering Profession (UK 1980) 69
commodity chains, see global commodity chains
commodity chips 108
comparative advantage 8, 9, 25, 95, 120, 213, 214
interindustry trade based on 217
less‐developed countries do not have much 227
‘natural’, specialization towards 120
ownership‐specific 218, 220
competitive advantage 23–4, 109
global industries exploit 270
manufacturing 86
competitive focus 118
competitiveness indices 17–20
complementarities 17
more effective exploitation of 69
complementary assets 247, 261, 263, 285
compliance 161, 244
component suppliers 110
computers 53, 54, 151, 181
computer‐to‐computer transfer 229
(p.331)
network of 237
user‐supplier links in application of 236
concentration 27, 283
economic 129, 130
geographic 221
innovative activity in defence 54
production 207
regional 64, 66
R&D in industry 46
technological research 110
very long‐term tendencies towards 282
confidence to invest 12, 13, 14
conglomerates 200, 235, 262
Connaught 201
consortia:
marketing 239
research 235
see also SNP
consumption 79, 194, 268, 269
cosmopolitan character to 274
mass 115
norms of 195
patterns of 269
continuous improvement 87, 99–100, 102, 108
contracts:
exclusive‐use 160, 190
IT outsourcing 181
long‐term 181
public sector, openness to foreign bidders 20
Coombe, R. 158, 160
cooperation 101
international 288
non‐equity 239
public‐private 95
Cooperative Research and Development Agreements 31
‘cooperative rivalries’ 40
cooperatives 92
coordination 74
collaboration and 276
horizontal 103
organizational 167
copying 226
copyrights 157, 178, 189
acquiring and protecting 228
corporations with an interest in strengthening protection 223
harmonization of laws 227
core competencies 244, 279
core technology 118
corporate restructuring 104, 105
corruption 89, 115
‘developmental’ 128
Corvers, F. 264
costs 244
communication 3
fixed 66, 81
manufacturing 9
material 185
relative unit wage 23
sharing 245
technological exploration 113
transportation 3, 240
cotton 228
CRADAs (US Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) 158, 160, 190, 206, 257–8
craft systems/sectors 90, 222, 268
credit 130, 153
ease of flows 20
Credit Mobilier 115
Crop Science 201
cross‐licensing arrangements 188, 239
cross‐subsidies 129
CSIC (Spanish National Council for Scientific Research) 151
Cuba 230
Cubatao 131
cultural conservatism 63
cultural heritage 228
cultural property 161
cultural traditions 193
cumulative causation 212
currency 274
(p.332) customization 98, 177, 178, 268, 270
cyclical fluctuations 12
Czech Republic 32
Daimler‐Chrysler 224
Dankbaar, B. 264
Darwin, Charles 40
DASA (Daimler‐Benz Aerospace) 239, 240
Data General 108
databases 188, 190, 242–3
David, P. 39
DebRA (national charity) 46
DEC 108
DeCastro, Edson 108
decentralization 74, 86, 89, 91, 109, 284
divisions 79
flexibility of 101
growing volume of services 180
management 184
manufacturing 259
DeCode Genetics 160
Dedini 129
defective products 98, 99, 100, 101
defence‐related R&D 52, 53, 54–6
deinvestment 229
Delft technological university 264
delivery times 194
see also JIT
demand 26, 89, 190, 195, 269
aggregate 75, 79
flexible 25
overseas 215
patterns of 268
social shaping of 195
unsuccessful attempt to influence 245
see also market demand
demand‐pull forces 7
demergers 201, 202
Deming, W. Edwards 98, 99–100
Demirag, I. 154
Denmark 37, 88, 267, 284
interorganizational relations 185
depressions 13, 14, 274
deregulation 19, 130
effects of crisis blamed on 128
financial 154, 270, 279, 282
investment flows 3
pressures for 137
trade 3
De Solla Price, D. J. 38
detergent market 276
Detroit 78, 222
Deutsche Airbus 239
developing countries 32, 280
diagnostics 190, 197, 202, 263
Dicken, P. 277, 278
Digital Equipment 83
digitalization 179
diminishing returns 157
Dioscorea 236, 253
diosgenin 253
discovery‐push forces 7
disk drive industry 107
distribution 65, 71
barriers 224
mass 74, 77, 78
power to dominate 276
reducing the time in 196
revolution in 74
diversification 118, 166, 168, 172
diversity 166, 194
competition based on 195
genetic 161
divide and rule theory 209
dividends 104
division of labour 144, 175, 208, 287
higher 178
DNA 160, 189
doctors 190
Dodgson, M. 167
Dole 224
Dosi, G. 4, 17, 23, 143, 188, 214
Dow chemicals 201
‘downsize and distribute’ model 104
downsizing 178
downstream phases 7
downturns/downswings 56, 98
drugs 186–9, 191, 263, 269 (p.333)
over‐the‐counter 190
price of 252
DSIR (UK Department of Scientific and Industrial Research) 69
Dunning, J. H. 218, 235, 275
DuPont 5, 69, 72, 80, 107, 197
EADS (European Aeronautical Defence) 239
East Asia 113, 114, 216, 221
acquisition and assimilation of foreign technology 134
Chinese immigrants in 130
communications and electrical and electronic sectors 125
computers 125
divergent economic growth between Latin America and 119, 120
exports 126
FDI 131, 135
foreign‐owned firms 131–3
institutional arrangements 126
main agent of industrialization 126
multinationals and technology development 134
specialization machinery sectors 124
state support for firms and business groups 129
technological and trade specialization 125
Eastern Europe 34, 269
Eastman Kodak 107, 224
eclectic theory 209, 213, 218–19, 220
Ecole des Mines 247
Ecole Polytechnique 40, 55
economic crisis (late 1870s) 65
economic development 52–3
‘East Asian model’ 128
five consecutive stages 114
importance of machinery sectors for 119
nation mobilized for 93
successful, economic problems the result of 104
economic growth:
areas considered strategically important for 153
contributing in rest of the world 31–2
distortion of conventional indicators of 218
divergent 119, 120
dramatic 116
outstanding 117
promoting 31
rapid 7
economic performance 19, 21
important contribution to 214
economies of scope 91, 244
EDF (Electricité de France) 248, 249
EDI (electronic data interchange) 182
Edquist, Charles 143
EDS (Electronic Data Systems) 181
education 101
engineering 80
government needs to increase spending 25
importance for countries to invest in 25
mass 144
scientific 80, 81
technical 68, 81
educational institutions 146–50
efficacy 190, 244
efficiency 7, 27, 31, 77, 176
attaining 232
business 19, 20, 21
government 19, 20, 21
mechanical 44
operational 99
process 99
seeking 218
service sector 231
throughput 76, 79, 99
egalitarianism 150
Eindhoven technological university 264
Eisenberg, R. 158, 257
Elbaum, B. 64, 66, 69
electrical engineering 75, 80
(p.334) electrical industry 44, 69
dominant firms 66
equipment markets 72
electrical machinery 121
electricity 77, 248
generated by nuclear power stations 162
high‐voltage 69
standards in supply 268
electrification 144
electronics industry 131, 277
products 105
strategies of East Asian firms to use foreign connections in 132–3
elites 150
bureaucratic 93
institutional 150
political 128
e‐mail 279
Embraer 240
embryos 160
Emilia‐Romagna 88, 89, 92
employment:
conditions of workforce 182
high levels of 157
long‐term 102
power to dominate 276
promoting 31
EMRs (exclusive marketing rights) 227, 228
energy 249
energy‐intensive products 213
Engels, Friedrich 11, 274
engineering 44
college graduates 80
optical 75
poor status as a profession 150
precision 75
professionalization of 144
England and Wales 68
Enterprises Bureau (Japan) 95
entrepreneurial firms 87, 105
entrepreneurship/entrepreneurs 43, 53, 157
avoidance of hierarchical structures 107
ethos, culture and attitude towards 162
investment horizons of 115
necessary skills for 68
old‐style 74
Schumpeterian 12
entry barriers 118, 132, 170, 285
environmental campaigners 252
environmental costs 260
environmental protection 198
Epidermolysis Bullosa 46
Epstein, S. 192
equilibrium 5
Ernst, D. 277, 278, 279, 288
ESPRIT (European Strategic Programme of Research on Information Technology) 237
EU (European Union) 48, 49, 151, 164, 186, 246
common agricultural policy reform 230
elimination of barriers to trade in services 229
Environment Ministers' Council (1999) 199
Framework Programmes 237
free movement of labour 271
patent applications 228
policies for promoting regional development 264
trade wars with US 224
see also Triad
Euregion designation 265
Eurocopter 240
European Computer Research Centre 237
European Medicines Evaluation Agency 190
European Parliament 224, 245
European Patent Office 159
evolutionary economics 4, 8, 23, 24, 143, 190, 246
actor‐network theory strongly influenced by 253
exchange rates 274
exogenous variables 24
(p.335) expectations 14
early, disappointed 157
experimentation plants 109
expertise 25
specialist 244
technical, in‐house 70
experts:
meetings between 153
professional 198
exports 23, 122, 135, 215, 230
capital‐intensive goods 8
electronics 278
growth rate 126
high‐tech 218
illegal 224
industrial 89
intermediate inputs 129
large, manufactured goods 218
performance in 118
primary products, dependence on 130
promoting 98
share of, at current prices 281
world 24, 214
extended family break‐up 195
externalities 27, 222
exploitation of 19
Exxon 284
factor conditions 26
factor endowments 213, 215, 217
Faeroe islands 228
Fagerberg, J. 24, 214
Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation 106, 107
family control 66
fanatical volunteers 55
fashion 90, 195, 221, 276
information about trends 259
fast food 195
Faulkner, W. 7, 246
fax 229
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) 30, 190, 252, 253
approval for marketing of Taxol 258
FDI (foreign direct investment) 114, 131, 132–3, 135, 137, 277
comparison of trends in 281
driving internationalization more strongly than trade 207
elimination of screening 227
entry barriers high for 285
foreign loans preferred to 134
guided by characteristics of host economies 209
incentives and/or constraints on firms to resort to 209
increased importance of 235
increased rate of 275
integrating trade and 215
intra‐Triad 270, 283
need to attract 212
policy of forbidding 96
role in the world economy 210
strategic asset‐seeking 218
treatment under a services cover 231
very low compared to total investment 273
world's outward stock of 283
Federal Transfer of Technology Act (US 1986) 152, 158, 190, 257
feedback 7, 147
‘fifth generation’ innovation model 7
filière concept 278
final products 64
finance 67, 94, 115, 262
bank‐oriented business 103
deregulation of 279, 282
huge expansion of international flows 282
international 270
long‐term 65
financial control 104
financial crisis (1927) 93
financial institutions 153–7
new type of 107
financial markets:
deregulation of 270
powerful governance pressures over 280
(p.336) financial services 67–8, 172, 231
innovation in 176
financial stability 31
Finland 32, 37, 39, 47, 267
first‐mover advantages 167
First World War 274
fiscal deficits 230
Fiscal Investment Loan Plan (Japan) 95
Fisons 201
fixed capital formation 131
flexible production 25, 88, 97, 102
paradigmatic example of 89
flexible specialization 87, 98, 178
key factor in 149
recent transformation towards 222
float glass process 170
flow principle 76, 78, 98
‘flying geese’ idea 215
Fontainebleau 243
foodstuffs 129, 196, 268
genetically engineered 198
see also agrofood
Foray, D. 158, 160
Ford, Henry 76, 78, 79
Ford Motor Company 6, 76, 77–8, 79, 87, 99, 109, 267
Fordism 144, 149
forecasting system 95, 97, 219
Foreign Capital Law (Japan 1950) 94
foreign exchange 130
control of quotas of 153
need to generate 96
precarious position 230
reserves 284
foreign‐owned firms 128
presence and relations with 131–5
foreign sales corporations 224
Forestry Commission 252
formulary lists 191
forward integration 78
France 115, 284
engineering schools 150
financial system 154
intellectual property regime 158
largest companies owned by US pension and mutual funds 272
law restricting transmission of English‐language music 267
patents taken out from overseas locations 28
R&D 6, 36, 37, 38, 43, 46–7, 50, 54, 55, 57, 70, 186
spending on nuclear research 162
start‐up firms 260
state mediation in allocation of loans 153
state‐sponsored academies 40
‘trigger’ to encourage private funds 157
venture capital market 156
see also AFME; CNRS; INRA; INSERM
franchising 133
Frankfurt airport 177
Frascati Manual, The (OECD) 32
Fraunhofer Institutes 151
free markets 19, 117
freedom of entry and exit 229
Freeman, C. 4, 7, 12, 14, 17, 43, 66, 67, 95, 96, 142, 143, 146, 148, 149, 236
Friuli 92
FTC (Japanese Fair Trade Commission) 94
Fujitsu 181
‘futile’ economic models 3
‘gales of creative destruction’ 14
Gascoigne, R. M. 40
GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 137, 207, 223, 227–32
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 223, 224, 227, 229, 231, 233
GDP (gross domestic product) 35, 36, 37, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 273, 281
countries with extremely high ratios of trade to 218
global 34
per capita 3
GEC (General Electric Company) 66, 72, 80, 240, 275
(p.337) gene sequences 190
Genentech 237–9, 263, 275
General Motors 72, 79, 82, 224
turnover 284
generic products/names 30, 191
genetic diversity 161
genetic engineering 148, 196, 197, 198, 260
foods, collapse of support for 199
genetic sequences 159, 160, 189
Geneva 18
genomics 263
geographical location 215, 221–2
GERD (gross domestic expenditure on R&D) 48–9
Gereffi, G. 219
Germanic corporate governance system 184
Germany 67, 80, 114, 221, 264, 284
bank loans to firms 153–4
biotechnology sector 157
business and production organization 64
cartelization of banks and industry 115
chemical and dye cartel 235
chemical firms 72
economic development spending 53
engineering 68, 82, 150
export shares 23
financial services/system 68, 154
genetic engineering in foods 199
greens and environmentalists 162
industrialization 116, 143
managerial capitalism 66
national innovation systems 144
nuclear research spending 162
patents 70, 287
pharmaceuticals 81, 148
R&D 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 47, 49, 52, 54, 57, 70, 148
repressive policies towards trade unions 69
sales effort by manufacturing firms 75
scientific and technological achievements 71
steel production 63, 70
technological and economic gap with rest of world 273
venture capital market 156
Gershenkron, A. 115
Ghoshal, S. 276
Glaxo 186
Glaxo SmithKline 190, 228, 284
Glaxo Wellcome 189
global commodity chains 219–21
global competition 25
Global Competitiveness Report (WEF 2002–03) 17–18, 20
global markets 19
industrial latecomers cannot tap 113
globalization 1, 141, 154
innovation and 205–90
problems connected with 164
Glyn, A. 273, 274, 281, 283
GMOs (genetically modified organisms) 159, 161, 189, 193, 196, 198–9, 260, 266
advertising campaign to promote safety of 245
challenge to EU ban on 224
one of the best known producers of 202
take‐off in number of field trials worldwide 197
‘terminator’ cotton seeds 228
GNP (gross national product) 284
Gold Standard 273
‘good manufacturing practice’ status 252
government funding 50–3, 152, 157, 209
government intervention 20, 118, 138
indirect methods of 94
market failure used to justify 255
opposition to 53
policies constraining 113
political environment hostile to 56
proper role of 12
(p.338) government research laboratories 39
government role 126
GPNs (global production networks) 219, 221, 278, 279
GPT 275
Great Depression (1930s) 13, 274
Great Lakes 78
Greece 38, 47
Green, K. 143
green campaigns 162
greenfield investments 270
Greenpeace 159, 199
grievances 104
Griliches, A. 24
Guellec, D. 288
Guy, K. 53
GVC (global value chain) analysis 277
Hagedoorn, J. 246, 247, 288
Hannah, L. 66
Hardardóttir, K. E. 160
Hartford 76
Harvard tradition 5
Harvey, M. 194
Hassard, J. 247
Hassink, B. 264
Hayes, P. 235–6
Hayter, S. 277
health 192
health and safety:
regulations 200, 224
standards 113
health care 191
publicly funded 167
unequal distribution of 52
health foods 195
health services 230
Hecksher‐Ohlin theorem 213
Hegde, D. 271
Hegel, G. W. F. 11
Henderson, J. 128, 221, 277, 278
Herberts coatings 201
herbicides 196
Héroux‐Devtek 240
heuristics 24
Hewlett, William 107
Hicks, D. 271
hierarchies 106
high‐growth system 93
high‐technology sectors 57, 58, 71, 105, 186, 244
growth of agreements 242
large‐scale R&D‐oriented 221
lead in 81
need for investment in research, development and design 245
new rise in productivity 86
promoting the establishment of new firms 152
revitalization of industries 109
strong national differences in research intensity 148
higher education 68
large absolute numbers acquiring 101
new institutions of 82
sector public research establishments and 150–1
Highland Park 99
Hindi 228
Hirst, P. 283
Hobsbawm, E. 68, 80, 273
Hoechst 72, 197, 228, 239, 270
Hoechst Marion Roussel 201, 284
Hoffman‐La Roche 189, 237–9, 275
holidays abroad 268
Honeywell 108, 240
Hong Kong 218
horizontal integration 129
horizontal relations 26
hormones 224, 236, 251, 260
Horwitz, Susan 251
Hounshell, D. A. 76, 77, 78
household appliances 78
HP (Hewlett‐Packard) 83, 134
Hsu, J. 133
Huetteman and Cramer grain machine 77
Human Genome Project 188, 189
human rights 223
Hungary 32, 38, 47
infant mortality 52
(p.339) hydroelectricity 213
Hymer, S. 208–9
IBM 5, 83, 181, 189
Iceland 37, 39, 47, 160
Icelandic 228
ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) 69, 192, 202
ICL (International Computers Limited) 237
ICT (information and communications technology) 100–1, 110, 175, 179, 237, 242
IG Farben 69, 72, 235
IKEA furniture 267
illegal export subsidy 224
IMD (International Institute for Management Development) 4, 18, 19
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 3, 231
imitation 12, 25
immigration 130, 268
increased regulation 282
tightened controls against unskilled migrants 271
imperfect competition 217
imperialism 271, 274
nineteenth‐century, dominant features of 273
imports:
labour‐intensive goods 8
non‐labelled 199
raw material 153
technology 113, 226
see also ISI
in‐house R&D laboratories 40, 44, 64, 75, 80
argument used to justify creation of knowledge 255
disadvantage of 147
evolution of 43
importance of 149
inadequate replacement for 70
large 86
limited 45
long‐term relations between firms, university professors and 69
strong 261
incentive schemes 103–4
income distribution 129
India 227
computer software 230
rapid growth of electronics exports 278
seed patents 228
Silicon Valley‐type clustering and networks 277
individualism 53
Indupa 129
Industrial Bank (Argentina) 129
industrial districts 88, 91, 110, 256, 258
creation of business service centres 92
industrial leadership 143
industrial policy 88, 94
Industrial Rationalization Council (Japan) 95
Industrial Revolution 43, 63, 68, 115–6, 161
economic background to 273
industrial leadership in 143
industrial R&D 53, 57–8
industrialization 27
crucial commodity of 63
debates on 116–19
degree of success in 120
gradual nature of 115
latecomer 35, 114, 117
lessons for 113, 114, 116
state role in 81, 115
see also ISI
Industry and Innovation 278
industry clusters 25–6
important 130
infant‐industry considerations 231
infant mortality 52
information:
collection and diffusion of 153
international market 227
undisclosed 225
see also IT
(p.340) information flow:
mutual 101
vertical 106
information impactedness 255
information sharing:
informal 103
mechanisms for 25
infrastructure 19–20, 21–2, 53, 146
communications 71, 75, 149
deterioration of 130
education 150
national innovation 113, 117
science and technology 27, 271, 286
supplier takeover of 181
technical 27
transport 71, 149
innovation 1, 2, 4, 5, 24, 68
agrofood sector 192–9
alternative approach to 8–13
chemicals 44, 199–202
competitiveness and 20–7
computer systems 108
construction industry 181–5
defence 55
determinants of 7
economic performance and 27
electrical 44, 77
engineering 44
financial and business services 176
globalization and 205–90
incremental 101
management and accounting 54
organizational 6
pharmaceuticals 185–92
poor record of 69
R&D and 30
radical 97
regional 86, 106, 107
sectoral patterns 168–72
services 172–81
INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) 39, 151
INSEAD 236, 243
INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) 39, 151
Institut Mérieux 201
insulin 260
insurance 153, 191, 231
health 191
intangibility 180
intangible assets 218–19, 255
integrated circuit design 133
Intel 6, 86, 107–8, 109–10
intellectual property 151, 245
appropriability of 189
international pressure to introduce legislation 161
legal focus on those who own 158
new way of assigning 257–8
risk of loss of 110
seven main areas of 225
trade diplomacy related to 223
see also IPRs
interactivity 178
interchangeability 76
interest groups 93, 217
interest rates 154, 210
intermediaries 154, 245
expert 286
networks of 261
intermediate products 64
internal market characteristics 215
internalization 209, 218, 219, 220, 245
see also OLI
international division of labour 213, 218, 221, 271, 281
and integration of strategy and management 275–80
research 284
international production 210, 215, 219
relocation of 221
international trade 9, 22, 208, 209, 213, 214, 273, 274
effectiveness in 142
flows 125
growth of 209
liberalized 117
relation between technology and 215
internationalization 210, 235, 273, 275, 283
capital market 280
(p.341)
corporate management 270
ownership of financial assets 282
services 180
Internet 248
interorganizational relations 184–5
intranets 237, 279
inventories 99, 103
build‐up 77
inventors/inventions 157, 159, 260
foreign 288–9
incremental 158
IPRs designed to encourage 188
radical 158
investment:
deregulation of 3
directing income from consumption to 115
foreign 129, 155, 231
instability of 12
institutional 154
internal 275
international 209, 215
liberalized 117
long‐term 95
multinational 212
outward 209, 219
overseas 67, 278, 280
own‐brand, heavy losses in 132
productive 128
profitable, opportunities for 67
profits on 31
see also FDI
investors 253, 263
invisible hand 65, 74
Ipako 129
IPRs (intellectual property rights) 157, 161, 165, 227
designed to encourage inventors 188
differences between regimes in NIS 158
difficult to invoke 160
establishing and extending their scope 190
importance of 167
less‐developed countries granted greater protection of 224–5
protection of 226
rapid changes in what the public expects and accepts in 189
reform of legislation in Latin America 228–9
strengthening protection internationally 223
Ireland 218, 270, 289
ISI (import substitution industrialization) 129, 134, 209
Islam 195
Israel 32, 39, 47, 157
IT (information technology) 97, 172, 176, 200, 258
advances in 186
development and application of 175
innovations in 279
interfirm agreements in 246
non‐tradability of services changed by 180
outsourcing market 181
stimulus or enabling mechanism for globalization 280
venture capital funds to firms in 156
see also ICT
Italy 38, 47, 50, 54, 57, 58, 67, 144, 221, 267, 273
industrial districts 256, 258
patents taken out from overseas locations 287
researchers 43
service sector 148
see also CAN; CNR; Third Italy
J‐form (Japanese) structure 103, 104
Japan 35, 132, 134, 144, 221, 253, 273
automobile industry 23, 98, 103, 267
car firms manufacturing in UK 270
country league tables 3
economic development spending 53
electronic capital goods 119, 267
engineering 150
export shares 23
fabrication competencies in semiconductors 239
financial system 154, 155
(p.342)
high‐tech sectors 186
industrial leadership in Industrial Revolution 143
intellectual property regime 158
joined OECD (1964) 32
lean production 78, 98, 147
manufacturing competitive advantage 86
mass education and training 144
microelectronics industry 56
minority capital or non‐equity participation 132
new competition 87, 92–105
NIS 144
patents taken out from overseas locations 287
production facilities and technology flowing outwards from 215
production networks in electronics 277
R&D 7, 36–9, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 57, 70, 148
steel production 70, 96
technology policy 153
trading companies 133
very large firms making long‐term investments 108
see also Triad
Japanese Development Bank 94, 95
Japanese Management System, see Toyotism
Jidoka 98
JIT (just‐in‐time) production 97, 98, 99, 100, 144–5, 194, 222
job hopping 106
job rotation 101, 103–4
job security 151
Johnson, C. 92, 93, 94, 102
Johnson & Johnson 284
joint private‐public companies 94
joint ventures 132, 133, 236–7, 239–40
compulsory 230
majority locally‐owned 134
rise in establishment of 275
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes 75
kaizen 100
Kaldor, M. 55, 56
Kawaura, A. 154
Keeble, D. 270
Keele University 247
Kefauver hearings (1950–51) 190–1
keiretsu 100, 101, 144, 154, 256
Kekulé, F. A. 44
Keynes, John Maynard 10, 12, 13, 14, 79
KIBS (knowledge‐intensive business services) 173, 178, 180, 181
Kim, L. 278
Klann, William 77
Kleiner, Eugene 107
Kline, S. J. 7
know‐how 219, 255
knowledge:
commercialization of 222
coproduction of 192
diffusion of 225, 278
dissemination of 249
encouraging maximum diffusion of 157
extremely important body of 52
fundamental 52
important advances in 253
indigenous 161
outside 244
potentially profitable 39
pursuit of 249, 252
sharing 103
specialized 175, 181
tacit 244, 245, 278, 286
technology and 271
knowledge accumulation 247
institutions supporting 113
knowledge boundaries 167
knowledge creation 213, 255
geography and 221–2
knowledge‐intensive industries 93, 95, 277
see also KIBS
(p.343) Kodak 80
Koekkoek, K. A. 231
Kondratieff waves 13, 14, 32, 64, 66, 80, 271, 273, 274
Korea, see South Korea
Krugman, P. R. 22–3, 217
Krupps 72
Kuhn, T. 188
labour 282
cheap 132, 213
direct 97
eliminated by machinery 77
expensive 8
fair 230
flexibility of 89
free movement of 271
indirect 97
international movement of 271, 282
live, applied volume of 12
nature and 159, 160
productivity differentials 119
revisions in the process 78
shedding 104
substitution of machines for 175
labour costs 20, 185
high 215
relative unit 214
labour‐intensive operations 218
final goods 120
low‐skilled 230
sourcing of components 219
labour markets:
crucial changes in 179
reserve army 12
laissez‐faire 12
Lall, S. 3, 18, 23
Lancaster University 247
Lang, T. 194
Langlois, R. N. 54, 279
languages 228, 250, 265
LAREA/CEREM database (Université de Paris X) 242, 243
Larédo, P. 142, 143, 146, 256
large‐scale producers 170
latecomer countries 35, 114, 115, 116, 117
tiny firms 133
Latin America 113, 114, 224
development of manufacturing industry 130
East Asia and 119–35
foreign‐owned firms 131
grupos 118
institutional arrangements 126
international integration 135
IPR legislation 228–9
large domestic firms allowed to appropriate important rents 129–30
machinery and transport equipment sectors 130
main agent of industrialization 126
multinationals and technology development 134
role of FDI 131
stagnation in manufactured export performance 126
technological and trade specialization 125
Latour, B. 247, 250
Lausanne 19
Law, J. 247, 251
laws of thermodynamics 44
Lazar, F. 230
Lazonick, W. 17, 25, 64, 66, 69, 104–5
lean production 78, 98, 109
key feature of 147
learning 117, 244
gradually assimilated 216
learning‐by‐doing 149, 196
legal institutions 157–61
Lego toys 267
Le Monde 154–5
Lenin, V. I. 11
Leontieff paradox 8, 119, 215
less‐developed countries 32, 96
attitudes towards GATS 231
boost to agricultural productivity 224
demand 215
foreign economic presence in 219
(p.344)
implications of product cycle derived for 215
impoverishment of farmers 230
intellectual property protection 224–5, 226
invalidated concessions ostensibly given to 227
organizations, technology and 113–38
privatization 272
share of FDI 283
structural transformation problem 19
TRIPS and 228 liberalization 3, 120, 130
liberalization:
‘autonomous’ efforts 231
capital 94
international trade and investment 117
investment 227
pressures for 137
services and goods 232
licences/licensing arrangements 134, 157, 188, 241
higher fees 226
individual, multiple use of 228
national authority 190
purchase of technology from overseas firms by 285
Liège 264
life sciences 202, 225, 227
limited liability companies 144, 161
liquid detergents 276
List, Friedrich 116, 143
living standards 31, 249
decreasing 25
lobbying 129, 192, 198, 223, 262, 286
location‐specific variables 220
locational advantages 209, 212, 219
Lodorfos, G. 200
loggers 252
Loi de Programmation et d'Orientation (France 1982) 152
Loi Toubon (France 1994) 267
Loma Negra 129
London 221
long waves 12
see also Kondratieff
looms 98, 99
Los Angeles 88
low‐technology activities 58
low‐wage countries 218, 219
loyalty 106
Lufthansa 177
Lundvall, B.‐A. 142, 143, 149, 236
M‐form (multidivisional) structure 72–4, 91, 103–4, 144
Maastricht 242, 243, 264–5
McCormick agricultural reapers 76
McDonald's 267, 269
McGuire, William 251
machine tool industry 75–6
machinery sectors 119, 121, 122, 124, 129
internationally competitive 130
Machline 129
Machlup, F. 225
Macintosh 228, 268
McMeekin, A. 195
macroeconomic policy 210
macromolecules 264
Macy's 74
Made in America (MIT 1989) 83
mail order 74
Main Science and Technology Indicators (OECD) 31, 34, 48, 50, 52
Major, John 208
majority‐owned affiliates 134
make‐or‐buy decisions 167
Malaysia 218, 278
management:
decentralization of 184
internationalization of 270
IT‐intensive techniques 258
limitation to powers of 69
necessary skills for 68
new practices 182
professionalization of 66, 144
strategic 247
sustainable 252
technology 77
(p.345)
visible hand of 71, 74
managerial capitalism 62, 64, 69, 70, 71–82, 91, 101, 104, 106
heyday of 110
managers well equipped to implement organizational structures and operating procedures 108
obstacles to transition from proprietary to 66
Manaus 131
Manchester 43
Manhattan Project 52
manufacturing sectors 117, 196, 217
convergence between services and 178
scale advantages in single location 215
strongly decentralized 259
maquiladoras 121
Marches 92
Marconi Communications 275
Marconi Electronic Systems 239
Marconi SpA 275
marginalization 274
Marion Merrell Dow 201
Marker, Russell 253
market demand 103, 152
crucial contribution to 194
forecast 103
market failure 52, 53
arm's‐length transactions involving knowledge 255
protecting against or exploiting 220
market opportunities 195
market power 209
market share 23, 102
competition over 244
fallen 108
largest, world drugs market 186
loss of 83
small 64
market signals 269
innovations stimulated by 7
market structure 5
marketing 101, 194, 210, 221
approval for 258
drug firms 190–1
export 92
internationalized 195
mass 79
see also EMRs
marketization 178
markets:
access to 229
constantly shifting 90
defence 55
domestic, importance of nature of 25
excitement generated by rapid growth of 12
export 92, 274
finance 154
foreign 219
import 225
international, competitive performance in 7
knowledge 271
large and/or high income 215
new, importance of 219
niche 195
obsession with 6
oligopsonistic or monopsonistic 191
overseas 153, 269
potential 199
regional 276
securities 154
traditional method of creating 199
venture capital 155, 156
Marks, L. 192
Marx, Karl 2, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 114, 208, 274
Marxism 116, 209
mass production 69, 70, 77, 78, 87, 91, 175, 268
emergence of technologies 90
indicator of success in 99
machine tool industry very important for 75
main instrument for managing 71
opportunities for 79
standardized products 178
trade‐off presumed in 98
underpinned by two principles 76
Massachusetts 75, 108, 240
Springfield Armory 76
(p.346) material rewards 102
Mattoo, A. 232
maturity 157, 175–6, 210
Max Planck Institutes 151
Mazzoleni, R. 158
Méadel, C. 195
means of production 12
mechanization 76
medical research 46
medication 269
medium‐technology sectors 57–8, 242
memory production 108
mercenaries 55
Mercosur 151, 271
mergers 202, 245, 276, 284
large cross‐border 284
mergers and acquisitions 285
increased concentration via 282
international 270, 275
waves of 235, 275
MERIT/CATI database (University of Maastricht) 242, 243, 264
Messier‐Dowty 240
Mexico 32, 38, 47, 113, 117, 236, 253, 289
electrical machinery and transport equipment 124
infant mortality 52
machine tool consumption 124
‘maquila’ 135
specialization 120, 121, 123
microelectronics 14, 53, 54, 56, 97, 151, 261
commercialization of innovations 155
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation 237, 257
microprocessors 110, 218
Microsoft 110, 224, 268
microwaves 248, 249, 250
middle managers 72
mid‐technology industries 117
Milan 242
Miles, I. 173, 177, 178, 229
military procurement 53, 54, 55, 56, 167
milling and bread‐making 193
minicomputers crisis (1970s and 1980s) 108
Minnesota 78
Mintz, S. W. 194–5
Miozzo, M. 120, 121, 229
Mirowski, P. 5
MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 83
Industrial Liaison Programme 107
MITI (Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry) 93–7, 100, 153
important role of 144
Mitsubishi 100
Mitsui 100
Mitterrand, François 47
Model T 99
Modena 88, 89
modularization 110
molecular biology 52, 260, 262
breakthroughs in 152
molecules 160, 188, 200, 237, 252, 260, 263
money 270, 280
easy 105
monopoly 157, 158, 188, 236, 258
greater scope for 226
natural 179
reducing the level of 209
monopsony 191
Monsanto 189, 192, 197, 198–9, 201, 202, 228, 239, 245, 263
Monsanto Egypt 224
Morgan 79, 82
Morrill Land Grant College Act (US 1862) 80
Morris, D. 236–7
motivation 24, 98, 102
Motorola 189
movement of people 230, 268, 271, 282
Mowery, D. 25, 45, 54, 80, 167, 246, 257
multidisciplinary teams 109, 111
multidivisional firms 86, 118
large (chemical), with extensive resources 187
see also M‐form
multi‐domestic industries 270
(p.347) multimedia 279
multinationals 3, 96, 130, 131, 158, 207–34
application of genetic engineering to food 198
changes in forms of organization and management structures 281
contribution to absorption of modern technology 134
drug firms 188, 275
establishing standards abroad 285
food and beverage, patents granted to 196
increased levels of intrafirm trade 235
interconnected 276
large (chemical), with extensive resources 187
largest now controlling much more of world economy 281–2
leading 134
location of research facilities 288
monopolistic advantage by overseas production 286
most powerful 276–7
most still have a strong national base 280
openness towards 134
operation in services sector 180
organization and management of 207
participation in production systems dominated by 114
skills learned from 132
vertically integrated 279
multi‐skilled workers 98
Muscular Dystrophy Society (UK) 46
see also AFM
Mustar, P. 142, 142, 146, 248, 249, 256
mutual funds 155, 272
Myers Squibb 31
Myriad Genetics 160
Mytelka, L. K. 270
Nacelles 240
NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Area) 151, 271
Nanterre 242
nation states 283, 284
National 108
national character 92, 93
National Cooperative Research Act (US 1984) 237, 257
National Institute of Economic and Social Research (UK) 214
national security 53, 56
National Standards Institute (Germany) 75
nationalistic policies 274
nationalization 47
‘natural food’ 195
natural philosophy 43, 44
natural resources 120, 213, 219
industries which make intensive use of 129
rents based on exploitation of 129
NCEs (New Chemical Entities) 186
NCI (US National Cancer Institute) 30–1, 51, 251, 252, 257, 258
Nelson, R. R. 4, 5–6, 17, 24, 25, 80, 83, 143, 158, 246, 257
neoclassical economics 4
criticized from within 12
one of the central assumptions of 24
neo‐Schumpeterian economics 4, 8, 17, 23, 24, 143, 246
Netherlands 36, 144, 156, 218, 273
technological activities abroad 287
see also Maastricht; TNO
networks 66, 86, 198, 221
and alliances 235–66
complex 187, 188
craft 195
distribution 65, 261
global 141
heterogeneous 188
information 173–5
international commercial 133
open system 110
personal 105, 106
R&D 101
scale‐intensive 173–5
(p.348)
small‐ and medium‐sized firms 85, 130
specialized international computer 180
supplier 101
user‐supplier 236
worldwide intracorporate 207
see also GPNs; keiretsu
neutraceuticals 195, 197
new competition 86–105, 106
New England 75
new entrants 167, 200
barrier to innovation for 245
nineteenth‐century 186
new knowledge 44
efficiency at using 244
strategic alliances which generate 285
technological, from abroad 288
way in which produced 7–8
new production concepts 99–100
new products 191, 201, 260
development of 102
multiple nodes responsible for design of 110
producers more aware of the possibility of introducing 215
significant 188
new technology 55–6, 91, 181, 201
collaborative production of 236
complex 130
diffusion of 144
early upsurge of 157
jobs generated 105
main source of funding for businesses 155
military applications of 274
new opportunities posed by 200
services use of 173
trade theories 23
transmission of 176
upsurge and subsequent life cycles of 157
new trade theory 217–18
New York 221
New Zealand 32, 38, 47
Newton, Isaac 40
NGOs (non‐governmental organizations) 228
NIAID (US National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases) 56
NICs (newly industrializing countries) 32, 36, 51, 67, 113, 144, 216, 221, 273, 280
activities used to great effect by 226
growth in demand for processed food 195
sophisticated value‐adding work 277
NIH (US National Institutes of Health) 51, 151, 152, 158, 257
NIS (national innovation systems) 27, 113, 117, 141–65
effects of trade and international investment on 209
prevalence of 205
Nissan 87, 88
Nixon, Richard 51–2, 152
Nobel prizes 81
Noble, D. F. 74
Nokia 267, 269
non‐discrimination 20
non‐price factors 9, 22, 23, 214
non‐tariff barriers 134, 288
swept away 231
Nordhaus, W. D. 225
Nordic countries 36
norms 150, 195
Norway 284
not‐for‐profit organizations 187
Novartis 159, 189, 197, 202
Noyce, Robert 108
NSF (US National Science Foundation) 151, 248–9
nuclear technology/research 7, 162
Nuffield Council on Bioethics (1999) 159
ODM (own‐design manufacture) 132, 133, 134
(p.349) OECD (Organization for Economic Co‐operation and Development) 27, 36, 38, 39, 47, 51, 258, 259, 275, 283
allowing greater access to markets 113
changing needs of countries 7
comparative figures for gross domestic expenditure on R&D 146
economic development spending 53
exports 96, 126
indices regularly published by 3
loss of much economic sovereignty 210
main source of funding for new technology‐based businesses 155
multinationals concerned with supply‐side features of countries 212
nine types of competitive and pre‐competitive agreement 237
patents 289
price of drugs strongly controlled 191
privatization 272
Technology and the Economy 54
venture capital schemes 156–7
OECD Observer 156
OEM (original equipment manufacture) 132, 133, 134
offshore activities 224, 277
Ohno, Taiichi 98
oil 93, 193, 235
OLI (Ownership Location and Internalization) paradigm 218, 219
oligopolies 118, 134, 191, 222
world/global 25, 186, 210, 235, 270, 280, 281
Olsen, Ken 108
Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (US 1988) 231
on‐line inspection 102
‘oncomouse’ patent 159
‘open science’ 39
openness 108
operational practices 103
opportunism 128–9
expectation of 255
opportunity costs 200, 245, 260
optical engineering 75
oral contraceptives 192
organic chemistry 44, 69
organic foods 195
organized criminal groups 55
Organon 236
O'Sullivan, M. 154
output:
greater increases in 221
network 187
quotas 98
relatively high ratios of capital to 115
outsourcing 167, 180, 181, 246, 277
services activities 178
ovarian cancer 251, 253
overseas expansion 209
Pacific yew tree 250–1, 257
packaging and labelling 194
Packard, David 107
Pálsson, G. 160
Panama 230
Papanastassiou, M. 287
paramilitary groups 55
Paris 247
Parke Davis 236
Parma 88, 89
PASA 129
Pasteur Mérieux Connaught 201
Patel, P. 142, 222, 269
patents 24, 45, 70, 94, 98, 125, 160, 170, 189, 287, 288–9
corporations with an interest in strengthening protection 223
cross‐licensed 107
efforts to safeguard 228
few generated 195–6
granted to food and beverage multinationals 196
harmonization of laws 227
(p.350)
living things 159
market encouraged in 188
narrow 157
novel chemicals 159
output of public sector research 158
pharmaceutical 229
publication of 225
seed 228
worldwide 222
patients' organizations 192
patronage 40
Pavitt, K. 8, 23, 53, 70, 142, 166, 167, 168, 170–2, 173, 182, 185, 199, 214, 222
Pax Britannica 273
payoffs 24
Pearce, R. 287
peer appraisal 40
penicillin 81
commercialization of 187
Pennsylvania State College 253
pension funds 155, 270, 272
People's Liberation Army (China) 153
Perez, C. 12, 14, 143, 157, 163
Perez Companc 129
perfect competition 88
performance standards 118
monitorable 129
peripheral regions 219
perishable goods 196
Perkin, W. H. 44
pesticides 192, 193
Petrobras 130
petrochemicals 129, 131, 133, 201
petroleum 75, 260
refineries 121, 122, 123
Petroquimica Bahia Blanca 129
Pfizer 186, 189
pharmaceuticals 52, 57, 81, 167, 260, 288
alliances between large established firms 148
demand for products 152
exclusive marketing rights for 227
foods which compete with 195
innovation in 185–92
integrated strategy and approach to management 284
international mergers and acquisitions 270
research‐based producers 223
Pharmacia 189
Piacenza 88
Pianta, M. 54, 55
piece‐rate payment 77
Pilkington 170
Piore, M. 89, 222
‘pipeline’ principle 227, 228
piracy 227
Pisano, G. 191
plan‐do‐check‐act management 99
Plant Genetics Systems 201
Plant Screening Program 252, 253
Plant Variety Protection Act (US 1970) 159
plastics 45
Plessey 275
Poland 32, 38, 47, 52, 289
Polisur 129
political change 157
political control 271
political organizations 162
political parties 92
political pressure 192
pollution 162
population movements 230, 268
Porter, Michael 18, 25–6, 277
portfolio investments 270
overseas 67
Portugal 38, 47, 284
Posner, M. 9, 214
postgraduate training 150
pound sterling 67
poverty 269
Powell, W. W. 246, 247
Pratt & Whitney 240
precision engineering 75
predictions 95
preferences 268
pressure groups 192, 252
prestige 31
price competition 12 (p.351)
focus on 8
local, intense 88
unimportant in pharmaceuticals 191
prices:
cartel agreements on 235
export 23
keeping down 195
monopoly 188, 258
relative 117, 118
Priestley, Joseph 40
Prilosec 186
Prime 108
private military companies 55
privatization 47, 120, 178, 272
banking and telecommunications 177
government laboratories 39
problem‐solving 24, 25, 99
process‐centred industries 119
process innovations 166, 170, 175
constraints on choices regarding 172
Procter & Gamble 276, 277
procurement policy 130, 151
product‐centred sectors 119
product cycles 209, 214, 215–16
shortening 244
product differentiation 196, 215
extensive 212
factors associated with 217
significant 269
product innovations 166, 176
constraints on choices regarding 172
product markets 65
wholly new, opening up 176
production 3, 6
complementary 88
decentralization of 89
globalization of 213, 222, 267–90
industrialized 195
inefficient 9
large‐scale 103
local ownership of 221
location of 215
manufacturing 129
national systems 207, 208, 209
new international distribution of 213
organization of 7–8, 221
reinvented 86
revolution in 74
social character of 12
split up into component procedures 74
unprecedented levels of 75
production boundaries 167
production costs 20
concern over 215
production engineering departments 170
production‐intensive firms 170
productivity 17, 23, 74, 99, 101, 185, 196
agricultural, boost to 224
low 9
maximizing 256
quality and 98
R&D and 24
slowdown 86
professional associations 82
professionalization:
engineering 74, 144
management 66, 79, 144
science and technology 39–46
profit:
ensuring that it accrues mainly to shareholders 189
maximizing criteria 24
tax exemption on 224
profitability 102, 127, 256
progesterone 236
promotional material 198, 199
propaganda 56, 198
protection(ism) 130, 227
intellectual property 189
minimum standards of 225
patent and copyright worldwide 223
potential 231
retroactive 228
weaker 157
proteomics 263
Prussia 81
(p.352) public opinion 192
public policy 146, 151–3, 199
public relations 199
public sector research 150, 252, 260
commercialization of 151, 152, 158, 248, 249
purchase of technology from 285
pureplay foundries 133
quality 90, 108, 195
quality assurance 177
quality circles 101–2
quality control 92, 99–100, 196
greatly improved techniques 102
statistical 98
suppliers subjected to 130
quality of life 20
Quanta 134
‘quasi‐firm’ form 185
quotas 224, 230, 270
eliminating 217
R&D (research and development) 2
‘biologization’ of 186
comprehensive 239
construction industry 183
cooperative 70
government 240
importance of 113
institutions carrying out 38–9
international collaboration in 289
low levels of 69
manufacturing the main source of 118
military 56
overseas labs 271, 285, 287
pharmaceutical industry heavily dependent upon 191
plant biotechnology 193
plant breeding 193
public sector agricultural 196
reason for doing 31
relationship between innovation and 30
relocation of facilities 20
scale of 142
where most is done 32–7
widespread interfirm cooperation in 101
R&D expenditure 70, 109, 146, 148
construction 183
defence‐related funding and procurement 167
food 195, 196
heavy investment in 132
large budgets 196
massive private and public investments 81
organizations which fund 46–58
productivity growth and 24
relatively large 6–7
relatively low 143
sales 185
services 173
Rabeharisoa, V. 46, 192, 195
Rama, R. 195–6
Ramirez, P. 188–9, 276, 284, 288
raw materials 75, 95, 153
bulk purchasing of 92
demand for 274
importing on credit 98
plant or animal 160
Reagan, Ronald 47, 56, 208
recession (1990s) 105
re‐engineering 78
Reggio Emilia 88, 89
regulations 152, 272
broadcast advertising 190
environmental 161, 223
financial 128
health and safety 200, 224
labour 20
need for a new regime of 157
pollution 162
safety 161, 185, 197–8, 269
Reich, R. 25
Renaissance 39
Reppy, K. 54, 55, 56
reproductive technology 160
(p.353) reputation 225
building 40
damage to 244
research corporations 237
see also R&D
retailers 194, 199, 258, 259
reverse engineering 101, 147, 226
reverse product cycle 175–6
‘Revolution in Military Affairs’ 56
revolutionary class conflict 114
Rhodia 201
Rhône‐Poulenc 47, 197, 239, 270
Rhône‐Poulenc Pharma 201, 284
Rhône‐Poulenc Rorer 201, 284
Ricardo, David 213
rice genome 199
Richards, E. 192
rights of possession 158
see also IPRs
Rio Grande do Sul 130–1
risk‐taking 161, 162
rivalry 26, 27
River Rouge 99
robotics 97
Roche 263
Rolls Royce 240
Romania 32, 47
Rorer 201, 284
Rosenberg, N. 7, 8, 55, 148
Rostow, W. W. 114
Rothwell, R. 7, 70, 148, 167
Rousseau, J.‐J. 116
Roussel 236
Roussel‐Uclaf 201
Royal Society 39, 43
royalties 94
rules of thumb 24
Russia 114, 115, 116
Russian Federation 32, 39, 47
Sabel, C. 86, 89, 222
safety:
food 197–8
pharmaceutical products 190
SAGB (Senior Advisory Group on Biotechnology) 245, 246
Sainsbury Report (UK 1967) 190
Saint‐Simon, C. H., Comte de 116
sales 75
highly decentralized network 259
Salter, W. 24
Samsung 118
sanctions 223, 231
Sandoz 192, 202
Santa Catarina 131
São Paulo 131
Sauve, P. 231
savings 13, 130
Saxenian, A. 105, 106, 107, 133, 222, 277
scale economies 91, 92, 97, 179, 181, 195, 221–2
intraindustry trade based on 217
loss of 286
manufacturing and banking 100
significant 212
technological skills used to exploit 170
tension between need for economies of scope and 244
Scheele, Carl 40
Scherer, F. M. 225
Schering AG 201, 236, 239
Schumpeter, Joseph Alois 2, 9–12, 13, 14, 17, 246
Schumpeterian competition 87
science 7, 44, 101
basic 158, 244
desire for more direct control over 44
science and technology 7, 27, 30–59, 109, 149
location and sourcing of 3
professionalization of 39–46
science‐based firms/activities 170, 175, 199, 200
potential for developments on which multinationals can build 212
Science Parks 152
scientific knowledge 31, 157, 236–7
crucial factor in production of wealth 33
scientific management 74, 77, 78, 79
scientific paradigms 188
(p.354) Scottish Homes Agency 184
Searle 189
Sears, Roebuck and Co. 74
Seattle 240
‘second industrial divide’ 86
second‐sourcing arrangements 107
secrecy 106
security services 55
seeds 159, 192–3, 200, 201
hybrid 228
‘terminator’ 228
transgenic 197
selection environment 24, 25, 186, 190, 199
difficulties in 200
non‐market parts 197
possibility of influencing 286
self‐employed workforce 89
self‐stopping machines 99
self‐sufficiency 274
Sematech (government program) 56
semiconductors 55, 106, 107, 118, 133, 222, 277
efforts to become the ‘big three’ of the industry 108
fabrication competencies in 239
high value‐added and customized 108
semi‐finished products 218
Senker, J. 7, 246
Serfati, C. 55
services sector 58, 148, 277
central 219–21
foreign 229
innovation in 172–81
production and exchange 227
sex hormones 236
Sextant Avionique 240
shareholders 154, 272
Siderca 129
Siemens 66, 81, 237, 275
Silicon Valley 105–10
attempts to copy 222
Silverberg, G. 24
Simonetti, R. 210, 235, 270, 273, 275, 281, 283
Singapore 32, 218, 230, 278
Singer sewing machines 76
Singh, S. 287
Single Market programme 227
Sinos valley 130–1
skilled labour 95
employers' reliance on 66
local access to 64
Sloan, Alfred P. 79
Slovak Republic 32, 52
Slovenia 32
small firms 88, 194, 194, 259
alliances with, as a window of opportunity 262
barrier to innovation for 245
establishment of 152
independent, innovative 265
may be quickly bought up 155
purchase of technology from 285
specialist 148
success story 89
three main types 90
see also SMEs
SMEs (small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises) 85, 132, 252, 282
development of 126, 130–1
networks of 256
strategic litigation against 228–9
SmithKline Beecham 189
Smith, Adam 1, 11, 65, 74, 208
SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) consortium 188, 189
social change 157
social class 195
social integration 91
social struggles 129
sociology 194
Soete, L. 4, 17, 23, 24, 43, 70, 143, 146, 214, 229, 236
software 54, 86, 167, 227
aggressive campaign to combat piracy 228
applications 110
cross‐border electronic delivery of services 230
exporting on computer disc/CD‐ROM 229
(p.355)
inclusion in copyright law 178
lack of indigenization of 228
Solow, R. M. 24
Sony Corporation 102
South America, see Latin America
South East Asia 283
South Korea 32, 221, 226, 231
banking system 126
catch‐up 116
construction firms 230
economic development spending 53
effects of crisis blamed on deregulation 128
electronic capital goods 119
electronics exporting 278
exports 23, 122
foreign loans preferred to FDI 134
foreign‐owned firms 131
infant mortality 52
land reform 130
licences to expand or enlarge operations 118
machine tool consumption 124
outstanding economic growth 117
R&D 36, 37, 39, 47, 49, 52, 57
specialization in machinery and equipment 121–3
technology policies 113
tight control and selectivity towards multinationals 134
training school for firms 132
Soviet Union (former) 34, 54
soya 197
genetically modified 260
Spain 47, 88
see also CSIC
specialist equipment 244
specialization 22, 95, 119, 120, 150, 172
capacity to promote 91
divergent 119, 120
export 222
functional 64, 91
intraindustry 217
machinery 121–4
management 79
resource‐intensive sectors 121–2
sectoral 121
technological 24, 125, 214
trade 124
transport 121–4
vertical 64, 66, 279
specialized supplier firms 170, 175
speculation 157
spheres of influence 67, 274
spillovers 240
spin‐offs 54, 91, 261
commercially unsuccessful 55
Standard Oil 107
standardization 76, 144, 178, 195, 215
standards:
institutions 75
labour 223, 230
national or industry 268
need for compliance with 244
performance 118, 129
regulations and 152
Stanford University 105, 107, 246
start‐ups 155, 162, 260
managers hired from established corporations 108
massive investment in 262
peak year for 261
pioneered by venture capital 105, 107
state industrial promotion 129–30
state intervention, see government intervention
State of Science and Technology in the World, The (UNESCO) 31, 33, 34, 35, 37
status of professions 150
steam engines 44, 63, 116, 143
steel 63, 75, 96, 129
new techno‐economic paradigm based on 143–4
world's foremost producer 70
Stevenson‐Wydler Act (US 1980) 158, 257
Steward, F. 198
stock exchanges 153
Storper, M. 221, 222
(p.356) Strasbourg 284
strategic alliances 240, 285
strategic planning 128
strategic trade theory 213
strategy:
global 276
national industrialization 134
strategy and structure 26, 27, 118
leading firms 128
structural change 17, 95
accelerated 120
structural crises 14
subassemblies 100–1
subcontractors 90, 131, 133–4, 135, 176, 252, 259
manufacturing, smaller 258
special 185
testing of all components from 102
work given to domestic suppliers by foreign affiliates 213
subsidiaries 66, 245, 270, 275
abroad, in‐house R&D 285
obtaining technology transfer through the entry of 96
offshore 224
power flows downward through 219
prescription management firms as 191
wholly‐owned 134, 239
subsidies 118, 129, 130, 230
illegal export 224
sugar 195
Sumitomo 100
Sunday Telegraph, The 267
sunk costs 262
supermarkets 194
‘supertraders’ 218
supplier‐dominated firms 168–70, 173
supply 14
supply chain 192, 194
management of 196, 240
supporting industries 27
Sutcliffe, R. 273, 281, 283
Swatch watches 267
Sweden 37, 39, 47, 67, 88, 144, 267, 270, 273
interorganizational relations 185
Sweezy, P. M. 275
Switzerland 37, 39, 47, 144, 267, 273
symbolic analysts 25
synergy 27
Syngenta 197, 202
Syntex 236
synthetic dye industry 44
synthetic materials 200, 201, 236
systems integration 105–11, 240
Tahiti 267
Taiwan 113, 120, 135, 138, 221, 222, 226
Taiwan:
catch‐up 116
electronic capital goods 119
electronics exporting 278
foreign‐owned firms 131
investment by multinationals, joint ventures and foreign buyers 132
IT industry 133
land reform 130
machine tool consumption 124
non‐electrical machinery and transport equipment 123
outstanding economic growth 117
Silicon Valley‐type clusters 133, 277
subsidies to export 118
tight control and selectivity towards multinationals 134
take‐off stage 114
takeovers 275
Tansey, G. 192
tariff barriers 134
seeking to avoid 270
tariffs 224, 229
eliminating 217
rationalized 231
tax relief 224
Taxol 30, 160, 250–1, 252–3
FDA approval for marketing 258
Taylor, Frederick 77–8, 79
(p.357) Taylorism 78, 79, 98
teams/teamwork:
management styles based on 108
multidisciplinary 109, 111
Techint 129
technical assistance 271
technical innovation, see technological innovation
Technische Hochschulen 68, 82, 144, 149
techno‐economic paradigms 14–17, 143–4, 149, 176
technological innovation 6, 70, 92, 110, 248
activities with little scope for 58
early stages of 12
waves of 14
technological knowledge 31, 105, 117, 236–7
good source of 265
publicly available 264
sourcing of 222
technological paradigms 188
technological progress:
combined with productivity slowdown 86
rapid 240
technological trajectories 14
technological universities 264
technology 113–38
already existing, agreements based on 239
and competitiveness 3–29
exploitation abroad 285
firm‐specific and cumulative nature of 147
foreign 94
gradually assimilated 216
international investment and trade and 215
internationalized 289
knowledge and 271
microwave 248
purchase from overseas firms 285
sharing of 236
see also IT; new technology
technology‐intensive goods 120
technology transfer 56, 94, 225, 286
medium‐term interaction to ensure 241
obtaining through the entry of subsidiaries 96
one‐way license agreements with 241
policies established to encourage 152
relatively cheap 92
Technopoles 152
Teece, D. J. 247
telecommunications 177, 179, 231, 275, 288
teleconferencing 237, 279
Temporary Materials Supply and Demand Control Law (Japan, expiry 1952) 94
terrorists 55
textile machinery 70, 276
textiles 75, 119, 277
Thatcher, Margaret 47, 56, 208
Third Italy 87, 88–92, 195
manufacturing competitive advantage 86
traditional craft sectors 222
Third World producers 89
Thompson, G. 283
throughput screening 260, 263
Tide 276
time and motion studies 77, 78
TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) 151, 264
Tokyo 221
Tomlinson, M. 195
tooth decay 195
Total Quality Management 99–100
Toulouse 239, 240
Toyoda, Sakichi 98, 99
Toyota 78, 98, 99, 109
turnover 284
Toyotism 98, 149
tradable goods 129
trade:
colonial 115
cross‐border 229, 231
deregulation of 3
(p.358)
economic theory of 8, 213
globalization of 267–90
measures introduced to facilitate 231
technology, international investment and 207–34
Trade Act (US 1974, amended 1984) 223–4
Trade and Tariff Act (US 1984) 231
trade associations 92
trade barriers 215
trade journals 243
trade secrets 225
trade unions 65, 162
repressive policies towards 69
rise of 89
trademarks 157, 160, 189
trading companies 97, 98–100, 133
training 68, 69
education and 101, 144, 149
postgraduate 150
vocational 150
transaction costs 253, 255, 256
transportability 180
Triad (EU, USA & Japan) 212, 270, 281, 283
trade and investment concentrated in 280
TRIMs (trade‐related investment measures) 223, 227, 228
Trinidad 230
TRIPS (Trade‐Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) 137, 207, 223–7, 228
Triunfo 131
troubleshooting 244
Tsukamoto, T. 253
turbulence 157
Turkey 38, 47, 52, 289
turnover 193, 194, 195, 284
high 196
Tuscany 92
Twente technological university 264
Tylecote, A. 154, 188–9, 276
U‐form (unitary organizational) firm 91
Ueno, Y. 253
UK, see Britain
Umbria 92
uncertainty 12, 13, 157, 244, 263
high 255
reduction in 245
UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) 233
unemployment 13, 104, 264
UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 161
UNIDO (UN Industrial Development Organization) 226
Unilever 200
United Nations, see UNCTAD; UNESCO; UNIDO; WIPO
United States 31, 67, 81, 215
academic scientists 40–3
antitrust law 161
attitude towards GATS 231
basic research 105–10
best medical and management schools 150
big business development 72
broadcast advertising regulations 190
business and production organization 64
economic development spending 52–3
education 25
exports and imports 8
financial services 68
GM crops 198
high‐tech sectors 186
immigration very important in the history of 271
industrialization 116, 143
infant mortality rate 52
intellectual property 158, 223
Japanese FDI in 209
living standards 25
managerial capitalism 66
manufacturing 23, 76
(p.359)
marketing of farm crops 74
mass production technologies 90
migration to 282
military spending 56
national communications network 75
new management practices 71
patents 24, 125, 287
pharmaceutical industry 167
production capabilities 86
R&D 6, 35–9, 44–58, 75, 79, 81, 186
revolution in business organization 74
service sector 148, 229
shareholders' organizations 155
start‐up firms 260, 261
steel production 63, 70, 75, 96
technological and economic gap with rest of world 273
trade unions 69
trade wars with EU 224
venture capital 155
universities 275
technological 264
University of Sussex Science Policy Research Unit 168
upgrading 97, 133
continuous 98
UPOV (Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants) Convention (1961) 159
upstream phases 7, 172, 183
upswings 14, 80, 98, 144, 273, 274
innovations with most potential to power 149
urbanization 195
Uruguay Round Negotiations (1986–94) 223, 224, 227, 233, 288
US institutions:
Agriculture Department 30, 31, 252, 257, 258
Congressional Hearings 158, 258, 266
Defense Department 53, 54, 56, 151, 158
Environmental Defense Fund 250, 251
Fish and Wildlife Service 250
Health Management Organizations 191
Institutes of Technology 68, 144, 149
Interior Department 31, 252, 257, 258
Patent and Trademark Office 125, 159, 160
Treasury 128
Venture Capitalist organization 155
Wall Street 128, 153
see also CRADAs; FDA; NCI; NIAID; NIH; NSF
user industries 175, 176
user‐supplier networks 236
Utah 160
utilities 248
preferential treatment in 129
Valentine, Don 107
value‐added operations 108, 207, 212, 219, 221, 277
value chains 276, 278
offshore activities 277
values 150
Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, B. 288
VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) 82
Veneto 92
venture capital 157, 237–9, 263
availability of 155
firms attracting 156
massive investment 262
start‐ups pioneered by 105, 107
Vernon, R. 215
vertical disintegration 278
vertical integration 78, 81, 101, 129, 279
vertical relations 26
vested interests 66
VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) program 56
Vianova synthetic resins 201
Victorian imperialist expansion 273
videophone 237, 279
‘vintage’ class of growth models 24
Virgin Islands 224
(p.360) virtual laboratories 106
visas 230
‘visions’ 95
Vittas, D. 154
vocational training 150
Wade, R. 221
wages 215
Walsh, V. 44, 186, 200, 236, 253, 260, 263
Wang 108
Warde, A. 194
Washington 250
Watt, James 143
wealth 31, 33, 269
weapons systems 7
weather 213
Wedgwood 143
WEF (World Economic Forum) 3, 17–18, 20
Weg 129
Weiller, J. 143
welfare state 151–2, 214
well‐being 20, 31
Wellcome 186
Wellcome Foundation/Trust 46, 146, 188, 189
Westinghouse 66
Whitney, Eli 76
Wilkinson, J. 194
Williamson, O. E. 255, 256
Windows NT platform 228
Winter, S. G. 4, 17, 24, 246
WIP (work‐in‐process) turn 99
WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) 161, 223
Wollering, Max 76
Womack, J. P. 23, 222
Workers' representatives 154
World Bank 154, 231
World Competitiveness Yearbook (IMD) 19
world markets 71, 197
bourgeois exploitation of 274
chemicals 72
lack of market intelligence in 70
standard products for 286
therapeutic drugs 186
world trade 24, 63, 217
entities belonging to a single corporation 275
expansion of 32
largest share of 71
Worsley, T. 192
Wright, G. 80
WTO (World Trade Organization) 137, 207, 223–32
policies unacceptable to 113
yen appreciation 215
Yozma scheme 157
zaibatsu 98–100
Zantac 186, 190
Zeneca 197, 270, 276
Zeneca Group PLC 270
Zysman, J. 153