(p.308) APPENDIX 4
(p.308) APPENDIX 4
Key Dates for Franco‐Egyptian Relations, 1802–1876
(p.308) APPENDIX 4
Key Dates for Franco‐Egyptian Relations, 1802–1876Appendix 4 Key Dates for Franco-Egyptian Relations
Denon publishes the Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte. (6 Feb.) Decree that the Description de l'Égypte is published at French government expense.
In rivalry to the British Consul Salt, Bernardino Drovetti (French Consul to Egypt) encourages the organization of archaeological digs and collects ancient Egyptian antiquities (part of his collection was bought by the Louvre).
Mohammed Ali is governor of Egypt.
The first volume of the collaborative results of the findings of the 167 academics and artists, La Description de l'Égypte, published. It would run by 1826 to nine volumes with plates, detailing ‘Antiquities’, ‘the modern state’, and ‘natural history’. Panckoucke edited the second, more user‐friendly, edition in 1821.
Mohammed Ali's troups occupy Medina and Mecca.
(1 Aug.) In the service of Britain, Belzoni makes his way inside the temple at Abu‐Simbel. In October, he discovers the mummies of Rhamesis II and Seti I in the Valley of the Kings.
Belzoni finds the opening of the Pyramid at Giza. The ‘Egyptology’ race begins in earnest.
Louis XVIII authorizes the second edition of the Description de l'Égypte published by Panckouke.
Beginning of the Egyptian conquest of the Sudan. ‘Egyptian’ cotton produced for export by Jumal. Colonel Sève creates the first military school at Aswan after the French model.
(27 Sept.) Major coup for France: Jean‐François Champollion writes his famous Lettre à M. Dacier relative à l'alphabète des hieroglyphes phonétiques read to the Académie d'Inscriptions et Belles‐lettres. The code is cracked.
Gift of a giraffe sent to France from Mohammed Ali, the first seen in France and exhibited at the Ménagerie of the Jardin des Plantes after it had walked from Marseille.
J.‐F. Champollion becomes Curator of the Musée Égyptien of the Louvre.
(15 Dec.) Charles X inaugurates the Musée Égyptien of the Louvre. Creation of the École de Médecine of Cairo by Clot Bey and a veterinary school.
J.‐F. Champollion arrives in Alexandria as part of a Franco‐ Tuscan archaeological mission directed by the Italian Egyptol‐ ogist Rosellini and stays over a year.
Mohammed Ali sends his troops to conquer Syria. (10 May) J.‐F. Champollion gives his inaugural lecture at the Col‐ lège de France.
(4 Mar.) Death of J.‐F. Champollion.
(30 Apr.) Arrival of first group of Saint‐Simonians led by Cayol in Alexandria followed on 24 May by a group under Barrault and 23 Oct. a group under Prosper Enfantin with the ‘mission’ of founding a utopian community and the dream of piercing the Isthmus of Suez.
(10 Jan.) Enfantin and Saint‐Simonians start exploring the Isthmus of Suez. (3 Feb.) Mohammed Ali commissions Linant de Bellefonds to construct a dam at the neck of the Nile Delta. Publication in Paris of the novel L 'Or de Paris by the Egyptian Rifaa el‐Tahtawi. Creation of the École Polytechnique of Cairo by the Saint‐Simonians.
Creation of the École des Langues in Paris under the direction of el‐Tahtawi.
The Trappist Ferdinand de Géramb publishes Le Pèlerinage à Jérusalem et au Mont‐Sinaï (25 Oct.) The Luxor obelisk (gift of Mohammed Ali) is transported by boat and erected in the Place de la Concorde in Paris. Departure of most of the remaining Saint‐Simonians ravaged by the plague of 1835, shattering dreams of building a dam across the Nile.
(Oct.) First French photographers in Egypt.
(Dec.) Egyptian troops evacuate from Syria.
Scientific expedition of the German Egyptologist Richard Lepsius.
Exhibition of the ‘Kings’ Chamber' from Karnak at the Bibliothèque Nationale, rue Richelieu.
Visit of Ibrahim Pasha to France and the Duke of Montpensier to Egypt.
(27 Nov.) Prosper Enfantin creates the ‘Société d'Études pour le Canal de Suez’ in Paris.
Death of Mohammed Ali.
Voyage en Orient of Gustave Flaubert who accompanied Maxime Du Camp.
Discovery of the entrance to the Serapeum of Memphis by Auguste Mariette. Nerval publishes his Voyage en Orient.
Maxime Du Camp publishes the first collection of photographs of Egypt, Egypte, Nubie, Palestine, Syrie.
(15 Feb.) First Collège des Frères des Écoles Chrétiennes opened in Cairo.
(13 July) Assassination of Abbas. His uncle Saïd rules in his place.
(30 Nov.) Saïd grants Ferdinand de Lesseps the concession of the Suez Canal.
(1 Jan.) The Alexandria—Cairo railway opens its service.
(1 June) Directorship of the Egyptian Antiquities given to Auguste Mariette.
(5–30 Nov.) Subscriptions open for shares in the Suez Canal company.
(15 Dec.) Constitution of the ‘Compagnie universelle du Canal de Suez’ drawn up. Gautier publishes Roman de la momie.
Alexandria—Suez railway opens.
(25 Apr.) Opening of work on the Suez Canal at Port Said.
(6 May) Foundation and first meeting of the Institut Égyptien in Cairo in the manner of Napoleon's earlier Institut d'Égypte.
(18 Nov.) Water from the Mediterranean flows into Lake Timsah.
Auguste Mariette is the first Director of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
(June) Ismail arrives in France for the Exposition Universelle in Paris inspired by Egyptology and Egyptomania.
(15 Aug.) Suez—Ismailia railway inaugurated.
(15 Aug.) Waters from the Mediterranian and Red Sea flow into the ‘lacs amers’.
(17 Aug.) Inauguration of the Suez Canal by the Empress Eugénie.
Decree ordering the use of Arabic (not Turkish) for administrative purposes in Egypt; Turkish and French at the Palace and the Ministries of Finance and War; Arabic and French by the police and regional governments.
Verdi's Aida (composed for the inauguration of the Suez Canal) first performed in Cairo.
(25 Nov.) Britain buys the Egyptian holdings of shares in the Suez Canal Company.
(8 Apr.) Declaration of bankruptcy by the Egyptian government.