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CopulasUniversals in the Categorization of the Lexicon$

Regina Pustet

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780199258505

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199258505.001.0001

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(p.219) Appendix D Questionnaire

(p.219) Appendix D Questionnaire

Source:
Copulas
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Each entry is specified as to parts-of-speech class membership in the metalanguage, that is, English, by means of the following abbreviations:

a = adjective

n = noun

q = quantifier

vi = intransitive verb

vt = transitive verb

This is necessary because in some cases not all the meanings of a lexical root in English were to be dealt with in the object language. For instance, for bend only the two verbal readings, that is, bend as an intransitive verb and bend as a transitive verb, are included in the questionnaire. Bend has a nominal reading as well, but this reading has been excluded from the list of basic vocabulary.

Quantifiers, i.e. the concepts ‘all’, ‘few’, ‘many’, ‘much’, and ‘some’ were included in the questionnaire in order to obtain data on quantificational predicates, but excluded in the final analyses of the language-specific data because quantificational predicates form a predicate class of their own according to what is said in §2.1.4. Thus, the surveys and statistical analyses focus solely on lexemes that can be used to form ascriptive predicates.

ache

vi

American

a

ask

vt

acidic

a

American

n

asleep

a

actor

n

angry

a

attack

vt

admire

vt

angular

a

aunt

n

adult

n

animal

n

Australia

n

afraid

a

appear

vi

awake

a

aggressive

a

apple

n

axe

n

air

n

area

n

baby

n

alike

a

arm

n

back

n

alive

a

arrive

vi

bad

a

all

q

arrogant

a

bag

n

allow

vt

arrow

n

ball

n

alone

a

artist

n

banana

n

ambitious

a

ashamed

a

bare

a

America

n

Asia

n

bark

n

bathe

vi

brittle

a

contain

vt

bathe

vt

brod

a

cook

n

beach

n

brown

a

cook

vi

bean

n

build

vt

cook

vt

bear

n

burn

vi

cool

a

beat

vi

burn

vt

copper

n

beat

vt

burst

vi

corner

n

beautiful

a

bury

vt

cough

vi

bed

n

buy

vt

count

vt

beggar

n

call

vi

courageous

a

believe

vt

calm

a

cousin

n

bend

vi

car

n

cover

vt

bend

vt

carry

vt

coward

n

bent

a

cat

n

crazy

a

berry

n

cautious

a

cripple

n

big

a

cave

n

crisp

a

birch

n

central

a

croak

vi

bird

n

chair

n

crooked

a

bite

vt

change

vi

cross

n

bitter

a

change

vt

cross-breed

n

black

a

chase

vt

crow

n

blind

a

cheap

a

cruel

a

blink

vi

cheat

vt

crush

vt

blond

a

child

n

cry

vi

blood

n

Chinese

a

cube

n

blue

a

Chinese

n

cubic

a

boat

n

choleric

a

cure

vt

body

n

circle

n

cut

vt

boil

vi

circular

a

dance

vi

boil

vt

clay

n

dangerous

a

bone

n

clean

a

dark

a

book

n

clear

a

daughter

n

borrow

vt

clever

a

dead

a

bottom

n

cliff

n

deceive

vt

bowl

n

climb

vt

deep

a

boy

n

close

vi

deer

n

branch

n

close

vt

demand

vt

brass

n

coin

n

dent

n

break

vi

cold

a

desert

n

break

vt

collect

vt

desire

vt

bridge

n

color-blind

a

despise

vt

bright

a

come

vi

destroy

vt

Bring

vt

cone

n

die

vi

differ

vi

examine

vt

g

n

different

a

excellent

a

gold

n

difficult

a

exist

vi

good

a

dig

vt

expensive

a

gorgeous

a

dirty

a

explode

vi

grandchild

n

discover

vt

eye

n

grandfather

n

disk

n

face

n

grandmother

n

dizzy

a

fall

vi

grass

n

do

vt

farmer

n

gray

a

doctor

n

fat

a

grease

n

dog

n

father

n

greasy

a

door

n

fear

vt

greedy

a

dot

n

feel

vt

green

a

doubt

vt

female

a

grind

vt

dream

n

few

q

groan

vi

dream

vi

find

vt

grow

vi

dress

n

fire

n

growl

vi

drink

vt

fish

n

Gun

n

drop

vt

flash

vi

Hair

n

dry

a

flat

a

hand

n

dull

a

flow

vi

hang

vi

dust

n

fly

vi

happy

a

eagle

n

foot

n

hard

a

ear

n

forget

vt

hate

vt

earth

n

France

n

have

vt

easy

a

free

a

haze

n

eat

vt

French

a

head

n

edge

n

Frenchman

n

healthy

a

egg

n

friend

n

hear

vt

elastic

a

full

a

heart

n

empty

a

funny

a

heavy

a

end

n

furious

a

help

vt

end

vi

gas

n

hollow

a

end

vt

German

a

holy

a

enemy

n

German

n

horse

n

England

n

Germany

n

Hot

a

English

a

girl

n

house

n

Englishman

n

give

vt

howl

vi

enough

a

glad

a

Hum

vi

equal

a

glitter

vi

hungry

a

escape

vi

glow

vi

hurt

vt

Europe

n

glutton

n

husband

n

exact

a

go

vi

ice

n

idiot

n

many

q

pine

n

insect

n

marry

vt

pity

vt

intelligent

a

melt

vi

play

vi

iron

n

middle

n

pleasant

a

island

n

miser

n

potato

n

Italian

a

mix

vt

powder

n

Italian

n

money

n

powerful

a

Italy

n

moon

n

praise

vt

itch

vi

mother

n

pregnant

a

jealous

a

mountain

n

protect

vt

juice

n

mouse

n

proud

a

jump

vi

mouth

n

pull

vt

kill

vt

move

vi

punish

vt

kiss

vt

move

vt

pure

a

knife

n

much

q

pun-

vi

know

vt

mushroom

n

push

vt

lack

vt

narrow

a

put

vt

lake

n

need

vt

quick

a

laugh

vi

nervous

a

quiet

a

lazy

a

new

a

quiver

vi

lead

vt

nice

a

rabbit

n

leaf

n

nose

n

rain

n

leave

vi

oak

n

rain

vi

leave

vt

oil

n

raise

vt

left-handed

a

old

a

rare

a

leg

n

onion

n

rattle

vi

less

q

open

a

raw

a

lie (prevaricate)

vi

open

vi

read

vt

lie (recline)

vi

open

vt

real

a

light

n

optimist

n

receive

vt

like

vt

optimistic

a

recognize

vt

line

n

ordinary

a

red

a

liquid

a

orphan

n

regret

vt

live

vi

oval

a

remember

vt

lonely

a

owl

n

resemble

vt

long

a

own

vt

resent

vt

loud

a

paint

n

right (vs. wrong)

a

love

vt

paint

vt

right-handed

a

low

a

part

n

ring

n

lump

n

pass

vi

ring

vi

make

vt

peel

vt

ripe

a

male

a

perfect

a

rise

vi

man

n

perspire

vi

river

n

road

n

sing

vi

stiff

a

roast

vt

sister

n

stingy

a

roll

vi

sit

vi

stink

vi

rope

n

sky

n

stir

vt

rot

vi

slash

vt

stone

n

rough

a

sleep

vi

stop

vi

round

a

slim

a

storm

n

rub

vt

slip

vi

straight

a

rubber

n

slow

a

strong

a

run

vi

small

a

stubborn

a

sad

a

smart

a

stupid

a

salt

n

smell

vi

suffer

vi

same

a

smell

vt

sugar

n

sand

n

smoke

n

sun

n

save

vt

smooth

a

swallow

vt

say

a

snake

n

sweet

a

scare

vt

sneeze

vi

swell

vi

scratch

vt

snow

n

swim

vi

scream

vi

soft

a

tail

n

sea

n

solid

a

take

vt

secret

a

some

q

talk

vi

see

vt

son

n

tall

a

seek

vt

song

n

tame

a

select

vt

sore

a

tear

vt

selfish

a

sorry

a

tell

vt

sell

vt

sour

a

tender

a

send

vt

spank

vt

terrible

a

serious

a

spark

n

thick

a

sew

vt

speak

vi

thin

a

shake

vt

sphere

n

think

vt

sharp

a

spider

n

thirsty

a

shatter

vt

spill

vt

thistle

n

shoe

n

spin

vi

throw

vt

short

a

split

vt

thunder

n

show

vt

spotted

a

tip

n

shrink

vi

square

a

tired

a

shy

a

square

n

tooth

n

sick

a

squeeze

vt

top

n

side

n

stand

vi

touch

vt

silver

n

star

n

tough

a

similar

a

start

vi

town

n

simple

a

stay

vi

toy

n

sincere

a

steal

vt

trader

n

tree

n

wake up

vt

wild

a

triangle

n

walk

vi

willow

n

triangular

a

want

vt

win

vt

trout

n

warm

a

wind

n

true

a

warn

vt

wipe

vt

trust

vt

wash

vt

wise

a

turn

vi

watch

vt

wish

vt

turn

vt

water

n

woman

n

twist

vt

wave

vt

wood

n

ugly

a

weak

a

wool

n

understand

vt

wealthy

a

work

vi

use

vt

weapon

n

worm

n

vain

a

wear

vt

worry

vi

valuable

a

wet

a

worth

a

vanish

vi

wheel

n

write

vt

vicious

a

whisper

vi

wrong

a

villain

n

whistle

vi

yawn

vi

visit

vt

white

a

yell

vi

wait

vi

wide

a

yellow

a

wake up

vi

wife

n

young

a

(p.220)