National Systems and Multi-Level Governance: Convergence through Compliance?
This chapter places national systems in the context of European Union (EU) multi-level environmental governance. The role played by the EU in harmonising, or at least reducing the variation of, national policy strategies and practices, is discussed together with the problems raised by the implementation of EU environmental measures and their associated difficulties of compliance. Understanding of the extent to which international pressures make for convergence among national systems will begin if the circumstances under which countries find it easy or difficult to comply with EU environmental measures are identified. With the issue of compliance, the consideration is primarily with the direct effects of the EU's system of multi-level governance.
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