Domestic Politics and Society-Related Variables
This chapter looks into society-related variables, or, in the case of political parties, a variable that mediates between state and society. Conceivably, it is in the domestic political environments that cross-national differences are most likely to be reinforced or reduced depending on the balance of actors, interests, and pressures. A central element of these domestic political systems is the role of electoral competition on the part of political parties vying with one another for votes from mass publics. Political parties and public opinion do not as such determine policy, but they may help to shape policy strategies and preferences over the environment on which governments act. In addition to all these, the willingness of people to abide by norms and regulations for protecting the environment is obviously a significant element in the extent to which any policy strategy is feasible and successful.
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