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Poetry and the Creation of a Whig Literary Culture 1681-1714$

Abigail Williams

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780199255207

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199255207.001.0001

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(p.247) Biographical appendix

(p.247) Biographical appendix

Source:
Poetry and the Creation of a Whig Literary Culture 1681-1714
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

JOSEPH ADDISON (1672–1719), essayist, poet, and statesman. Educated, with Richard Steele, at Charterhouse School, then went on to Queens College, Oxford, and Magdalen College, Oxford. Encouraged by Charles Montagu, and given a pension from John Somers. Travelled in Italy, publishing his Letter from Italy (1703) on his return, and wrote his most celebrated poem, The Campaign, on the victory at Blenheim in 1704. Made Under-Secretary of State, then Commissioner of Appeals; MP for Lostwithiel in 1708. Lost office on fall of Whigs. Contributed to the Tatler, and began the Spectator in March 1711. Member of the Kit-Cat Club, he also presided over a group of young Whig writers at Button's. Produced Cato in 1713, and became engaged again with essay writing with The Guardian in 1713. Returned to politics on the death of Queen Anne, and became Secretary to the Lords Justices, then Secretary of State, along with Stanhope, in 1717. Retired 1718, fell out with Steele, and died shortly after, in 1719.

JOHN AYLOFFE (d. 1685), poet. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of the Green Ribbon and King's Head Clubs; executed in 1685 for his part in the Rye House Plot.

APHRA BEHN (1640–89), poet and dramatist. Grew up in Surinam, returned to England c.1658. Employed to spy for Charles II in Netherlands, then became professional writer, with series of successful comedies and prose fictions including The Rover (1677) and Oroonoko (1688). Wrote political verse in celebration of the Stuart monarchy.

RICHARD BLACKMORE (d. 1729), physician and poet. Educated at Westminster School, Trinity College, Oxford, and Padua, Fellow of the Royal Society of Physicians. Rose to fame and some notoriety with his Williamite epic Prince Arthur in 1695. Knighted and appointed physician in ordinary to William III in 1697. Attacked by Dryden, Garth, and Steele in debate over his Satyr Against Wit (1700); received much praise for his physico-theological poem, Creation (1712). Continued to write until his death in 1729, publishing medical treatises, pamphlets on the Arian controversy, and two more lengthy epic poems.

THOMAS BROWN (1663–1704), writer. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Became headmaster of grammar school in Kingston-on-Thames, then left and moved to London, producing series of satirical poems and translations. Associated with wits at Will's coffee house.

(p.248) EUSTACE BUDGELL (1686–1737), writer. Nephew of Joseph Addison, educated at Trinity College, Oxford, and went on to the Inner Temple. Addison made him a clerk in his office while employed as secretary to Lord Wharton. Contributed to the Spectator. Became under-secretary to Addison when he was made secretary to Sunderland following the accession of George I, and went on to become Accountant-General of Ireland. Lost position as result of a quarrel; became part of the opposition to Walpole. Contributed to The Craftsman, and started a weekly periodical, The Bee (1733–5). Committed suicide in 1737.

HENRY CARE (1648–88), journalist and political writer. Editor of the exclusionist Weekly Pacquet of Advice from Rome (1678–83). After accession of James II wrote in support of catholicism and Dissent.

SUSANNAH CENTLIVRE (?1669–1723), actress and dramatist. Produced nineteen plays between 1700 and 1722, and specialized in comedies of intrigue and manners. The Busie Body (1709) and A Bold Stroke for a Wife (1718) among her most successful works. Also acted outside London, as a strolling player. An ardent Whig, and friend of Farquhar, Steele, Budgell, and Rowe, her Whiggish politics are evident in several of the plays. She also published two long poems:‘A Poem to King George […] upon his Accession to the Throne’, and ‘An Ode to Hygeia’, which was included in an anthology of Verses upon the Sickness and Recovery of the Right Honourable Robert Walpole.

SAMUEL CLARKE (1675–1729), theologian. Educated at Caius College, Cambridge, and went on to write in defence of Newton's Principia. Took up chaplaincy at Norwich, then rector of Drayton, near Norwich. Gave Boyle lectures at Cambridge in 1704–5. Became leading metaphysician and adherent of a priori philosophy, attacked as both deist and orthodox. Became intimate with Queen Caroline, and had many followers among latitudinarians, especially Bishop Hoadly. Published editions of Caesar's Commentaries and Homer, in addition to scientific and philosophical works.

SAMUEL COBB (1675–1713), poet and translator. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Taught at Christ's Hospital. First publication a poem on Mary's death. Went on to produce a series of panegyrics on the War of the Spanish Succession: Isaac Watts claimed that Cobb's The Female Reign: An Ode (1709) was ‘the truest and best Pindaric’ he had ever read.

WILLIAM CONGREVE (1670–1729), dramatist. Educated at Kilkenny Grammar School and Trinity College, Dublin, contemporary with Jonathan Swift. Began to publish plays from 1693, enjoying great success with Love for Love (1695) and The Way of the World (1700). With support of Charles Montagu, enjoyed a long career in government service, becoming commissioner for licensing hackney coaches 1695–1705; commissioner of wine licenses 1705–14; Secretary for Jamaica 1714. Member of Kit-Cat Club.

(p.249) ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, first Earl of Shaftesbury (1621–83), statesman. Educated at Exeter College, Oxford, then Lincoln's Inn. Switched allegiances from Royalist to Parliamentary side in 1644. Military service as head of Parliamentary forces in Dorset, member of Cromwell's Barebones Parliament 1653. Opposed Cromwell by 1656, and led forces supporting Charles II's entry into Blackheath in 1660. Granted peerage at coronation, Lord Chancellor in 1672, when he made John Locke his secretary. Became part of the cabal on fall of Clarendon, supported Second Dutch War, created Earl of Shaftesbury 1672. After fall from office in 1673 became part of parliamentary opposition to court, member of Green Ribbon Club, supported Exclusion Bill and became leader of exclusionist cause. Arrested for high treason July 1681, acquitted November, fled to Holland and died 1683.

ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, THIRD Earl OF SHAFTESBURY (1671–1713), politician and philosopher. Under the guardianship of his grandfather, the first Earl of Shaftesbury, from the age of three. Educated at home by John Locke, then at Winchester College. Elected MP for Poole 1695; staunch Whig and member of country opposition in 1690s. After retirement from politics in 1698 remained at his Dorset house, and produced his influential Characteristicks in 1711, for which he was attacked as a deist. Supported John Toland, much influenced by Cambridge Platonists. Travelled to Naples to improve his health in 1711, and remained there until his death in 1713.

NATHANIEL CROUCH [Richard or Robert Burton] (?1632–?1725), publisher. Author of popular histories, including History of the Lives of English Divines who were Most Zealous in Promoting the Reformation (1709) and Martyrs in Flames: Or a History of Popery (1695).

SAMUEL CROXALL (d. 1752), writer and cleric. Educated at Eton and St John's College, Cambridge. Took orders 1714; chaplain to the chapel royal at Hampton Court 1715, and went on to attain a series of ecclesiastical preferments, reputedly in recognition of his political services to the Hanoverians. Contributed to Samuel Garth's Metamorphoses (1717).

JOHN CUTTS, Baron Cutts of Gowran (1661–1717), soldier-poet and military hero. Educated at Catharine Hall, Cambridge. Rose to prominence for his bravery at the Battle of the Boyne, and earned the nickname ‘the Salamander’ for his heroism at the battle of Namur in 1695. Employed Richard Steele as his private secretary, who went on to publish some of his verses in the Tatler. Continued to fight under Marlborough in the War of the Spanish Succession; third in command at Battle of Blenheim; appointed Commander-in-Chief in Ireland 1716.

DANIEL DEFOE (?1661–1731), journalist and fiction writer. Nonconformist family, educated at Newington Green Academy. Fought in Monmouth rebellion (p.250) in 1685, and joined William III's army during his advance on London in 1688. Appointed accountant to the commissioners of glass duty 1695. Published series of works in defence of William III during last years of reign; most famously The True-Born Englishman (1701). Tried and pilloried for his attack on the High Church in The Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702). Wrote for both political sides during Anne's reign: employed by Robert Harley, and later by Godolphin and Sunderland. Published numerous historical and political works; later famous for his fictional works Robinson Crusoe (1719), Moll Flanders (1722), and Journal of the Plague Year (1722).

JOHN DENNIS (1657–1734), poet and critic. Educated at Caius College, Cambridge, and mixed with a number of prominent writers at Will's coffee house on his arrival in London. Defended the Revolution, and wrote in support of the War of the Spanish Succession, earning a place, through the Duke of Marlborough, as a waiter in the port of London. Began a long quarrel with Pope following the publication of the Essay on Criticism, and soon distanced himself from the Addisonian literary circle, falling out with both Addison and Steele. Produced a series of influential critical treatises on the nature of sublime poetry, and continued to write critical and political essays into the 1720s.

WENTWORTH DILLON, Earl of Roscommon (?1633–85), poet and politician. Founded an informal literary academy, which included the Earl of Dorset, the Marquis of Halifax, and Dryden; produced his influential Essay On Translated Verse in 1684.

JOHN DRYDEN (1631–1700), poet and dramatist. Educated at Westminster School, and Trinity College, Cambridge. Published Heroique Stanzas (1659) in celebration of Oliver Cromwell, but changed sides after 1660 and wrote panegyrics on the Restoration of Charles II. Produced a series of popular rhymed heroic tragedies during the 1660s and 1670s, including The Indian Emperor (1667) and The Conquest of Granada (1670–2). Poet Laureate and Historiographer Royal from 1670. Wrote the mock-biblical satire Absalom and Achitophel (1681) in defence of king and government during the Exclusion Crisis. Converted to catholicism under James II, justifying his conversion in The Hind and the Panther (1687). Lost all his offices under William III. Continued to publish some drama, and several translations, including his celebrated Works of Virgil (1697). Died 1700 and buried in Westminster Abbey.

LAURENCE EUSDEN (1688–1713), poet, later Poet Laureate. Educated at Trinity, Cambridge. Secured patronage from Charles Montagu with his first publication, a Latin translation of Montagu's poem on the Boyne; contributed to the Guardian, and to Garth's Metamorphoses (1717); produced a panegyric on the marriage of the Duke of Newcastle to Henrietta Godolphin, and was rewarded with the laureateship after Nicholas Rowe's death in 1718. Took orders in 1725, and was appointed to a rectory in Lincolnshire.

(p.251) SIR SAMUEL GARTH (1661–1719), physician and poet. Educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge. Fellow of the college of Physicians; dedicated his oration to the college in 1697 to William III; produced a mock-epic poem, The Dispensary (1699), about the apothecaries' opposition to the establishment of a free dispensary. Supervised Dryden's funeral in 1700. Member of the Kit-Cat Club. Knighted on the accession of George I, and became physician in ordinary to the king. Edited influential translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses in 1717.

JOHN GAY (1685–1732), poet and dramatist. Educated at Barnstaple Grammar School, then briefly apprenticed to a mercer in London. Became acquainted with Pope in London, who encouraged the publication of Rural Sports (1713) and The Shepherd's Week (1714). Appointed secretary to the Duchess of Monmouth in 1712, and then secretary to Lord Clarendon as envoy to Hanover. Returned to England on the death of Queen Anne, had success with Trivia (1715), and collaborated with Pope and Arbuthnot on the farce Three Hours After Marriage (1717). Lost almost all his fortune in the South Sea bubble, but went on to become a household name with The Beggar's Opera (1728) and its sequel Polly, which was banned by Walpole. Supported by the Duke and Duchess of Queensberry for the last decade of his life. Died 1732 and buried in Westminster Abbey.

CHARLES GILDON (1665–1724), poet and pamphleteer. Catholic, educated at Douay School, later a deist. Produced The History of the Athenian Society (1691); edited Langbaine's Dramatic Poets (1699); attacked Pope's Rape of the Lock (1714), and became one of his dunces. John Dunton claimed that he was a ‘dependent of the Whigs’ in The Life and Errors of John Dunton (1705).

GEORGE GRANVILLE, BARON LANSDOWNE (1667–1735), poet and dramatist. Educated at Trinity, Cambridge. Keen to join the royal forces against Monmouth in 1685, and to defend James II in 1688. Went into literary retirement during the 1690s, and produced a series of imitations of Waller. Entered public life at Anne's accession; succeeded Walpole as Secretary of War 1710; created Baron Lansdowne as one of twelve peers to see through peace negotiations; removed from position 1714; suspected of complicity in Jacobite rising, 1715. Lived abroad 1722–32; returned to publish collected works and become reconciled with the Hanoverian monarchy.

WILLIAM HARRISON (1685–1713), poet and diplomat. Educated at New College, Oxford, where he met Addison, who secured him a post as governor to a son of the Duke of Queensberry. Continued the Tatler for fifty-two issues after Steele ceased to write for it. Through Swift acquired a position as secretary to the ambassador at the Hague, and as Queen's secretary to the embassy at Utrecht. According to Edward Young, Addison said of Harrison's Woodstock Park: ‘This young man, in his very first attempt, has exceeded most of the best writers of the age’ (Joseph Spence, Observations, Anecdotes, and Characters of (p.252) Books and Men, Collected from Conversation, ed. James M. Osborn, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1966), i. 339).

OLIVER HEYWOOD (1630–1702), Presbyterian preacher. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Became preacher in West Riding. Excommunicated in 1662 after Act of Uniformity, but continued to preach, holding conventicles at homes of Presbyterian gentry and farmers. Became itinerant evangelist in northern counties; imprisoned 1685–6 for holding an illegal assembly.

JOHN HUGHES (1677–1720), writer and translator. Educated at Thomas Rowe's Dissenting academy alongside Isaac Watts. Wrote a number of panegyrics on William III, and was rewarded with a place in the Ordnance Office; appointed Secretary to the Commissions of Peace in the Court of Chancery in 1717. Contributed to the Tatler, the Spectator, and the Guardian, and produced The Lay Monk with Richard Blackmore.

BENJAMIN KEACH (1640–1704), Baptist minister and writer. Imprisoned for preaching in Buckinghamshire 1664. Moved to London, became Calvinistic Baptist and preached at Goat Yard Passage in Southwark. His advocacy of congregational singing and his issue of a hymn collection in 1691 caused a rupture with the Church. Published a series of controversial pamphlets.

CHARLES MONTAGU, EARL OF HALIFAX (1661–1715), poet and statesman. Educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Gained notice as a poet with his burlesque (with Prior) of Dryden's The Hind and the Panther (1687). Signed letter of invitation to William III; elected MP for Maldon 1689. Appointed Clark of Privy Council 1689; Lord of Treasury 1692. Established Bank of England and system of public credit, and worked with Somers, Newton, Locke, and Halley on the Recoinage Bill; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1694; First Lord of the Treasury 1697. Impeached for his part in Partition Treaty 1701, and out of Office under Queen Anne, although appointed commissioner for negotiating union with Scotland in 1706, and joint plenipotentiary to the Hague 1710. Member of Kit-Cat Club, became famous for his patronage of contemporary literature. Acted as one of the Lords Justices from the death of the queen to the arrival of George I. After the accession appointed First Lord of the Treasury, and invested with Order of the Garter 1714. Died suddenly in 1715; buried in Westminster Abbey.

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU, née Pierrepont (1689–1762), writer. Daughter of the fifth Earl and first Duke of Kingston; introduced to the Kit-Cat Club at an early age. Educated at home, very widely read. Her Court Eclogues was published, without her permission, by Edmund Curll in 1716. Accompanied her husband Edward Wortley Montagu when he went to Constantinople as ambassador in 1716, and wrote her Turkish Letters there. (p.253) Returned to England in 1718, continued to write poetry, little of which was published in her lifetime. Friendly with Lord Hervey, and famously quarrelled with Pope, attacking him in several satires. Produced a periodical, The Nonsense of Common-Sense (1737–8). Left England in 1739 and lived for most of the rest of her life in France and Italy. Died 1762.

JOHN OLDMIXON (1673–1742), historian and pamphleteer. Early panegyrics to the Duke of Portland and the Duchess of Marlborough; established The Muses Mercury in 1707–8, a periodical containing verses by Steele, Garth, Motteux, and others; translated Works of Boileau (1711–13), dedicated to Charles Montagu; contributed to Arthur Maynwaring's The Medley; published a series of secret histories between 1712–16, exposing papist/Stuart conspiracies. Offered the post of collector at the port of Bridgewater in 1716. Produced a Whiggish History of England During the Reigns of the Royal House of Stuart (1729–39).

AMBROSE PHILIPS (?1675–1749), poet and dramatist. Educated at St John's College, Cambridge. Secretary to the Whig Hanover Club; JP for Westminster 1715; commissioner for the lottery 1717; Secretary to the Lord Chancellor in Ireland 1726. Started the Freeholder, with Thomas Burnet and Richard West, in 1718; nicknamed ‘Namby Pamby’ on account of his poems written to the infant daughters of Lord Carteret.

JOHN PHILIPS (1676–1709), poet. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford, under Aldrich. Became known thanks to his mock-heroic poem, The Splendid Shilling (1701), and was then introduced to Harley and St John.

ALEXANDER POPE (1688–1744), poet. Born into Roman Catholic family which lived in London until c.1700, then moved to Binfield, in Windsor Forest. Educated largely at home and by a local priest. Became friendly with William Walsh, William Wycherley, and Sir William Trumbull, and the London wits from an early age. Pastorals published 1709, followed by The Rape of the Lock (1712) and Windsor Forest (1713). Increasingly distanced from Addison's ‘little senate’ member of the Scriblerus Club with Gay, Swift, and Arbuthnot. Made his fortune and reputation with his translation of the Iliad(1715–20), which was followed by the Odyssey (1725–6). Moved to Twickenham in 1718, where he lived for the rest of his life. Published Dunciad Variorum (1729), Moral Essays (1731–5), Imitations of Horace (1733–8), Dunciad in Four Books (1743). influential friendships with Swift, Bolingbroke, and Warburton.

SAMUEL PORDAGE (?1633–91), poet. Former steward to Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and son of John Pordage, astrologer and Behmenist. Wrote a number of Restoration panegyrics, and went on to produce exclusionist propaganda, including A New Apparition of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey's Ghost (1681) and The Medal Revers'd (1682). Attacked by John Oldham and Roger L'Estrange.

(p.254) MATTHEW PRIOR (1664–1721), poet and diplomat. Supported by the Earl of Dorset from an early age, educated at Westminster and St John's College, Cambridge. Following the publication of his collaborative parody of Dryden's The Hind and the Panther (1687) he gained, through Dorset, a diplomatic position at the Hague; appointed secretary to the negotiations at the Treaty of Ryswick 1697; voted for Montagu's impeachment over the Partition Treaty in 1701, and subsequently joined the Tories; friendly with Harley, Boling-broke, Swift; sent to negotiate the Peace of Utrecht in 1711; impeached by Walpole 1715.

THOMAS ROGERS (1660–94), educated at Trinity College, Oxford. Took holy orders and was given living at Slapton, near Towcester. Published anticatholic satires and an attack on Robert Molesworth dedicated to William III.

ELIZABETH SINGER ROWE (1674–1737), poet. Daughter of a Nonconformist minister. Published Poems…by Philomela 1696. Corresponded with The Athenian Mercury in the early 1690s. Patronized by the Thynnes of Longleat. Friendly with Isaac Watts and Matthew Prior. Went into retirement after her husband's death. Known for her pious epistolary verse.

NICHOLAS ROWE (1678–1718), dramatist and Poet Laureate. Wrote a series of popular plays including The Ambitious Stepmother (1700) and the Wercely Williamite Tamerlane (1702), which was played annually at Drury Lane on November the fifth; appointed Poet Laureate at the accession of George I, and made one of the surveyors of customs at the port of London.

CHARLES SACKVILLE, EARL OF DORSET (1638–1706), poet and courtier. Renowned rake during the 1660s and 1670s. Friendly with Dryden, Butler, and Wycherley, and offered patronage to many contemporary writers. Withdrew from court under James II, and publicly opposed the imprisonment of the seven bishops; signatory of the letter of invitation to William of Orange, appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household 1689–97.

GEORGE SEWELL (d. 1726), pamphlet writer. Educated Eton and Peterhouse, Cambridge, and went on to study medicine at Leyden and Edinburgh. Published numerous poems, translations, and pamphlets. Tory politics evident in pamphlets of 1713–15, but became a supporter of Robert Walpole by 1718. Contributed to William Harrison's fifth volume of the Tatler, and to the Spectator.

ELKANAH SETTLE (1648–1724), poet and dramatist. Educated at Trinity College, Oxford. Wrote a series of heroic dramas in the 1660s and 1670s and was attacked by Dryden, Shadwell, and Crowne over his tragedy The Empress of Morocco (1671); produced poems and plays in support of the Whigs, but recanted following the dissolution of the Oxford Parliament in 1681 and became a Tory propagandist; after the Revolution attained the post of City poet; (p.255) continued to write plays, both for Drury Lane and Bartholomew Fair, and poems on affairs of state.

THOMAS SHADWELL (?1642–92), dramatist and later Poet Laureate. Educated at Caius College, Cambridge; entered the Middle Temple. Self-proclaimed heir of Ben Jonson and his humours comedy, and produced a series of successful comedies during the 1660s and 1670s, including Epsom Wells (1672) and The Virtuoso (1675). Famously feuded with Dryden, partly over dramatic theory, and was attacked in MacFlecknoe (1682); he retaliated in The Medal of John Bayes (1682) and The Tory-Poets (1682). Replaced Dryden as Poet Laureate and Historiographer Royal after the Revolution.

JOHN, BARON SOMERS (1651–1716), Statesman. Educated at Worcester Cathedral School and Trinity College, Oxford; entered the Middle Temple. Defended the seven bishops in 1688, and presided over the committee which framed the Declaration of Rights. Knighted October 1689, Attorney General 1692, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal 1693, member of the Privy Council and Lord Chancellor 1697. Along with Newton and Montagu introduced devaluation of currency by clipping. Head of Junto Whigs in early years of Anne's reign, advocated vigorous prosecution of war. Member of Kit-Cat Club. Given place in Cabinet at accession of George I.

JAMES, FIRST EARL STANHOPE (1673–1721), soldier and statesman. Educated Eton and Trinity College, Oxford. Volunteer in Flanders 1694–5; given colonelcy of regiment, and elected MP for Isle of Wight and Cockermouth, 1702. Brigadier General 1704, and minister to Spain 1706. Fought in Spain during War of Spanish Succession and made commander-in-chief of British forces in Spain 1708. Member of Kit-Cat Club and friend of third Earl of Shaftesbury. Returned 1712, and was made a leader of the House of Commons. Led House of Commons with Walpole after accession of George I, and was made First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1717.

RICHARD STEELE (1672–1729), essayist. Educated at Charterhouse School, where he first befriended Joseph Addison, and went on to study at Christ Church, Oxford. Entered military service under second Duke of Ormonde, and was later taken up by John Cutts, colonel of the Coldstream Guards, who employed him as his secretary. Associated with Sedley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and other London wits. Published his Christian Hero in 1701, dedicated to Cutts, and wrote a series of comedies 1701–5. Appointed gentleman waiter to Prince George of Denmark 1706, gazetteer in 1707. Began career as essayist with the Tatler in 1709, and afterwards contributed to Addison's Spectator. Published a series of anti-government political pamphlets 1712–14. On accession of George I was appointed JP, and deputy lieutenant for county of Middlesex, then surveyor of the royal stables at Hampton Court, and supervisor of the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. Continued to publish pamphlets and a series of short-lived (p.256) periodicals. Began a controversy with Addison in 1719; published his last play The Conscious Lovers in 1722. Died 1729.

JOSEPH STENNETT (1663–1714), Baptist and hymn writer. Pastor of a London Baptist congregation in Old Broad Street, and lecturer to the general Baptist congregation in the Barbican. Produced a version of the Song of Solomon in 1700.

GEORGE STEPNEY (1663–1707), poet and diplomat. Educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he met and became friends with Charles Montagu. Supported the Revolution of 1688, and was rewarded with a series of government positions (envoy to the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg 1695; commissioner of trade and plantations 1697; envoy to Vienna 1702; envoy to the Hague 1706). Member of the Kit-Cat Club.

JONATHAN SWIFT (1677–1745), poet and clergyman. Educated at Kilkenny Grammar School, along with Congreve, then Trinity College, Dublin. Moved to England and lived with Sir William Temple, as his secretary, from 1688. Ordained 1694, and then returned to live with Temple, whose involvement in the ancients and moderns debate prompted Swift's BATTLE OF THE BOOKS, published in 1704 with A Tale of a Tub. Appointed Vicar of Laracor 1700, although spent much time in Dublin and London. While in London edited the Examiner and produced various political pamphlets. Increasingly linked to Tory ministry. Became Dean of St Patrick's in June 1713, and returned to Ireland after death of Queen Anne. Took up political writing again with The Drapier's Letters. Gullivers Travels published 1726, an instant success. Remained in Ireland after 1728, and continued to write Irish pamphlets, most famously A Modest Proposal (1729). Ill health from 1733, and later mental illness. Died October 1745; buried in St Patrick's Cathedral.

THOMAS TICKELL (1686–1740), poet and statesman. Educated at Queen's College, Oxford. Appointed Professor of Poetry at Oxford 1711; contributed to the Guardian and Steele's Poetical Miscellanies 1713; produced a translation of the first book of Homer's Iliad to rival Pope's version in 1715. Appointed under-secretary to Addison when Addison became Secretary of State in 1717; became Addison's literary executor after his death; appointed Secretary to the Lords Justices in 1724.

JACOB TONSON (?1656–1736), publisher. Son of a surgeon, apprenticed 1670, made freeman of company of stationers 1677, and began own business in same year. Began buying plays by Dryden, Otway, and Tate, and made huge profits from edition of Paradise Lost (1688). Published most of the major authors of the day. Secretary of the Kit-Cat Club from 1700, appointed printer of parliamentary votes 1714, and given grant of stationer, bookseller, and printer to principle public offices in 1720. Died 1736.

(p.257) JOHN TUTCHIN (?1661–1707), pamphleteer. Descended from a family of Nonconformist ministers. Took part in the Monmouth rebellion and was tried by Judge Jeffreys, but pardoned thanks to a bribe; produced a panegyric on the Revolution, and earned a position in the victualling Office in 1692; dismissed in 1695, and began to write anti-Williamite propaganda, most famously his attack on the king and his Dutch ministers in The Foreigners (1700).

ISAAC WATTS (1674–1748), poet and hymn writer. Educated at Southampton Grammar School and Stoke Newington Academy, under Thomas Rowe, where he was contemporary with John Hughes. Became pastor of Stoke Newington, but retired on grounds of ill health. Wrote a series of educational manuals, and works of popular divinity, and became famous for his Hymns (1707) and religious poetry, published in Horae Lyricae (1706).

LEONARD WELSTED (1688–1747), poet. Educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge. Acquired a position in the Office of one of the secretaries of state through the patronage of the Earl of Clare; went on to become clerk in the Ordnance Office (c.1722), and commissioner for managing the state lottery (1731). Friendly with Theobald, Steele, and Hoadly.

SAMUEL WESLEY (1662–1735). Educated at the Dissenting Academy at Newington Green with Defoe. Published his first poems anonymously with John Dunton, and later contributed to the Athenian Mercury. Acquired a curacy in London, and became friends with Gilbert Burnet. Published a poem on the Battle of Blenheim in 1705, and was rewarded by Marlborough with a chaplaincy in his regiment. Father of the founder of Methodism, John Wesley.

THOMAS WHARTON, FIRST MARQUIS OF WHARTON (1648–1715), politician. Supported the Exclusion Bill and backed the invitation to William of Orange in 1688; Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire 1702; Commissioner for Treaty of Union 1706; Lord Lieutenant in Ireland, with Addison his secretary, 1708–10; violently opposed to the Treaty of Utrecht. Was made Marquis of Wharton in 1715. Member of the Kit-Cat Club.

CHARLES WHITWORTH (1675–1725), diplomat. Educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge. Introduced to diplomacy by George Stepney, and under William appointed to represent England at the Diet of Ratisbon; envoy to Russia 1704, Poland 1711, and Prussia 1714. Created Baron Whitworth of Galway in 1721.

THOMAS YALDEN (1670–1736), poet. Produced some Williamite poetry in the 1690s, but openly adhered to the High Church party after Anne's accession. Appointed Dean of Divinity at Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1709. Questioned for involvement in the Atterbury plot in 1723.