(p.192) APPENDIX 3 The Cambridgeshire and London Articles of the 1279–80 Inquiry
(p.192) APPENDIX 3 The Cambridgeshire and London Articles of the 1279–80 Inquiry
1. (1) Que et quot maneria dominica rex habet in manu sua in comitatibus Cantabrigiensibus et Huntedoniis tam de antiquis dominicis corone quam de escaetis et perquisitis.
Which and how many demesne manors the king has in his hand in the counties of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire both as ancient demesne of the crown and as escheats and acquisitions.
2. (2) Que maneria esse solent in manibus regum predecessorum regis et qui ea nunc tenent [et quo waranto et a quo tempore et per quem et quomodo fuerint alienata]2.
Which manors used to be in the hands of the king’s predecessors and who holds them now and by what warrant, since when, and by whom and how were they alienated.
3. (4) Si aliquis liber sokemannus vel bondus de antiquo dominico alii sok (p.193) emanno vel alicui libere tenenti seu bondo aliquid de terris aut tenementis suis vendiderit aut alio modo alienaverit3 aliquid tenendi libere per cartam.
Whether any free sokeman or bondman of the ancient demesne has sold any of his lands or tenements to another sokeman or to a free tenant or bondman, or has in any other way alienated anything so that it is held freely by charter.
4. Quantum quilibet archiepiscopus episcopus abbas prior comes baro miles liber homo vel burgensis tenet in civitatibus burgis et villis mercatoriis aut omnibus aliis villis et hamelettis ut in castris forcelettis4 feodis militum terris tenementis5 dominicis honoribus boscis pratis parcis pasturis communibus aut separabilibus forestis chaciis warrennis feriis mercatis redditibus villenagiis cotagiis consuetudinibus serviciis opera-cionibus villanorum aquis piscariis separabilibus aut communibus ripariis vivariis molendinis gardinis brueriis marescis turbariis alnetis seu aliquibus aliis rebus ad castra forceletta feoda honores terras et tenementa quibus-cumque pertinentibus et qui tenent in feodo et hereditarie et qui ad terminum vite vel annorum vel ad feodi firmam et utrum tenet de domino rege in capite vel de medio et de quibus mediis et per que servicia et per quas consuetudines et quantum pro feodi firma aut pro terminis vite vel annorum reddunt domino regi per annum aut dominis tenementorum predictorum.
How much each archbishop, bishop, abbot, prior, earl, baron, knight, freeman or burgess holds in cities, boroughs and market towns or all other vills and hamlets, in castles, strongholds, knights’ fees, lands, tenements, demesnes, honours, woods, meadows, parks, pastures common or several, forests, chaces, warrens, fairs, markets, rents, villeins, cottars, customs, services, villein works, waters, fisheries common or several, banks, fish-ponds, mills, gardens, heathland, marshes, turbaries, alder groves or anything else of any kind pertaining to castles, strongholds, fees, honours, lands and tenements, and who holds them in fee and hereditarily and who [holds] for life or a term of years or at fee farm and whether they are held of the king in chief or from a mesne lord, and from which mesne lords and for what service and by what customs and how much they render to the lord king or the aforementioned lords per annum in fee farm or for life or for a term of years.
5. Quantum quilibet archiepiscopus episcopus abbas prior comes baro miles et liber homo habet in libere tenentibus ut in libere tenentibus in dominicis ut in dominicis6 in villanis ut in villanis in servis ut in servis in (p.194) cotariis ut in cotariis et in omnibus aliis tenuris quibuscumque et quocumque modo et de quibus sive de medio sive de aliis eas tenent et per quas metas et divisas.
How much each archbishop, bishop, abbot, prior, earl, baron, knight and freeman has in free tenants, demesnes, villeins, serfs, cottars and in all other tenures whatever, and by whatever way and of whom do they hold them, either from a mesne lord or from others and within what bounds.
6. De quibus feodis et aliis tenuris scutagium dari debet et consuevit7 et quantum de feodis honorum quorumcumque et qui feoda illa tenent qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore.
From which fees and other tenures scutage ought and used to be given and is customary and how much from the fees of whichever honour and who holds those fees, in what way, how and since when.
7. Quantum terre vel tenementa quilibet liber homo villanus vel servus aut cotarius tenet in villis mercatoriis aut omnibus aliis villis ac hamelettis8 et de quibus dominis et per que servicia et per quas consuetudines inde faciendas.
How many lands and tenements each free tenant, villein or serf or cottar holds in market towns or all other vills and hamlets and from which lords and for what services and for rendering what customs.
8. Qui habent piscariam communem aut separabilem in aquis vel ripariis domini regis quo waranto etc.9
Who holds common or private fisheries in the rivers or banks of the lord king, by what warrant etc.
9. Si aliqui tenentes de domino rege in capite de domino rege per baroniam vel serjauntiam magnam vel parvam terras aut tenementa sua alicui vendiderint vel aliquo alio modo alienaverint10 quibus personis vendita seu alienata fuerint qui ea tenent nunc per quos etc.11
Whether any tenants-in-chief of the king by barony or grand or petty serjeanty have sold lands or tenements to anyone, or alienated them in any other way, to whom they have been sold or alienated, who now hold them, by whom etc.
10. (9) Qui clamant habere libertates qualiter et quo modo et quibus liber-tatibus hactenus usi fuerint et utrum habeant per cartas predecessorum regum aut potestate aut auctoritate propria vel favore aut permissione (p.195) vicecomitum12 aut ballivorum seu ministrorum domini regis libertates illas habuerint vel non.13
Who claims to have liberties, how and in what way, and which liberties have they exercised until now and whether they have these liberties by charter of the king’s predecessors or by force or on their own authority or by favour or permission of the sheriff or the bailiffs or ministers of the lord king or not.
Whether anyone has occupied or appropriated to himself those liberties against the lord king or anyone great or small, in what way, by whom and since when.
12.(8) Qui habentes furcas tumberellum collistrigium vel alia que ad judi-cium perficiendum pertinent assisam panis et cervisie wreccum maris retorna brevium visum franci plegii et placitum vetiti namii extractas aut alia que ad regem pertinent quo waranto qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore et per quem.16
Who, having gallows, tumbrels, pillories or other things pertaining to the exercise of judgement, assize of bread and ale, wreck of the sea, return of writs, view of frankpledge and plea of vee de naam, estreats or anything else belonging to the king, by what warrant, in what way, how and since when and by whom.
13.(11) Qui ab antiquo liberas chacias et warennas ex concessione regis vel predecessorum suorum habuerint17 fines et metas earum excesserint qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore et per quas metas et divisas chacias vel warennas illas habere debent per concessionem predictam.18
Who from ancient times has had free chaces and warrens by grant of the king or his predecessors and has exceeded their metes and bounds, how, in what way, and since when, and within what metes and bounds ought they have those chaces and warrens by the aforesaid grant.
(p.196) Who has newly appropriated to himself free chace and warren, by what warrant and within what metes and bounds and since when.
15. Qui habentes chacias warennas ferias mercata vel alias libertates que ad dominum regem pertinent21 utrum eas habuerint ex concessione regis vel predecessorum suorum aut eas potestate ac auctoritate propria vel potestate quorum antecessorum suorum aut favore et permissione vice-comitum seu ballivorum suorum vel aliorum ministrorum domini regis aut predecessorum suorum ea perquisierint; et si ex concessione regis vel predecessorum suorum quorum predecessorum suorum et a quo tempore; et si potestate propria vel potestate ballivorum suorum aut permissione vicecomitum vel aliorum ballivorum seu ministrorum regis vel predecessorum suorum.22
Those having chaces, warrens, fairs, markets or other liberties which belong to the lord king, whether they have them by grant of the king or his predecessors or by force or on their own authority or by the force of their ancestors, or by favour or permission of the sheriff or his bailiffs or of other ministers of the lord king or his predecessors, and if by grant of the king or his predecessors, which of his predecessors and how long ago and if by his own authority or the authority of his bailiffs or by permission of the sheriff or other bailiffs or ministers of the king or his predecessors.
16. (1323) Si qui aut eorum antecessores fecerint aliquas purpresturas super dominum regem vel regalem dignitatem24 vel communem25 vel aliquem alium majorem vel minorem de comitatibus predictis26 qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore
Whether anyone or their ancestors has made any purprestures against the king or royal dignity or crown or anyone great or small in the aforementioned counties, in what way, how and how long ago.
17. (45) Si aliqui viri religiosi teneant aliquas ecclesias in usus proprios quarum advocaciones ad dominum regem de jure debeant pertinere27 vel aliqui alii hujusmodi advocaciones teneant qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore.
Whether any religious hold any appropriated churches whose advowsons ought properly belong to the lord king or anyone else who holds such advowsons, in what way, how and since when.
(p.197) 18. Si que terre vel tenementa que debent esse escaete domini regis vel in custodia sua sint in manu sua aut in manibus aliorum28 et si in manibus aliorum in quorum manibus per quem qualiter quo modo quo waranto et a quo tempore.29
Whether there are any lands or tenements which ought to be escheats of the lord king or in his wardships [which] are in his hand or in the hands of others and, if in the hands of others, by whom, how, in what way, by what warrant and since when.
19. (14) Que feoda militaria cujuscumque feodi terre aut tenementa data sint aut vendita viris religiosis aut aliis in prejudicium domini regis ubi dominus rex amittit custodias vel maritagium heredum30 per quos qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore.
Which knights’ fees from whichever fee, lands or tenements have been given or sold to religious or others to the prejudice of the lord king, whereby the lord king has lost the wardship or the marriage of heirs, by whom, in what way, how and since when.
Concerning ancient suits, customs, services and other things withdrawn from the lord king and his ancestors, who has withdrawn them, how, in what way, and since when; and who of this kind etc.
21. (3) De feodis et feodalibus domini regis et tenementa ejus qui modo ea tenent nunc de ipso in capite33 et quot feoda singuli eorum tenent et que feoda de domino rege tenere solent in capite et utrum tenentur per medium et per quem medium et a quo tempore alienata fuerint etc.
Concerning fees and feudal rights of the lord king and his tenements, who now holds them from him in chief and how many fees each of them holds and which fees used to be held of the lord king in chief and which are held through mesne tenants and which mesne tenant and when were they alienated [and in what way and by whom].
22. (6) Quot hundreda wapentacula sunt in manu domini regis et quot et que in manibus aliorum34 et a quo tempore quo waranto et quantum quili-bet hundredum wapentaculum valeat per annum.
How many hundreds and wapentakes are now in the king’s hand and (p.198) which and how many are in the hands of others, since when and by what warrant and how much is each hundred [and] wapentake worth per annum.
23. Si heres alicujus tenementorum35 de domino rege in capite cujus custo-dia et maritagium ad ipsum regem de jure pertinent subtractus sit domino rege vel concellatus et alicui sine licentia domini regis maritatus per quem qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore.36
Whether the heir of any tenement [held] of the lord king whose wardship or marriage rightly belongs to the said king has been withdrawn from the lord king or concealed and married to someone without the licence of the lord king, by whom, in what way and since when.
24. Si aliqua domina vel puella que per dominum regem debet maritari gratis37 alicui se maritaverit38 sine licencia regis vel si rapta39 fuerit et contra voluntatem propriam maritatur per quem40 et cui qualiter quo modo.41
Whether any lady or girl who should be married by the lord king has married someone free, without the licence of the lord king, or whether she has been abducted and married against her will, by whom, and to whom, in what way and how.
Whether any lands or tenements which ought to be escheats of the lord king or in his wardship have been concealed and in whose hands they are to be found and since when and by whom they were concealed.
26. Si aliqui de feodo domini regis baroniis seu serjantiis magnis vel parvis data vendita vel alio modo alienata fuerint quibus personis per quem et a quo tempore; et qui particulas inde alienatas tenent et quantum particule ille valent per annum.
Whether any fee of the lord king baronies or serjeanties, grand or petty, have been granted, sold or in any way alienated, to which people, by whom and since when; and which alienated parcels do they hold and how much are those parcels worth per annum.
(p.199) 27. Qui sunt illi qui tenentur ad wardas seu defensiones45 ad castra domini regis faciendas46 et si quid de wardis illis concelatum vel subtractum fuit per quos et a quo tempore et quantum pro wardis illis reddere debent.
Who are those who are obliged to the performance of castle guard or defence of the castles of the lord king and whether anything concerning those wards has been concealed or withdrawn, by whom and since when and how much they ought to render for those castle guards.
Whether anyone has diverted the course of river banks of the lord king and has built mill-pools or weirs on them, by what warrant, how, in what way and since when.
29. Qui patronatus abbathiarum prioratuum dignitatum prebendarum custodum hospitalium et liberarum capellarum domini regis qui ab antiq-uitus ad coronam domini regis pertinebant et qui sunt in manu domini regis et qui non49 et qui eos tenent nunc qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore etc.50
Which patronage of abbeys, priories, prebendal dignities, custody of hospitals and free chapels of the lord king used anciently to belong to the crown, and which are in the hands of the lord king and which not, and who holds them now, how, in what way and since when.
30. De terris Normannorum felonum fugitivorum et aliorum que sunt et esse debent escaete domini regis51 qui ea tenent qualiter quo modo et a quo tempore et utrum in feodo et hereditarie vel ad terminum vite vel annorum.52
Concerning lands of the Normans, felons, fugitives and others which are and should be escheats of the lord king, who holds them, in what way, how and since when and whether [they are held] in fee and hereditarily or for life or for a term of years.
31. Que et quot burgagia placeas et terras vacuas rex habet in civitatibus burgis villis mercatoriis et aliis villis et hamelettis53 et qui ea tenent et quantum dominus rex inde perciperit per annum.54
(p.200) Which and how many burgages, plots and empty lands the king has in cities, boroughs, market towns and other vills and hamlets and who holds them and how much the lord king receives from them per annum.
32. De firmariis domini regis tenentibus civitatibus burgis aut aliqua maneria domini regis ad feodi firmam qui occasione dicte firme capiunt escaetas domini regis et per illos alienatur aut ipsas retinent commodum inde proveniunt in usus proprios convertendo.55
Concerning the farmers of the lord king, holding cities, boroughs or any manors of the lord king at fee farm, who by occasion of that farm take escheats and alienate them, or retain them, by which they come to convert [them] to their own use.
33. Si qui viri religiosi intraverunt feodum domini regis in toto vel in parte ubi dominus rex amittit custodiam et maritagia heredum qualiter et quo modo et a quo tempore.56
Whether religious have entered the fee of the lord king either wholly or in part so that the lord king loses custody and marriage of heirs, in what way, how and since when.
34. Quantum quilibet tenet de essartis infra forestas domini regis et quan-tum terre et tenementa illa valent per annum et quantum rex percipit de assartis illis per annum ut in redditibus consuetudinibus serviciis et aliis. Et si aliquis plus inde subtraxit quam ad ipsum pertinent habendum etc.57
How much anyone holds of assarts in the forest of the lord king and how much the lands and tenements are worth per annum and how much the king receives from those assarts per annum in rents, customs, services and others. And whether anyone has taken more than he should have for himself.
35. Qui pontes et calcetas ubi regie et communes strate esse debent et parari solent et consueverunt et eos dirui permiserunt58 et Ibidem passag-ium per batellos passagium fecerint certum transeuntibus pro passagiis suis capientes et passagia illa ad firmam annuatim dimittentes in prejudicium et lesionem regis dignitatis et transeuntium grave dampnum quibus locis et a quo tempore passagia illa habuerint quid et quantum capiunt pro firma predicta et quantum quilibet transiens solvit pro passagio suo.59
Who is and was accustomed to repair the bridges and causeways where the royal and common highways ought to be, and allowed them to decay and there made passage for the passage of boats, taking a sum from those (p.201) travelling for their passage and granting those tolls for an annual farm to the prejudice and damage of royal dignity and the grave damage of trav-ellers, in which places, and since when they have had those tolls, what and how much they take for the aforementioned farm and how much each traveller pays for his passage.
The following articles appear in isolated returns only:
36. De advocacionibus ecclesiarum et qui sunt veri patroni ecclesiarum existencium in burgo Cantabr’.60
Concerning the advowsons of churches and who are the true patrons of the churches in the borough of Cambridge.
37. Quantum quilibet tenet ut in terris pratis croftis et gardinis et quantum continet si sit acra dimidia vel roda.61
How much each hold in lands, meadows, crofts and gardens and how much it contains if it is half an acre or rod.
38. Quantum opera villanorum valent etc.62
How much the villein works are worth etc.
39. De purpresturis factis quantum in latidudine et longitudine.63
Concerning purprestures which have been made, what their size is in latitude and longitude.
40. Qui tenent ad terminum vite vel annorum.64
Who holds for life or for a term of years.
41. De terris elemosinatis domibus religiosis.65
Concerning the land given in alms to religious houses.
42. Que et quantum quilibet libere tenens per cartam vel libere sokeman-nus aut bondus tenet in dictis maneriis de domino rege in capite vel per medium et per quod servicium.66
What and how much each freeman, holding by charter, or free sokeman or bondman holds in chief in the aforesaid manors of the lord king, or through a mesne tenant and for what service.
1. De illis qui habent xx libratas terre etc.
Concerning those who have twenty pounds worth of land etc.
2. De hiis qui districti fuerunt ad arma militaria suscipienda etc.
Concerning those who were distrained to take knighthood etc.
3. De terris and tenementis eorum in quibus locis sunt per Anglie etc.
Concerning the whereabouts of their land and tenements in England etc.
4. De domibus et redditibus regis si quas vel quos habeant etc.
Concerning the king’s houses and rents, whether they have them etc.
5. Et siquid inde super regem vel patrem suum fuerit occupatus etc.
Whether anyone has occupied [property of the] king or his father etc.
6. De libertatibus domini regis que sunt in manu sua etc.
Concerning regalian rights which are in the king’s hands etc.
7. Et que alie sunt super ipsum occupate etc.
And which others belonging to him have been occupied on etc.
8. De eschaetis domini regis ubi sunt etc.
Concerning the whereabouts of royal escheats etc.
9. De aliis eschaetis de tempore patris sui et predecessorum suorum etc.
Concerning other escheats from the time of his father and his predecessors etc.
10. De dominicis regis etc.
Concerning royal demesnes etc.
11. De placeis regis68 dudum vacuis et nunc edificatis etc.
Concerning plots, formerly vacant, now built on etc.
12. De placeis regis69 nunc non edificatis etc.
Concerning plots now without buildings etc.
13. De redditibus super huiusmodi placeis levatis etc.
Concerning rents levied on whatever plots etc.
14. De feodis regis etc ut in advocationibus ecclesiarum etc.
Concerning royal fees etc. as in ecclesiastical advowsons etc.
15. De viis et semitis etc.
Concerning roads and paths etc.
(p.203) 16. De cursu aque etc.
Concerning watercourses etc.
17. De aliis purpresturis etc.
Concerning other encroachments etc.
18. De occupationibus libertatum regis etc.
Concerning encroachment on the king’s liberties etc.
(1) The text of the articles given to the jurors opened with the words inquirere opportet. RH ii. 688a, 822a. Where they are cited, they vary considerably as to whether all the articles were included, the degree to which they were abridged, their precise wording, and, sometimes, order. The present text is a composite reconstruc-tion, from the Cambridgeshire returns among which those for Cambridge itself (Ibid. 356a, 391a–2b), together with Kingston (Ibid. 514a, 516a–17a) and Toft (Ibid. 517a–b, 519b–20b) in Longstow hundred, are particularly comprehensive. An attempt has been made to provide the fullest and most intelligible text. Punctuation has been modernized and minor variations in wording have not been noted. Articles either similar or identical in form to those of the 1274–5 inquiry and the nova capit-ula of the general eyre have the article reference number from H. M. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls (London, 1930), 248–56, in brackets. References to the articles of the 1255 hundred roll inquiry follow the numbering of D. Roffe, ‘The Hundred Rolls of 1255’, Historical Research, 69 (1996), 208–10, and those of vetera capitula of the general eyre, the numbering in H. M. Cam, Studies in the Hundred Rolls (Oxford, 1921), 92–4. For the variant articles in the 19-cent. tran-script for Shrewsbury, see above, pp. 47–8.
(2) Text completed from the articles of the 1274–5 inquiry. Cam, The Hundred, 248–9.
(3) The Cambridge and Kingston articles end here.
(4) fortelaciis at Kingston.
(5) The Cambridge article ends here.
(6) The Cambridge article ends here.
(7) The Cambridge article ends here.
(8) The Cambridge article ends here.
(9) quo waranto etc supplied from the Caldecote articles. RH ii. 529a. This arti-cle was omitted at Toft.
(10) The Cambridge article ends here.
(11) This article was omitted at Toft.
(12) The Kingston article ends here.
(13) This article was omitted at Toft.
(14) The Cambridge article ends here.
(15) This article was omitted at Toft.
(16) The Cambridge article omits visum franci plegii et placitum vetiti namii and ends pertinent etc.
(17) The Cambridge article ends here.
(18) This article was omitted at Toft.
(19) The Cambridge article ends here.
(20) This article was omitted at Toft.
(21) The Cambridge article ends here.
(22) This article was omitted at Toft.
(23) See 1255, art. 7, and general eyre, art. 9 of the vetera capitula and 13 of the nova capitula.
(24) The Cambridge article ends here.
(25) Correctly, coronam?.
(26) The Kingston article ends here.
(27) The Cambridge article ends here.
(28) The Cambridge article ends here.
(29) See 1255, art. 22, and general eyre, art. 7 of the vetera capitula.
(30) The Cambridge article ends here.
(31) The Cambridge article ends here.
(32) This article was repeated three times in the Kingston return.
(33) The Cambridge article ends here.
(34) The Cambridge article ends here.
(35) tenentis at Cambridge. RH ii. 392a.
(36) See general eyre, art. 4 of the vetera capitula.
(37) qualis at Kingston. RH ii. 516b.
(38) The Toft article ends here.
(39) capta at Kingston. RH ii. 516b.
(40) The Cambridge article ends here.
(41) See general eyre, arts. 4–5 of the vetera capitula.
(42) The Toft article continues sint in manu sua vel in manibus suorum etc.
(43) The Cambridge article ends here.
(44) See also art. 18, and general eyre, art. 7 of the vetera capitula.
(45) The Toft article ends here.
(46) The Cambridge article ends here.
(47) The Cambridge article ends here.
(48) This article was omitted at Toft.
(49) The Cambridge article ends here.
(50) This article was omitted at Toft.
(51) The Cambridge article ends here.
(52) See general eyre, art. 37 of the vetera capitula. This article was omitted at Toft.
(53) The Cambridge article ends here.
(54) This article was omitted at Toft.
(55) This article was omitted at Toft.
(56) See also art. 19; 1255, art. 17, and general eyre, art. 14 of the nova capitula. This article was omitted at Toft.
(57) This article was omitted at Kingston and Toft.
(58) The Cambridge article ends here.
(59) This article was omitted at Toft.
(60) RH ii. 392b.
(62) Waterbeach (Northstow hund.) entry only.
(63) Waterbeach (Northstow hund.) entry only.
(64) Fowlmere and Hauxton (Thriplow hund.) entries only. RH ii. 547b, 550b.
(65) Fowlmere (Thriplow hund.) and Arrington (Wetherley hund.). RH ii. 547b, 556a.
(66) Godmanchester entry only. RH ii. 591a.
(67) Text compiled from PRO, SC5/London/Tower/1–26, mm. 8 (6), 10 (8), 14 (12).
(68) regis in PRO, SC5/London/Tower/5, m. 10 (8) only.
(69) regis in PRO, SC5/London/Tower/5, m. 10 (8) only.