(p.400) APPENDIX 2 Notable Native Patrilineages and Individuals of Southern England in the Twelfth Century
(p.400) APPENDIX 2 Notable Native Patrilineages and Individuals of Southern England in the Twelfth Century
IN THIS APPENDIX I have included patrilineages that survived from 1086 into the twelfth century and other important native families or individuals absent from the Cartae Baronum. I have excluded families from Yorkshire, Lancashire, and further north for the sake of brevity (for native northern families, see above, pp. 112–15). I have named families found in the Cartae Baronum beside the county in which they were based, to give a better sense of the geographic distribution of known native patrilineages in the south. Asterisks indicate individuals or families discussed in the text.
1. A family descended from one Wolward held Inglesham in hereditary fee farm for £10, as a member of the manor of Faringdon, where Alfsi of Faringdon held 4 hides in 1086.1 It is at least possible that Wolward was related to Alfsi of Faringdon. Certainly Alfsi left land-holding descendants, for Stenton discovered a charter from the late twelfth century by which one, Robert of Astrop, gave away a small manor that Alfsi’s son had held in 1086.2
2. The land of the king’s thegn Wigar who held 2 hides in Benham passed to his sons Hugh and Ralph, the elder of whom was alive in 1110.3
3. Several scholars have suggested that the father of William son of Alward, whose land and office William paid for in Henry I’s pipe roll, may have been Alward the goldsmith who inherited 7 hides in Shottesbrook before 1086.4
Buckinghamshire (Ravening of Missenden)
1. In his introduction to the Luffield Cartulary, Elvey suggests that four prominent Buckinghamshire families, the Westburys, Wedons, Brocs, and Horwodes, were of native ancestry. His evidence for the Brocs seems to me basically nonexistent. For the Westburys it depends on descent from a man named Aldelm, and for the Horwodes, descent from brothers named Berner and Azur. These names may well indicate native ancestry, but unfortunately fall into the ambiguous category. The best case is with the Wedons, who were descended from an Alfred who possessed estates held by an Almar in 1086 from the count of Mortain and Miles Crispin, one of which he had held in 1066. Alfred is an ethnically ambiguous name, but it seems likely that Alfred of Wedon was a descendant as well as successor of the native survivor Almar.5
(p.401) Cambridgeshire (Robertson of Robert son of Elric, Geoffrey son of Swein)
1. *Liulf of Twemlow, sheriff of the county under Earl Ranulf III.
2. A Waltheof son of Wulfric who attested a charter of Earl Ranulf II and whose daughter Margery married Gilbert Venables may be a son of the Uluric, or Wulfric, who held three small manors in 1086. Liulf of Twemlow may have some connection with this family.6
Cornwall (Jordan of Trecarrel)
1. Odmer, the brother and steward of Bishop Leofric of Exeter, who died in 1072, established a family that survived in a reasonably prominent position into the twelfth century.7
1. In 1086 a king’s thegn named Toli held Sandiacre. The pipe roll of 1131 shows a Robert son of Toli was in royal service in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire and a Peter Toli received a Danegeld pardon under the same county rubric and received delivery of a falcon in the pipe roll of Henry II’s second year. Two years later Peter of Sandiacre, who was a royal falconer and ancestor of the Sandiacre family, which held through a sergeancy of falconry, received a pardon from a county ‘gift’ for Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. If Peter Toli and Peter of Sandiacre were the same, or father and son, this would indicate the survival of a native patrilineage from 1066 through the end of the twelfth century.8
2. In a charter from the middle of the twelfth century Earl Robert de Ferrers confirmed to Tutbury demesne tithes given by a number of lords, including the natives Elfin of Brailsford and Orm of Okeover, whose lordship of the estates in question is well attested. He also confirmed demesne tithes given by Ulsi in Twyford and Stenson, where Henry de Ferrers had held 5 carucates. It is likely that Ulsi was a moderately important local native landlord like Elfin and Orm, though there is no apparent link to any of the 1066 tenants.9
1. In the middle of the twelfth century a man with the English name of Aldred of Down or Rousdon, whose son Ralph was a knight, held land that had been held by a king’s thegn in 1086. Aldred was also an inhabitant of Axminster.10
Dorset (Henry of Merriott)
1. Bishop Jocelin of Salisbury granted ¼ knight’s fee to Walter son of Sweyn of Legha, dispensator.11
(p.402) Essex (Robertson of Robert son of Elric)
1. *Ailward, royal official.
2. Henry II granted various lands to Alcher the hunter (who had an uncle named Orgar) and his sons, including ¼ knight’s fee, and the land of a man who committed adultery with Alcher’s wife Edith, whom Alcher’s son Richard managed to have falsely accused of robbery.12
Gloucestershire (Fitz Hardings)
1. Keats-Rohan has shown that the Osward who held ½ hide in Trewsbury of Gilbert son of Turold in 1086 attested a charter of Osbern son of Pons in the reign of Henry I.13
1. A case of 1225 reveals that at some point in the twelfth century, possibly in Henry I’s reign, a certain Godwin held 4 ploughlands in one of the villages called Worthy in the county.14
2. Uluric the Huntsman, who held land in Wiltshire as well as Hampshire, was succeeded by his son Walter, and in the pipe roll of 1131 the sheriff offered £100 and 3 marks of gold for the custody of Walter’s heirs.15
3. The descent of the land of Aluric the Small, who held land in Wiltshire as well as Hampshire, is unclear, but it stayed in native hands. It was probably granted by Stephen to a grandson, also named Alvric, and then, by the future Henry II, to William Spileman, grandson of Edward Unnithing, whose family continued to hold by sergeanty.16
Hertfordshire (Albert Anglicus)
1. The Alden who retained Tewin through King William’s intervention, for the soul of his son Richard, may have survived into Henry I’s reign.17
1. In Yelling, where a Suin, perhaps Swein, held 5 hides of Ramsey in 1086, an Alard of Yelling held 5 hides in 1166, and a Harold held the same amount for either ½ or a whole knight’s fee late in Henry II’s reign.18
1. A Walter son of Godwin had a wife and brother who proffered 100 marks for the custody of his land and heirs.19
(p.403) Lincolnshire (Hugh son of Alger)
1. *Picot son of Colswein.
2. *The Ingoldsby family.
3. The Keals. This family, whose descent can be tracked in the Crowland Cartulary and the Curia Regis Rolls, is the most important of those whose history has not previously been traced.20 The family was descended from Ketelbern of Keal, who had an estate of 9 small holdings and a mill in Domesday Book, held by three thegns in 1066, totalling slightly under 4 carucates and worth £5.17s., possibly along with property in Lincoln.21 He, or a successor of the same name, appeared, with at least his most important holdings, in the Lindsey survey of 1115–16, and gave the churches of West Keal and Sutton le Marsh to Crowland Abbey, a grant that was confirmed and later contested by various descendants. His wife was named Alexis of Chisy.22 Ketelbern died sometime before the pipe roll of 1130, when his son Odo owed four falcons for his land. The demand for falcons may suggest that Ketelbern and his son were valued for procuring or training falcons, and that like other thegnly families they survived through ministerial service to the new royal family.23 Odo attested a charter of the immigrant magnate William de Roumare, and other Keals, some of them certainly and others possibly members of the same family, witnessed charters of the Roumares and the earls of Chester.24 Odo also made a grant to Kirkstead.25 The family next appears in 1176, after Odo’s son Alan died, when his sons were in royal custody, along with his land, worth £14 or £15 a year.26 The land continued down through Alan’s son William to William’s son, who is named Ketelbern, as far as I know a unique example of a thirteenth-century native readopting a rare insular ancestral name. Sir Ketelbern, as he is called in some documents, can be found making deals concerning his land, and serving on a Lincolnshire jury in a politically sensitive case.27 This Ketelbern was succeeded in turn by his son John and grandson Ralph.28
1. In a lawsuit of 1200 the manor of Bedfont was claimed on the grounds that Henry of Bedfont, who inherited it from Walter of Bedfont, was actually Walter’s stepson and was really son of one Gospatric of Wilton. Henry naturally denied this.29
(p.404) Norfolk (Hautein)
1. Ralph and Hubert, sons of Godric Dapifer, an important royal official in 1086, held his lands under William d’Aubigny. The lands subsequently passed to the Monte Canisio family.30
2. Keats-Rohan has traced several descendants of Alfred of Attleborough, who held 2 carucates of the king in 1086 and may have been an under-sheriff early in the twelfth century.31
3. A legal case from 1201 reveals the marriage of a sokeman of Bury St Edmunds named Peter son of Godwin to the heiress of a knight, William of Walton.32
Nottinghamshire (The Cromwells)
1. The Arngrim who held land from Sibthorpe and its outliers from Ilbert de Lacy in 1086 had a grandson named Ralph of St Paul, though it is not clear if Ralph inherited through his father or his mother.33
1. Matthew, grandson of Sueting, who held 1½ hides in Wheatley from Abingdon in 1086, held part of a knight’s fee from the abbey.34
Shropshire (Gilbert Anglicus, Roger Anglus, Alwin of Legam)
1. The powerful thegn Siward son of Æthelgar was succeeded by his son Ealdred, who survived into the twelfth century, but it is impossible to trace the family thereafter in Shropshire.35
2. Estates held by a Hunnit in 1086 passed to the Toret family. They may have been descendants of a Toret who held land in 1086 that subsequently passed to another family. Alternately, it is possible that the Hunnit and Toret of 1086 were related and that the former named an heir after the latter. In any case, the Torets, a prominent local family who developed close ties with the Dunstanvilles and later gained land in Yorkshire through marriage, were probably of native descent.36
3. The Sprenghose family, which gained a certain local prominence as a knightly family, was descended from one Ailric, who lived in the reign of Henry II.37
4. Williams has suggested that the Savage family was descended from Eadric the Wild.38
5. If Williams is right that the Alcher who held land only in 1086 was a native, then another important local family, the Aers, were of native descent.39
Somerset (Ailric of Orchaddone, the Merriotts)
1. As Stacy has shown, a Godwin, who held 2 hides from Glastonbury in Domesday Book, survived well into the twelfth century but was able to retain only a virgate for his successors.40
2. A king’s thegn named Doda held 3 virgates in Dodington in 1086. Henry II confirmed to Baldwin son of Harding 3 virgates his father and ancestors held there of the Hospitallers, and it is at least possible that Harding was a descendant of Doda.41
1. *The Audleys
2. The Okeover family.42
3. *The Ridware family. Descended from Atsor the Englishman, they rose to prominence under William, steward of the Earl Ferrers43
4. The Leigh family. This family, which later entered the knightly ranks, can only be traced back to Robert son of Ulviet, who received the manor of Leigh from Burton in fee farm in Henry II’s reign, but they also held land from the Staffords which Woodman and Alsi held of Robert of Stafford in 1086, raising the possibility of earlier origins.44
5. Orm of Darlaston. He held Darlaston at farm from Burton Abbey, and married the daughter of Nicholas of Beauchamp. In 1131 he owed 40 marks for breaking the peace. The heiresses of two of his sons married into the Audley and Gresley families.45
Suffolk (Cockfields, Roger son of Edmund)
1. Ulward of Wangford, who held several estates from Bury St Edmund’s in 1086 and farmed two others, apparently gained King Henry I’s support by becoming his man, and was succeeded by his son Goscelin.46
2. Keats-Rohan has suggested that the Richard son of Stanhard who attested some Bury deeds was son of the Stanard who was a minor tenant-in-chief and mesne tenant as well.47
3. The Sibton cartulary reveals the existence of the Wenhaston/Malet family descended from one Ailwyn, who changed his name to Geoffrey. The family had close connections to the Bigods and a number of estates, part of which were held for ½ a knight’s fee.48
4. An agreement of 1112 in which Ædricus Latimer placed lands in Fornham, Suffolk, and Harlow, Essex, in gage for 35 marks suggests that he was a modestly wealthy landholder.49
1. Though the lands of the powerful thegn Oswold passed to Normans in the twelfth century, he, or a relative of the same name, granted demesne tithes in one of his manors early in that century.50
2. A case in 1220 reveals that a father and son, both named Hemming, held 3½ hides in Bagshetat rent. The younger Hemming’s son ‘was led into Wales’ at some point and was not present when Hemming died. Later a man named Geoffrey Aurifaber showed up claiming to be Hemming’s son. The jurors were unsure but thought his claim was probably true.51
1. The Le Notte family was descended from the daughter of Guthmund, brother of Thorkel of Warwick. Her husband’s identity is unknown.52
2. Eddulf or Hadulf, who held two estates from Thorkel of Warwick in 1086, which he had also held in 1066, was the ancestor of a family that lasted into the thirteenth century.53
3. A Ralph son of Godwin de halla who owed 10 marks in Henry I’s pipe roll may be the son of the Godwin who held 1 carucate in Hodnell (Hodenhelle) in 1086.54
1. Bishop Teulf enfeoffed Oswin camerarius with ½ a knight’s fee in Upton. Subsequently this was held by Peter of Upton, who may or may not have been a relative.55
(1) CRR 5: 60–1; DB 1: 57, b.
(2) VCH Oxfordshire, 1: 388; Stenton, ‘English Families’, 11.
(3) VCH Berkshire, 4: 120; Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 466.
(4) DB 1: 63b; Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 124; VCH Berkshire, 3: 164; Green, Government of England, 279; Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 149.
(5) Elvey, Luffield Priory Charters, 2: pp. xlvii–l.
(6) DB 1: 267b, 265a; Barraclough, Charters of the Earls of Chester, no. 43; Tait, Chartulary of St. Werburgh, 1: 235; Ormerod, History, 3: 61, 210.
(7) EEA 11, no. 1; 12, no. 170.
(8) DB 1: 278b; Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 7, 11; Pipe Roll 2 Henry II, 39, 46; Pipe Roll 4 Henry II, 153; Pipe Roll 5 Henry II, 59; Pipe Roll 17 Henry II, 99. See Darlington, Cartulary of Darley Abbey, 1: pp. xxx–xxxii, for the Sandiacre family.
(9) Earl Robert also confirmed a grant of tithes by Chetell in Sturston, where Henry had held less than 1 carucate in 1086, and by Toli in Syrie: DB 1: 275a–b; Avrom Saltman, ed., The Cartulary of Tutbury Priory (London, 1962), no. 52.
(10) EEA 10, no. 144; 11, no. 66; Pipe Roll 14 Henry II, 129.
(11) EEA 2, no. 209; 18, nos. 149, 188.
(12) Book of Fees, 1: 121, 126; Ransford, Early Charters of Waltham Abbey, nos. 280–4; Conway, Cartae Antiquae Rolls 11–20, no. 533; CRR 13: 226.
(13) Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 320.
(14) CRR 12, no.51
(15) DB 1: 50a, 74a; Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 37; Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 437.
(16) DB 1: 51b, 73b; Calendar of Charter Rolls, 4: 442–3; VCH Hampshire, 4: 626–7; 5: 116–17; VCH Wiltshire, 2: 78; 9: 52, 56; 15: 269.
(17) DB 1: 144a–b; RRAN 2, no. 584 and n.
(18) DB 1: 204b; Hall, Red Book of the Exchequer, 1: 371; Hart and Lyons, Cartularium Monasterii de Rameseia, 3: 48; VCH Huntingdonshire, 2: 381.
(19) Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 66.
(20) CRR 14: 25; Spalding Gentlemen’s Society, Crowland Abbey Cartulary, fols. 193v–194r, 124v–125r.
(21) This total ignores a holding of ½ carucate worth £1 immediately following, which was attributed to Ketelbern for 1066 but to no one for 1086; there is a good chance it was his as well, though this, like some other holdings, does not appear later in the family’s hands. Ketelbern was involved in several suits over land at the time of the survey: DB 1: 336a, 370b, 375a–b.
(22) Foster and Longley, Lincolnshire Domesday and the Lindsey Survey, 252–4; Spalding Gentlemen’s Society, Crowland Abbey Cartulary, fols. 193v–194r, 124v–5r; EEA 1, no. 100, n.; CRR 14: 25.
(23) Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 113.
(24) Stenton, Documents Illustrative of the Danelaw, nos. 501, 507, 510–12, 515, 527, 529; Barraclough, Charters of the Earls of Chester, nos. 289, 299, 301, 302, 324.
(25) Mon. Ang., 5: 420.
(26) Pipe Roll 22 Henry II, 86; Pipe Roll 23 Henry II, 116.
(27) See A. E. B. Owen, The Medieval Lindsey Marsh: Select Documents (Woodbridge, 1996), no. 76, and Stenton, Danelaw Charters, no. 493, for charters issued by William. For Ketelbern, see Owen, Medieval Lindsey Marsh, no. 37; Book of Fees, 1: 164; 2: 1057–8; CRR 16: 29–30.
(28) Spalding Gentlemen’s Society, Crowland Abbey Cartulary, fols. 124v–25r.
(29) CRR 1: 214; RCR 2: 115.
(30) Mon. Ang., 3: 330; Hall, Red Book of the Exchequer, 1: 397–8.
(31) Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 28–9, 140.
(32) CRR 2: 25–6; RCR 2: 253–4
(33) Trevor Foulds, The Thurgarton Cartulary (Stamford, 1994), 227.
(34) DB 1: 156b; Stevenson, Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, 2: 4–6; Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 424.
(35) Rees, Cartulary of Shrewsbury Abbey, no. 1.
(36) Eyton, Antiquities of Shropshire, 2: 48–9, 305–9; 6: 140; 7: 340; 8: 100, 114–15; 10: 180–6, 236–7, 326; Williams, ENC 90.
(37) Eyton, Antiquities of Shropshire, 6: 25–7, 49–61.
(39) Williams, ENC 91.
(40) DB 1: 90a; EEA 8: 210–11; Stacy, ‘Henry of Blois’, 26.
(41) DB 1: 99a; VCH Somerset, 5: 65–6.
(42) Wrottesley, ‘Okeover of Okeover’, 3–187.
(43) id, ‘The Rydware Chartulary’, 229–302.
(44) DB 1: 249a; Wrottesley, ‘Staffordshire Cartulary, Series III’, 227–8.
(45) Wrottesley, ‘Burton Chaitulary’, 13, 35–6; Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 73.
(46) DB 2: 357b–358b, 360b; Douglas, Feudal Book 17, nos. 26, 38.
(47) Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, 422.
(48) Brown, Sibton Abbey Cartularies, 1: 69–73; 2, no. 303–5; 3, no. 817.
(49) Douglas, Feudal Book, no. 172; Tsurushima, ‘Domesday Interpreters’, 216.
(50) VCH Surrey 3. 323–4.
(51) CRR 9: 332–3.
(52) Williams, ‘Vice-Comital Family’, 288; CRR 6: 72; VCH Warwickshire, 4: 222.
(53) DB 1: 241a; VCH Warwickshire, 6: 35, 204.
(54) DB 1: 241a; Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, 107.
(55) Hollings, Red Book of Worcester, 4: 413.