This chapter discusses the plausibility of syntactic ellipsis in abstraction, surveying data-based arguments both for and against an ellipsis account (from case assignment, binding phenomena, licensing conditions, etc.). It is shown that the evidence against syntactic ellipsis heavily outweighs the evidence for it. It is argued that sub-sentential speech acts cannot be explained away as really involving syntactically elliptical sentences. Hence,premise one of the two-premise argument still stands: namely that speakers genuinely can utter ordinary words and phrases in isolation, and thereby perform full-fledged speech acts.
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