This chapter deals with the scholastic theories about war. It looks at Juan Luis de Molina, and traces the roots of his ideas among the jurists and theologians of the Middle Ages. Molina's views distinguished between defensive and offensive war. The former was open to anybody as long as the victim was genuinely suffering an immediate and actual attack. The latter involved the punishment of some state for an injury committed by its subjects, or the recovery of some property which had wrongly been withheld. Wars in pursuit of glory, or pre-emptive strikes, were utterly forbidden. Warfare against barbarians was unjustifiable, unless it was to protect innocent victims from their aggression, and even then it should not usually lead to the occupation of their lands by a foreign power, but to the liberation of their victims. All of these views are expressly opposed to those of other humanists.
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