Using the discussion of the gendered nature of institutions, such as political parties developed in Part One, as its starting point, Part Three concentrates on the electoral arena. To determine the extent of women's participation in this arena during transitions to democracy, this part analyses three major themes: the level of women's descriptive representation in the post-transition period, the roles that women have played in the conventional arena in various stages of transition, and the contribution that women active in the conventional arena have made to any improvements in women's descriptive and substantive representation. Part Three explains the marked differences seen in patterns of women's representation in different post-transition contexts in terms of electoral rules, political parties, ideology, women activists, and quotas. It also analyses how far women legislators ‘act for’ women and enhance women's substantive representation.
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