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Divided GaelsGaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland 1200-1650$

Wilson McLeod

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780199247226

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199247226.001.0001

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(p.223) Appendix I Bardic Poems Composed by Irish Poets for Scottish Patrons and Bardic Poems Composed by Scottish Poets for Irish Patrons

(p.223) Appendix I Bardic Poems Composed by Irish Poets for Scottish Patrons and Bardic Poems Composed by Scottish Poets for Irish Patrons

Source:
Divided Gaels
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

THE TABLES BELOW set out four categories of known surviving bardic poems: (1) poems composed for Scottish patrons by Irish poets in Scotland; (2) poems composed for Scottish patrons by Irish poets in Ireland; (3) poems composed by Irish poets for (sometimes arguably) Scottish patrons resident in Ireland; and (4) poems composed by Scottish poets for Irish patrons. Where there are doubts as to whether a particular poem should be placed in a certain category—for example, if it is not clear whether the poet in question was Irish or Scottish—the area of uncertainty is noted.

The following information is provided: poet; patron or occasion; date; published source(s); manuscript source(s) (for unpublished poems).

1. Bardic Poems Composed for Scottish Patrons by Irish Poets in Scotland

‘Saor do leannán, a Leamhain’;

Muireadhach Albanach Ó Dálaigh, c.1200(?);

to Alún mac Muireadhaigh, first earl of Lennox († c.1200(?));

published in McKenna 1939, 1940: 173–4.

The date of this poem, and the patron for whom it was composed, are not entirely clear, but Thomas Owen Clancy suggests convincingly (Clancy 1998: 258) that it was composed for the first earl of Lennox, Alún mac Muireadhaigh, and not his son Alún mac Alúin, the second earl. Accordingly, the poem would appear to have been composed not during Muireadhach Albanach’s exile in Scotland after 1213 but in the course of an earlier, unrecorded cuairt.

‘Mairg thréigios inn, a Amblaoíbh’;

Muireadhach Albanach Ó Dálaigh, c.1217(?);

to Amhlaoibh mac Alúin, third earl of Lennox († c.1217);

published in Ó Cuív 1968: 92–8.

(p.224)

‘Ceannas Gaoidheal do chloinn Cholla’;

Ó hÉanna, before 1503;

to Eóin mac Alasdair Mac Domhnaill, ‘Lord of the Isles’ (†1503);

published in MacBain and Kennedy 1894: 208; Laoide 1914: 50–1; Watson 1916: 54.

Origin of poet unknown: it is not clear who Ó hÉanna was or to which kindred or district be belonged. Mícheál Ó Mainnín notes (Ó Mainnín 1987: 48, n. 48) that a family of this name once served as church officials in Banagher, Co. Derry, and speculates that the Ó hÉannas might have come to Scotland c.1300 as part of tochradh nighean a’ Chathanaich.

‘Domhnall mac Raghnaill rosg mall’;

anonymous, c.1220–50(?);

to Domhnall mac Raghnaill (†1247(?)), eponymous progenitor of Clann Domhnaill;

unpublished: NLS Adv. MS 72.2.2, f. 16.

Origin of poet unknown, but geographical references in the poem suggest a Tír Chonaill/northwest Connacht provenance.

‘Fíor mo mholadh ar Mhac Domhnaill’;

anonymous, before 1503;

to Eóin mac Alasdair Mac Domhnaill, ‘Lord of the Isles’;

published in MacBain and Kennedy 1894: 264; Laoide 1914: 52.

Origin of poet unknown: Derick Thomson suggests (Thomson 1983:123) that the author of this poem is probably either the Lachlann Mac Mhuirich ‘archipoeta’, who appears as a witness to a charter in 1485, or Ó hÉanna, author of ‘Ceannas Gaoidheal do chloinn Cholla’.

‘Meisde nach éadmhar Éire’;

Domhnall mac Briain Ó hUiginn, c.1490(?);

to Eóin mac Alasdair Mac Domhnaill, ‘Lord of the Isles’;

RIA MS 23 F 16, 178; British Library Egerton MS 111, f. 50b; stanzas 1–2, 6–7, 26, 29, 31–3 published in Ó Mainnín 1999:15–16;

(?—location of composition unknown.).

‘Dual ollamh do thriall le toisg’;

anonymous, c.1595;

to Gill’Easbuig Gruamach Caimbeul, seventh earl of Argyll (†1638);

unpublished: NLS Adv. MS 72.2.2, 8v, 10, 11r.

‘An síth do rogha, a rígh Fionnghall?’;

anonymous, c.1590;

to Aonghas mac Seumais Mac Domhnaill of Dunyveg (†1614);

published in Watson 1923: 36–38.

W. J. Watson suggests that this poem was composed by an Irish poet, as implied by stanzas 14 and 15 (lines 53–60).

(p.225) 2. Bardic Poems Composed for Scottish Patrons by Irish Poets in Ireland

‘Ceannaigh duain t’athar, a Aonghas’;

anonymous, c.1250;

to Aonghas Mór Mac Domhnaill of Islay (†1296);

published in Bergin 1970: poem 45.

Taking the ‘Mac Somhairle’ killed at Ballyshannon in 1247 to be Domhnall mac Raghnaill mhic Somhairle, father of Aonghas Mór, Katharine Simms suggests (Simms 2001) that this poem may have been composed by Giolla Brighde Mac Con Midhe († c.1272), in that Giolla Brighde composed an elegy on Maoilsheachlainn Ó Domhnaill, killed at the same battle, and that the tone of the poem to Aonghas Mór is similar to that of another work by Giolla Brighde.

‘Fuaras aisgidh gan iarraidh’;

Tadhg Óg Ó hUiginn, c.1429–48;

to Alasdair mac Domhnaill Mac Domhnaill, ‘Lord of the Isles’ (†1449);

published in McKenna 1939, 1940: poem 29.

‘Bí ad mhosgaladh, a mheic Aonghais’;

anonymous, c.1600;

to Sir Seumas mac Aonghais Mac Domhnaill of Knockrinsay (†1626);

published in Bergin 1970: poem 43.

(?—location of composition uncertain).

‘Ionmholta an t-óglach nach diongnadh’;

anonymous, c.1620;

to Sir Seumas mac Aonghais Mac Domhnaill of Knockrinsay;

published in Breathnach 1931: 43–6.

(?—origins of poet and location of composition uncertain).

3. Bardic Poems Composed by Irish Poets for Arguably Scottish Chiefs Resident in Ireland

‘Dál chabhlaigh ar Chaistéal Suibhne’;

Artúr Dall Mac Gurcaigh, c.1310;

to Eóin Mac Suibhne (fl. c.1310);

published in Meek 1998: 33–9.

(?—origins of poet unclear; see Meek 1998 and Ó Mainnín 1999; 28–9, n.76).

There is a substantial body of later Mac Suibhne poetry that could conceivably be included here, but the Mac Suibhnes became firmly established in Ireland from the fourteenth century onwards, and it would be overreaching to connect this poetry—which is not rhetorically ‘Scottish’ in any meaningful way—to Scotland. (p.226)

‘Fada cóir Fhódla ar Albain’;

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn, c.1580;

to Somhairle Buidhe Mac Domhnaill (†1590);

published in Knott 1922, 1926: poem 24.

‘Treisi an eagla ioná an andsacht’;

Brian (?) Ó Gnímh, c.1580;

to various members of the Mac Domhnaills of Antrim;

published in Walsh 1960: 72–8.

‘Do loiscceadh meisi sa Mhuaidh’;

Brian (?) Ó Gnímh, c.1586;

on the deaths of Domhnall Gorm and Alasdair Carrach Mac Domhnaill at Ardnaree, Co. Mayo (1586);

published in Ó Lochlainn 1945–7: 149–55.

‘Mionn súl Éireann i nÁth Cliath’;

Brian Ó Gnímh, c.1586;

on the execution of Alasdair mac Somhairle Bhuidhe Mac Domhnaill (1586);

published in MacBain and Kennedy 1894: ii. 302–3, and in Laoide 1914: 46–9.

‘Éireannaigh féin Fionnlochlannaigh’;

Fear Flatha Ó Gnímh, c.1620;

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, first earl of Antrim (†1636);

published in McKenna 1920: 314–18, and in Mac Cionnaith 1938: poem 89.

‘Díon tíre dá tighearna’;

anonymous, c.1630(?);

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, first Earl of Antrim, and Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, second Earl of Antrim. (†1683);

unpublished; RIA MS A v 2, 63a–64a.

‘Taisdil mhionca ór siabhradh sionn’;

anonymous, c.1639–42;

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, second earl of Antrim;

published in Ó Cuív 1981.

‘Beid mar do bhádar roimhe’;

anonymous, c.1644;

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, second earl of Antrim;

published in Flower 1926.

‘Ainmnigh ria ccách ceann a ccionn’;

Fear Flatha Ó Gnímh (?); after 1644;

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill (then elevated to first marquis of Antrim); (four-stanza fragment);

published in Ó Cuív 1984: 151.

(p.227) Three poems composed for members of Clann Domhnaill in Leinster, probably in the late sixteenth century, are preserved on folios 33 and 34 of TCD MS 1340 (H.3.19) (O’Sullivan 1976: 214–28 (215)): the fragmentary ‘Gnath Laidhnig …’ (anonymous; perhaps to Aodh mac an Chalbhaigh Mac Domhnaill), ‘Le dís cuirther clú Laighen’ (Muircheartach Ó Cobhthaigh; to Aodh Buidhe mac an Chalbhaigh Mac Domhnaill [probably the same individual mentioned in the previous poem] and his brother Alasdair), and ‘Do thogh me maicne Domhnaill’ (anonymous; to Fearadhach mac Toirrdhealbhaigh Mac Domhnaill, perhaps a Mayo rather than Leinster Mac Domhnaill). The Leinster Mac Domhnaills had been established in Ireland since the fourteenth century and by the late sixteenth century any Scottish connection was tenuous.

4. Bardic Poems Composed by Scottish Poets for Irish Patrons

‘Aisling ad-chonnarc ó chianaibh’;

Giolla Brighde Albanach, before 1242;

to Donnchadh Cairbreach Ó Briain, king of Thomond (†1242);

published in McGeown and Murphy 1954–5.

The question of Giolla Brighde’s origins is discussed in detail in Chapter 2.

‘Fada dhamh druim re hÉirinn’;

Giolla Brighde Albanach (?), before 1224;

to Cathal Croibhdhearg Ó Conchubhair, king of Connacht (†1224);

published in Ó Cuív 1969–70.

‘Sgían mo charad ar mo chliú’;

Giolla Brighde Albanach (?), before 1242;

to Donnchadh Cairbreach Ó Briain;

published in Bergin 1970: poem 52; see Clancy 1998: 262.

‘Tabhraidh chugam cruit mo ríogh’;

Giolla Brighde Albanach, before 1242;

to Donnchadh Cairbreach Ó Briain;

published in Walsh 1933: 113–15.

‘Tháinig an Croibhdhearg go Cruachan’;

Giolla Brighde Albanach, c.1220;

to Cathal Croibhdhearg Ó Conchubhair;

published in Quiggin 1912.

‘Lámh aoinfhir fhóirfeas i nÉirinn’;

Giolla Críost Brúilingeach, before 1458;

to Tomaltach Mac Diarmada of Moylurg, Co. Roscommon (†1458);

published in Watson 1937: poem 6.

(p.228)

‘Dá urradh i n-iath Éireann’;

Giolla Críost Brúilingeach, c.1430–58;

satirical comparison of Tomaltach Mac Diarmada and Tomás Óg Mág Uidhir (†1480);

published in Watson 1937: poem 7.

‘Cia as urra d’ainm an iarthair’;

Maol Domhnaigh Ó Muirgheasáin, 1640;

to Domhnall Ó Donnabháin of Carbery, Co. Cork (†1660);

published in Black 1978: 48–54.

‘Cia feasda as urra don eól’;

Maol Domhnaigh Ó Muirgheasáin, 1642;

on the death of the poet Cú Chonnacht Ó Dálaigh (†1642);

published in Black 1976; 200–7.

‘Gnáith féile ag fagháil innmhe’;

Maol Domhnaigh Ó Muirgheasáin, c.1631–50;

to Donnchadh Ó Ceallacháin of Clonmeen, Co. Cork († c.1680);

published in Black 1981: 292–9.

‘Ní doirbh go deaghuil na ccarad’;

Maol Domhnaigh Ó Muirgheasáin, 1643(?);

to Séafraidh Ó Donnchadha an Ghleanna (Co. Kerry) (†1678);

published in Ó Riain 1970; 48–50.

OtherScottish-IrishPoems

Noted here are a number of other poems of particular relevance to the connection between Gaelic Scotland and Gaelic Ireland.

‘Dursan mh’ eachtra go hAlbuin’;

Fearghal Óg Mac an Bhaird (c.1581(?));

published in McKenna 1939, 1940: poem 53.

A religious poem lamenting the absence of the Mass from (Lowland) Scotland, discussed in detail in Chapter 4.

‘Trí coróna i gcairt Shéamais’;

Fearghal Óg Mac an Bhaird (c.1590(?));

published in McKenna 1939, 1940: poem 44.

A panegyric to James VI and I (†1625).

‘Mealladh iomlaoide ar Éirinn’;

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (?) (c.1570–80(?));

to Máire (†1582), wife of Somhairle Buidhe Mac Domhnaill (†1590) and daughter of Conn Bacach Ó Néill (†1559);

published in Ó Macháin 1994: 103–11.

(p.229)

‘Oraoid sunn go síol gColla’;

Tadhg Dail Ó hUiginn (c.1570–80(?));

published in Knott 1922, 1926; poem 42; continuation in Ó Macháin 1994: 96–8.

An iomchasaoid (complaint) to the leaders of Clann Domhnaill Gallóglach following constant harassment of the poet by Scottish warriors.

‘Cuimhnigh sochar síol gColla’;

anonymous, c.1620(?);

unpublished; TCD MS 1340 (H.3.19), 63–4.

A learned poem on the ancestry and tradition of Clann Cholla.

‘Do-dhéan craobhsgaoileadh na cColla’;

anonymous, 1618(?);

unpublished; Maynooth Murphy MS 13 (3 C 13), 252i; RIA MSS 23 G 12, 130, 23 M 288 m, 23 D 5, 206 i, 23 C 12, 7 m, 23 Q 2, 78, 23 G 8, 103, C vi 1 (II), 415, 24 G 19, item (4).

Another learned poem on the ancestry and tradition of Clann Cholla.

‘Éisd re senchas síol gColla’;

anonymous, 1588; ascribed to different poets in different MSS;

unpublished; Harvard MS of the Book of the O’Byrnes, f. 76a; Maynooth Murphy MS 87(b) (2 G 13), 251m; RIA MSS 23 G 12, 88, 23 M 18, 284, 23 D 5, 151 i, 23 G 8, 88 m; TCD MS 1340 (H.3.19), 65–6.

Another learned poem on the ancestry and tradition of Clann Cholla.

‘Iad féin mhóras Clann Cholla’;

Fearghal Óg mac Briain Dorcha Ó hUiginn, c.1620(?);

unpublished; RIA MS C iv 1, 179, 188.

Another learned poem on the ancestry and tradition of Clann Cholla.

‘Fàilt’ a Mharcuis a dh’ Alba’;

anonymous, 1644;

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, second earl and first marquess of Antrim (†1683);

published in MacDonald and MacDonald 1911: 46–7.

A vernacular poem composed for the second earl of Antrim upon his arrival in Scotland in 1644.

‘Bile cosanta Críche Fáil’;

Domhnall Mac Lochlainn(?), c.1705(?);

to Raghnall Mac Domhnaill, fourth earl of Antrim (†1721) (?);

published in Ó Dochartaigh and Ó Baoill 1996: 91.

The original version of this poem, contained in several Munster manuscripts which ascribe it to Domhnall Mac Lochlainn, contained four verses followed by an amhrán, but it was adjusted in other manuscripts so as to remove the fourth verse and make the poem fit the popular trí rainn is amhrán format. A reference to oaths in the last line of the poem, perhaps referring to the Oath of Loyalty and (p.230) Oath of Refusal required by the Act of 1704, suggests that it was composed c.1705, for the fourth earl of Antrim (†1721), although it has also been associated with the first earl († 1636).1

‘I mbrat an bhrollaigh ghil-se’;

Fearchar Ó Maoil Chiaráin (fl. before 1500);

published in O’Rahilly 1926: poem 14.

A famous dán grádha (courtly love poem) probably composed in Ireland, where this young Scottish poet was killed.

‘Tugadh oirne easbhaidh mhór’;

Ó Maoil Chiaráin (fl. before 1500);

published in Breatnach 1943: 165–85.

A celebrated lament for Fearchar composed by his father.

‘A theachtaire théid i gcéin go talamh Mhic Leóid’;

Toirdhealbhach Óg Ó Mítháin (c.1650(?));

unpublished; TCD MS 1375 (H.5.3), 4, 22; RIA MS F v 3, 208; Maynooth MS MF 9, 60; British Library Egerton MS 207 f. 27 b; also preserved, in fragmentary, four-stanza form, in RIA MS 24 M 11, 41, and ascribed to ‘Ailís Ní Néill’.

Notes:

(1) I am grateful to Cathair Ó Dochartaigh for giving me a copy of the notes accompanying the poem in the forthcoming supplemented edition of Trí Rainn is Amhrán.