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The Life of David Hume$

Ernest C. Mossner

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780199243365

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199243365.001.0001

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(p.610) (p.611) Appendix A Hume’s My Own Life1

(p.610) (p.611) Appendix A Hume’s My Own Life1

The Life of David Hume
Oxford University Press

18 of April 1776

IT is difficult for a man to speak long of himself without Vanity: Therefore I shall be short. It may be thought an Instance of Vanity, that I pretend at all to write my Life: But this Narrative shall contain little more than the History of my Writings; as indeed, almost all my Life has been spent in literary Pursuits and Occupations. The first Success of most of my writings was not such as to be an Object of Vanity.

I was born the 26 of April 1711, O.S. at Edinburgh. I was of a good Family both by Father and Mother. My Father’s Family is a Branch of the Earl of Home’s or Hume’s; and my Ancestors had been Proprietors of the Estate, which my Brother possesses, for several Generations. My Mother was Daughter of Sir David Falconar, President of the College of Justice: The Title of Lord Halkerton came by Succession to her Brother.

My Family, however, was not rich; and being myself a younger Brother, my Patrimony, according to the Mode of my Country, was of course very slender. My Father, who passed for a man of Parts, dyed, when I was an Infant; leaving me, with an elder Brother and a Sister under the care of our Mother, a woman of singular Merit, who, though young and handsome, devoted herself entirely to the rearing and educating of her Children. I passed through the ordinary Course of Education with Success; and was seized very early with a passion for Literature which has been the ruling Passion of my Life, and the great Source of my Enjoyments. My studious Disposition, my Sobriety, and my Industry gave my Family a Notion that the Law was a proper Profession for me: But I found an unsurmountable Aversion to every thing but the pursuits of Philosophy and general Learning; and while they fancyed I was poring over Voet and Vinnius, Cicero and Virgil were the Authors which I was secretly devouring.

My very slender Fortune, however, being unsuitable to this plan of Life, and my Health being a little broken by my ardent Application, I was tempted or rather forced to make a very feeble Trial for entering into a more active Scene of Life. In 1734, I went to Bristol with some Recommendations to eminent Merchants; but in a few Months found that Scene totally unsuitable to me. I went over to France, with a View of prosecuting my Studies in a Country Retreat; and I there laid that Plan of Life, which I have steddily and successfully pursued: I resolved to make a very rigid Frugality supply my Deficiency of Fortune, to maintain unimpaired my Independency, and to regard every object as contemptible, except the Improvement of my Talents in Literature.

During my Retreat in France, first at Reims, but chiefly at La fleche in Anjou, I composed my Treatise of human Nature. After passing three Years very agreeably in that Countrey, I came over to London in 1737. In the End of 1738, I published my Treatise; and immediatly went down to my Mother and my Brother, who lived at his Countrey house and was employing himself, very judiciously and successfully, in the Improvement of his Fortune.

(p.612) Never literary Attempt was more unfortunate than my Treatise of human Nature. It fell dead-born from the Press; without reaching such distinction as even to excite a Murmur among the Zealots. But being naturally of a cheerful and sanguine Temper, I very soon recovered the Blow, and prosecuted with great Ardour my Studies in the Country. In 1742, I printed at Edinburgh the first part of my Essays: The work was favourably received, and soon made me entirely forget my former Disappointment. I continued with my Mother and Brother in the Countrey; and in that time, recovered the Know-lege of the Greek Language, which I had too much neglected in my early Youth.

In 1745, I received a Letter from the Marquess of Annandale, inviting me to come and live with him in England: I found also, that the Friends and Family of that young Nobleman, were desirous of putting him under my Care and Direction: For the State of his Mind and Health required it. I lived with him a Twelvemonth: My Appointments during that time made a considerable Accession to my small Fortune. I then received an Invitation from General Stclair to attend him as Secretary to his Expedition, which was at first meant against Canada, but ended in an Incursion on the Coast of France: Next Year, to wit 1747, I received an Invitation from the General to attend him in the same Station in his military Embassy to the Courts of Vienna and Turin. I there wore the Uniform of an Officer; and was introduced at these courts as Aide-de-camp to the General, along with Sir Harry Erskine and Capt Grant, now General Grant. These two Years were almost the only Interruptions which my Studies have received in the Course of my Life: I passed them agreeably and in good Company: And my Appointments, with my Frugality, had made me reach a Fortune, which I called independent, though most of my Friends were inclined to smile when I said so: In short I was now Master of near a thousand Pound.

I had always entertained a Notion, that my want of Success, in publishing the Treatise of human Nature, had proceeded more from the manner than the matter; and that I had been guilty of a very usual Indiscretion, in going to the Press too early. I therefore cast the first part of that work anew in the Enquiry concerning human Understanding, which was published while I was at Turin. But this piece was at first but little more successful than the Treatise of human Nature. On my return from Italy, I had the Mortification to find all England in a Ferment on account of Dr. Middletons Free Enquiry; while my Performance was entirely overlooked and neglected. A new Edition, which had been published at London of my Essays, moral and political, met not with a much better reception.

Such is the force of natural Temper, that these disappointments made little or no Impression on me. I went down in 1749 and lived two Years with my Brother at his Country house: For my Mother was now dead. I there composed the second Part of my Essays, which I called Political Discourses; and also my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, which is another part of my Treatise, that I cast anew. Mean-while, my Bookseller, A. Millar, informed me, that my former Publications (all but the unfortunate Treatise) were beginning to be the Subject of Conversation, that the Sale of them was gradually encreasing, and that new Editions were demanded. Answers, by Reverends and Right Reverends, came out two or three in a Year: And I found by Dr Warburtons Railing that the Books were beginning to be esteemed in good Company. However, I had fixed a Resolution, which (p.613) I inflexibly maintained, never to reply to any body; and not being very irascible in my Temper, I have easily kept myself clear of all literary Squabbles. These Symptoms of a rising Reputation gave me Encouragement as I was ever more disposed to see the favourable than unfavourable Side of things; a turn of Mind, which it is more happy to possess than be born to an Estate of ten thousand a Year.

In 1751, I removed from the Countrey to the Town; the true Scene for a man of Letters. In 1752, were published at Edinburgh, where I then lived, my Political Discourses, the only work of mine, that was successful on the first Publication: It was well received abroad and at home. In the same Year was published at London my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, which, in my own opinion (who ought not to judge on that subject) is of all my writings, historical, philosophical, or literary, incomparably the best: It came unnoticed and unobserved into the World.

In 1752, the Faculty of Advocates chose me their Librarian, an Office from which I received little or no Emolument, but which gave me the Command of a large Library. I then formed the Plan of writing the History of England; but being frightened with the Notion of continuing a Narrative, through a Period of 1700 years, I commenced with the Accession of the House of Stuart; an Epoch, when, I thought, the Misrepresentations of Faction began chiefly to take place. I was, I own, sanguine in my Expectations of the Success of this work. I thought, that, I was the only Historian, that had at once neglected present Power, Interest, and Authority, and the Cry of popular Prejudices; and as the Subject was suited to every Capacity, I expected proportional Applause: But miserable was my Disappointment: I was assailed by one Cry of Reproach, Disapprobation, and even Detestation: English, Scotch, and Irish; Whig and Tory; Churchman and Sectary, Free-thinker and Religionist; Patriot and Courtier united in their Rage against the Man, who had presumed to shed a generous Tear for the Fate of Charles I, and the Earl of Strafford: And after the first Ebullitions of this Fury were over, what was still more mortifying, the Book seemed to sink into Oblivion. Mr Millar told me, that in a twelvemonth he sold only forty five Copies of it. I scarcely indeed heard of one Man in the three Kingdoms, considerable for Rank or Letters, that cou’d endure the Book. I must only except the Primate of England, Dr Herring, and the Primate of Ireland, Dr Stone; which seem two odd Exceptions. These dignifyed Prelates separately sent me Messages not to be discouraged.

I was, however, I confess, discouraged; and had not the War been at that time breaking out between France and England, I had certainly retired to some provincial Town of the former Kingdom, have changed my Name, and never more have returned to my native Country. But as this Scheme was not now practicable, and the subsequent Volume was considerably advanced, I resolved to pick up Courage and to persevere.

In this Interval I published at London, my natural History of Religion along with some other small Pieces: Its public Entry was rather obscure, except only that Dr Hurd wrote a Pamphlet against it, with all the illiberal Petulance, Arrogance, and Scurrility, which distinguishes the Warburtonian School. This Pamphlet gave me some Consolation for the otherwise indifferent Reception of my Performance.

In 1756, two Years after the fall of the first Volume, was published the second Volume of my History, containing the Period from the Death of (p.614) Charles I, till the Revolution. This Performance happened to give less Displeasure to the Whigs, and was better received. It not only rose itself; but helped to buoy up its unfortunate Brother.

But though I had been taught by Experience, that the Whig Party were in possession of bestowing all places, both in the State and in Literature, I was so little inclined to yield to their senseless Clamour, that in above a hundred Alterations, which farther Study, Reading, or Reflection engaged me to make in the Reigns of the two first Stuarts, I have made all of them invariably to the Tory Side. It is ridiculous to consider the English Constitution before that Period as a regular Plan of Liberty.

In 1759 I published my History of the House of Tudor. The Clamour against this Performance was almost equal to that against the History of the two first Stuarts. The Reign of Elizabeth was particularly obnoxious. But I was now callous against the Impressions of public Folly; and continued very peacably and contentedly in my Retreat at Edinburgh, to finish in two Volumes the more early part of the English History; which I gave to the public in 1761 with tolerable, and but tolerable Success.

But notwithstanding this Variety of Winds and Seasons, to which my Writings had been exposed, they had still been making such Advances, that the Copy Money, given me by the Booksellers, much exceeded any thing formerly known in England: I was become not only independent, but opulent. I retired to my native Country of Scotland, determined never more to set my Foot out of it; and retaining the Satisfaction of never having preferred a Request to one great Man or even making Advances of Friendship to any of them. As I was now turned of fifty, I thought of passing all the rest of my Life in this philosophical manner; when I received in 1763 an Invitation from Lord Hertford, with whom I was not in the least acquainted, to attend him on his Embassy to Paris, with a near Prospect of being appointed Secretary to the Embassy, and in the mean while, of performing the functions of that office. This Offer, however inviting, I at first declined; both because I was reluctant to begin Connexions with the Great, and because I was afraid that the Civilities and gay Company of Paris woud prove disagreeable to a Person of my Age and Humour: But on his Lordship’s repeating the Invitation, I accepted of it. I have every reason, both of Pleasure and Interest, to think myself happy in my Connexions with that Nobleman; as well as afterwards, with his Brother, General Conway.

Those who have not seen the strange Effect of Modes will never imagine the Reception I met with at Paris, from Men and Women of all Ranks and Stations. The more I recoiled from their excessive Civilities, the more I was loaded with them. There is, however, a real Satisfaction in living at Paris from the great Number of sensible, knowing, and polite Company with which the City abounds above all places in the Universe. I thought once of settling there for Life.

I was appointed Secretary to the Embassy, and in Summer 1765, Lord Hertford left me being appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. I was chargé d’affaires, till the Arrival of the Duke of Richmond towards the End of the Year. In the beginning of 1766, I left Paris and next summer, went to Edinburgh, with the same view as formerly of burying myself in a philosophical Retreat. I returned to that place, not richer, but with much more money and a much larger Income by means of Lord Hertford’s Friendship, than I left it; and I was desirous of trying what Superfluity coud produce, as I (p.615) had formerly made an Experiment of a Competency. But in 1767, I received from Mr Conway an invitation to be Under-Secretary; and this Invitation both the Character of the Person, and my Connexions with Lord Hertford, prevented me from declining. I returned to Edinburgh in 1769, very opulent (for I possessed a Revenue of 1000 pounds a year) healthy, and though somewhat stricken in Years, with the Prospect of enjoying long my Ease and of seeing the Encrease of my Reputation.

In spring 1775, I was struck with a Disorder in my Bowels, which at first gave me no Alarm, but has since, as I apprehend it, become mortal and incurable. I now reckon upon a speedy Dissolution. I have suffered very little pain from my Disorder; and what is more strange, have, notwithstanding the great Decline of my Person, never suffered a Moments Abatement of my Spirits: Insomuch, that were I to name the Period of my Life which I shoud most choose to pass over again I might be tempted to point to this later Period. I possess the same Ardor as ever in Study, and the same Gaiety in Company. I consider besides, that a Man of sixty five, by dying, cuts off only a few Years of Infirmities: And though I see many Symptoms of my literary Reputation’s breaking out at last with additional Lustre, I know, that I had but few Years to enjoy it. It is difficult to be more detached from Life than I am at present.

To conclude historically with my own Character—I am, or rather was (for that is the Style, I must now use in speaking of myself; which emboldens me the more to speak my Sentiments) I was, I say, a man of mild Dispositions, of Command of Temper, of an open, social, and cheerful Humour, capable of Attachment, but little susceptible of Enmity, and of great Moderation in all my Passions. Even my Love of literary Fame, my ruling Passion, never soured my humour, notwithstanding my frequent Disappointments. My Company was not unacceptable to the young and careless, as well as to the Studious and literary: And as I took a particular Pleasure in the Company of modest women, I had no Reason to be displeased with the Reception I met with from them. In a word, though most men any wise eminent, have found reason to complain of Calumny, I never was touched, or even attacked by her baleful Tooth: And though I wantonly exposed myself to the Rage of both civil and religious Factions, they seemed to be disarmed in my behalf of their wonted Fury: My Friends never had occasion to vindicate any one Circumstance of my Character and Conduct: Not but that the Zealots, we may well suppose, wou’d have been glad to invent and propagate any Story to my Disadvantage, but they coud never find any which, they thought, woud wear the Face of Probability. I cannot say, there is no Vanity in making this funeral Oration of myself; but I hope it is not a misplac’d one; and this is a Matter of Fact which is easily cleard and ascertained.


(1) RSE, IX, 23.