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The Anglo-Saxon Library$

Michael Lapidge

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199239696

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239696.001.0001

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(p.148) Appendix B Eighth-Century Inventories of Latin Books from the Area of the Anglo-Saxon Mission in Germany

(p.148) Appendix B Eighth-Century Inventories of Latin Books from the Area of the Anglo-Saxon Mission in Germany

The Anglo-Saxon Library
Oxford University Press

Three inventories of eighth-century date survive from the area of the Anglo-Saxon mission in Germany: one from Würzburg, one from Fulda, and the third from an unidentified centre probably in the Low Countries, presumptively Echternach. These three texts are the earliest inventories which survive from the Middle Ages, and it is perhaps significant that it was Anglo-Saxons who, among medieval peoples, first devised the practice of recording the contents of their libraries: see recent discussion by Berschin, ‘An Unpublished Library Catalogue’, esp. 202–3, and Gorman, ‘The Oldest Lists of Latin Books’. Note that, in the commentary which accompanies each inventory, I do not comment on biblical or liturgical entries.

a. The inventory from Würzburg

The inventory is preserved in Oxford, BodL, Laud misc. 126, a copy of Augustine’s De trinitate; the inventory was added on a blank page at the end of the manuscript, now fo. 26or. The handwriting of the inventory was dated by E. A. Lowe to c.800; but, as Berschin rightly observed, in spite of the date of the script, there is nothing ‘typically Carolingian’ about the contents of the list (‘An Unpublished Library Catalogue’, 203). Rather, the inventory throws light on an earlier period of the Anglo-Saxon mission, and its compilation perhaps dates from soon after the founding of the see of Wiirzburg in 742. It has been printed by Lowe in ‘An Eighth-Century List’, and is also ed. in Libri sancti Kyliani, 142–8, and in MBKDS iv. 2 (1979), 977–9.

  1. 1. Actus apostulorum

  2. 2. pastoralem

  3. 3. dialogorum

  4. 4. commentarium ad Holzkirihhun

  5. 5. historia anglorum

  6. 6. epistola sancti hieronimi

  7. 7. liber doctrine christiane

  8. 8. sancti augustini de fide

  9. 9. sancti ambrosi de fide

  10. 10. liber orosi

  11. 11. liber arnouii

  12. 12. iuuenci super euangelia

  13. 13. liber super effeseos

  14. (p.149)
  15. 14. episcopal

  16. 15. decreta pontificum

  17. 16. liber augustini de quantitate anime

  18. 17. liber iunili

  19. 18. official

  20. 19. enceridion

  21. 20. liber prosperi

  22. 21. moralia in iob libri xxiii

  23. 22. summum bonum

  24. 23–4. lectionari duo

  25. 25. glosa

  26. 26. liber althelmi

  27. 27. liber de trinitate

  28. 28–9. liber esaiae duo

  29. 30. catalogus hieronimi presbyteri de auctoribus librorum

  30. 31. grammatica sancti augustini et sancti bonifati

  31. 32. epistulae sancti pauli

    ad fultu

  32. 33. speculum

  33. 34. omelia sancti gregorii maiora pars

  34. 35. liber prouerbium

  35. 36. beatitudines

1. The famous copy of Acts, in Greek and Latin, now Oxford, BodL, Laud Gr. 35. 2. Gregory, Regula pastoralis. Lowe draws attention to two copies of this work, one in Oxford, BodL, Laud misc. 263 (Anglo-Saxon script, s. ixm), the other in Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 42 (Caroline minuscule, s. ix), which has a flyleaf in Anglo-Saxon script. Either or both of these manuscripts could be later copies of that listed in the inventory. 3. Gregory, Dialogi. Lowe draws attention to an early ninth-century copy of the Dialogi from Würzburg, now Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 19, written partially in Anglo-Saxon script. 4. Without further specification, it is impossible to identify this item; but given the Anglo-Saxon connections of many items in the list, Lowe tentatively suggested identification with the fifth-century uncial copy of Jerome, Comm. in Ecclesiasten, now Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. q. 2, which was owned in late seventh-century England by Cuthswith, abbess of Inkberrow, and subsequently taken to the Continent; see Libri Sancti Kyliani, 159–60, and Sims-Williams, ‘Cuthswith, Seventh-Century Abbess of Inkberrow’. The note ad Holzhirihhum is added in Caroline minuscule (of a date later than the manuscript), and implies that the manuscript was on loan to Holzkirchen (a dependency of Fulda) at the time the entry was being annotated. 5. Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum [CPL 1375]. 6. Presumably what was intended by the cataloguer was the Epistulae (plural) of St Jerome. 7. Augustine, De doctrina Christiana. Lowe draws attention to a (p.150) ninth-century manuscript of the work from Würzburg, now Oxford, BodL, Laud misc. 121, which was evidently copied from an exemplar in Anglo-Saxon script, conceivably the book inventoried here. 8. Either Augustine’s Defide et symbolo, or his De fide et operibus. 9. Ambrose, De fide. 10. Orosius, Historiae aduersum paganos. 11. A work of Arnobius Iunior; to judge by the use made of Arnobius by other Anglo-Saxon authors, the work in question is likely to be the Comm. in psalmos rather than works which enjoyed only limited circulation, such as the Conflictus cum Serapione [CPL 239]. This conjecture is confirmed by the fact that a Würzburg inventory of c.1000 lists a copy ‘Arnobii in totum psalterium’ (MBKDS iv. 978). 12. Juvencus, Euangelia. 13. A commentary on Paul’s Letters to the Ephesians, presumably that of Jerome, Comm. in .iv. epistulas Paulinas, which, in addition to Ephesians, also included commentary on the Letters to Galatians, Titus, and Philemon. 14. The title episcopal indicates at the very least that the inventory pertains to an episcopal library (as Würzburg was), 15. A collection of papal decretals: perhaps the Codex decretalium of Dionysius Exiguus; see Wurm, Studien und Texte zur Decretalensammlung. Lowe suggests identification with Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 72. 16. Augustine, De quantitate animae. 17. Iunillus, Instituta regularia diuinae legis. 18. Presumably Isidore, De ecclesiasticis officiis; Lowe suggests identification with Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. q. 18 (Insular script, s. viiiex). 19. Augustine, Enchiridion ad Laurentium. 20. A liber Prosperi could refer to any of a number of works by Prosper of Aquitaine, but most probably to either the metrical Epigrammata ex sententiis S. Augustini, the Expositio psalmorum a centesimo usque ad centesimum quinquagesimum, or the (prose) Sententiae ex operibus S. Augustini. 21. Gregory, Moralia in Iob, a work which in fact consists of thirty-five books; so either the numeral .xxiii. has been mutilated in transmission, or the book in question was an incomplete copy. 22. Isidore, Sententiae. 25. Perhaps a collection of glosses (biblical and otherwise) like those generated at the school of Canterbury in the late seventh century, and subsequently diffused in Continental manuscripts such as the ‘Leiden Glossary’ (see Lapidge, ‘The School of Theodore and Hadrian’). 26. A ‘liber Althelmi’ refers presumably either to Aldhelm’s prose De uirginitate, which is often transmitted under the title De laudibus uirginitatis [CPL 1332], or the verse contrafactum of that work, the Carmen de uirginitate [CPL 1333]. Lowe points out that a mid-ninth-century copy of the prose De uirginitate is extant as Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 21, and that this manuscript shows signs of having been copied from an exemplar in Anglo-Saxon script, arguably identical with the book inventoried here. 27. Augustine, De trinitate; probably the book in question is Laud misc. 126 itself, the manuscript into which the inventory was copied. 30. Jerome, De uiris inlustribus. 31. The grammatical treatise of Augustine is presumably the Ars breuiata, ed. C. F. Weber (1861); see Law, ‘st Augustine’s De grammatical’; that of Boniface, the Ars grammatica [CPL 1564b], is ed. in CCSL 133B: 15–99. As Lowe points (p.151) out, this work of Augustine is transmitted alongside the Ars grammatica of Boniface in Vatican City, BAV, Pal. lat. 1746 (Lorsch, s. ixin; see Bischoff, Lorsch, 118–19). 32. The manuscript in question is Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 69. 33–6: as the rubric indicates, these four books were on loan to Fulda at the time the inventory was being copied. 33. Augustine, Speculum ‘Quis ignorat’. 34. Of the several collections of homilies which Gregory composed, that in question here is possibly the Hom. .xl. in euangelia, which, as Lowe observes, is preserved in a late-eighth-century manuscript from Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 45, which may be the book in question here. 36. Unidentifiable; Lowe suggests Chromatius of Aquileia, the forty-first of whose Sermones .xliii. is entitled Sermo de octo beatitudinibus.

b. The inventory from Fulda

An inventory of twenty-three books (containing forty-eight titles) is preserved in a manuscript from Fulda, now Basle, UB, F. III. 15a, fos. 17v–18r; but these folios are badly abraded and barely legible. The inventory was first discovered and deciphered by Paul Lehmann: Fuldaer Studien, 49–50. The manuscript is dated to c.800 by Spilling, ‘Angelsachsische Schrift in Fulda’, 62–4. The inventory has been re-edited recently by Schrimpf, Mittelalter-liche Biicherverzeichnisse, 5–6 (diplomatic transcription), 6–11 (reconstructed text with commentary). Given the illegibility of the script, it is hardly surprising that these two experienced palaeographers should have read various of the entries in varying ways. Furthermore, whereas Lehmann’s edition recorded the entries as books (hence twenty-three items), Schrimpf prints the entries as titles (hence forty-eight items).

On the Fulda inventory, see also Hoffmann, Buchkunst und Königtum, i. 141; Berschin, Biographie, iii. 38–9; and Gorman, ‘The Oldest Lists’.

In reprinting the inventory, I follow the numbering of Lehmann; but note that I have added capitalization and punctuation. Letters in square brackets are supplied by conjecture, either Lehmann’s or Schrimpf’s. As elsewhere in this volume, I do not comment on biblical or liturgical items (items nos. 1–3, 5–7).

  1. 1. [u …de u …] euangelii scidula sanctus Lucas iste medicus

  2. 2. Actus apostulorum

  3. 3. Epistulas apostulorum

  4. 4. Apocalipsis postuli sancti Pauli

  5. 5. Regum

  6. 6. Libri Salamonis tres et Sapiencia mos.

  7. 7. Thobias, Daniel, Esaias, Ieremias

  8. 8. Certamina apostulorum omnium

  9. 9. Omilias sancti Gregori super euangelium et commentarium sancti Gregori super Ehiel

  10. 10. De alligorum sancti Gregori

  11. (p.152)
  12. 11. Sinonima sancti Esidori. Sancti Basillis

  13. 12. Liber sancti Effrem

  14. 13. Pastoralis sancti Gregori

  15. 14. Liber tres sentiarum

  16. 15. Sancti Esidori r[..]arum.

  17. 16. Liber uitas patrum, miracula patrum

  18. 17. Liber de creaturarum sancti Esidori me [a]rte uirginitate sancti [ …]

  19. 18. Liber sermones sancti Augustini

  20. 19. Tres libri super uirginitatis et uita sancti Malhi monachi in unum librum

  21. 20. Vita sancti Pauli et Antoni et in ilium librum passio sancti Ciriaci

  22. 21. Omilia [..] [ …ssio] et sanctae Cirillae […… ] in unum librum

  23. 22. [Erasmi] …[Agnes] in unum librum et sancta Eogenia, Cypfrianus et Iustina] in unum librum

  24. 23. Liber uita sanctorum dormientium in Effeso qui dormierunt, et in il[l]um librum sunt cronih, sancti Furseus liber, sententialis liber, liber Alexantri

4. Perhaps an Insular redaction of the Visio S. Pauli, or perhaps, as Schrimpf suggests, the eighth-century manuscript of Revelation from Fulda, now Kassel, Gesamthochschulbibliothek, Oct. theol. 5 (s. viii). 8. As Berschin points out (‘An Unpublished Library Catalogue’, 203 n. 10), the title refers to ‘the well known collection of Passiones apostolorum’, on which see Berschin, Biographic, i. 88–93. The present entry possibly pertains to a book similar to, if not identical with, Würzburg, UB, M. p. th. f. 78 (s. viii2). 9. Gregory, Hom. .xl. in euangelia, together with his Hom, in Hiezechielem. 10. The word De alligorum presumably represents a corruption of Dialogorum, hence a copy of Gregory’s Dialogi. 11. Isidore, Synonyma de lamentatione animae pecca-tricis, possibly that preserved in Basle, UB, F. III. 15c, fos. 12–27, in combination with a Latin translation of an unspecified work of Basil, presumptively the Regula S. Basilii in the translation of Rufinus, as preserved in a Fulda manuscript of c.800, now Basle, UB, F. III. 15c, fos. 28–41. 12. A Latin translation of one of the many works of Ephrem which were transmitted in Greek (Ephraem Graecus: CPG 3905–4175); for a list of those six works which circulated in Latin (Ephraem Latinus), see CPL 1143: De die iudicii et de resurrectione [CPG 4080], De beatitudine animae [CPG 3935], De patientia [= De paenitentia] [CPG 3913], In luctaminibus [CPG 3920, 3935], De die iudicii [CPG 3940, 4089], and De compunctione cordis [CPG 3909, 3968]. A number of spurious writings also circulated in Latin under the name of Ephrem: CPL 1143a–1152. 13. Gregory, Regula pastoralis. 14. Isidore, Sententiarum libri tres; perhaps identical with Basle, UB, F. III. 15g (Fulda, s. ix1/3). ig. Isidore, De natura rerum, which often passed under the title Liber rotarum, as here. 16. The Vitas patrum, a heterogenous collection of lives and sayings principally of the early Egyptian desert fathers [BHL 6524–47]. 17. Pseudo-Isidore, De ordine creaturarum, a work now (p.153) known to be of seventh-century Hiberno-Latin composition [BCLL 342]; in combination with a work on virginity, perhaps Augustine’s De sancta virginitate, or possibly, as Schrimpf suggests, Aldhelm, prose or verse De virginitate [CPL 1332–3]. 18. The Sermones of Augustine. 19. Three unspecified treatises on virginity (perhaps those by Ambrose or Augustine), in combination with Jerome, Vita S. Malchi. 20. Possibly simply Jerome’s Vita S. Pauli primi eremitae, the central episode of which concerns the meeting of Paul and Antony in the desert; in combination with the Passio S. Cyriaci [BHL 7022], which in turn was often transmitted alongside the Inventio S. Crucis [BHL 4169]. 21. An unspecified homily, bound up with a passio of St Cyrillus [BHL 2068]; note that there is no surviving passio of a St Cyrilla. 22. A volume containing the passiones of St Erasmus [BHL 2578–82], St Agnes [BHL 156], St Eugenia [BHL 2666], and SS. Cyprian and Iustina [BHL 2050–1]. (The manuscript is badly abraded here, and Schrimpf’s reconstruction differs significantly from that of Lehmann, which I follow.) 23. A volume containing the passio of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (septem dormientes) [BHL 2315–19], unspecified chronica, the Vita S. Fursei [BHL 3209], perhaps Prosper of Aquitaine’s (prose) Sententiae ex operibus S. Augustini (Schrimpf suggests instead Defensor of Ligugé, Liber scintil-larum), and a liber Alexandri: possibly the Passio SS. Alexandri, Euentii et Theoduli [BHL 266], or perhaps the Epistula Alexandri ad Aristotelem [LLA 640].

c. Inventory from an unidentified centre in the Low Countries (Echternach?)

A third inventory is found as an early eighth-century addition by an Anglo-Saxon scribe to a manuscript now Vatican City, BAV, Pal. lat. 210, fo. ir; it was discovered and printed by Lehmann, ‘Das älteste Bucherverzeichnis’. The script is dated to the early eighth century by Bischoff, Lorsch, 64. The manuscript was thought by Lehmann, followed by Bischoff, to have originated in the Low Countries, but the precise origin of the list is unknown. However, if item 4 in the following list is identical with Paris, BNF, lat. 9538, perhaps the inventory is to be associated with the circle of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Willibrord, hence with Echternach.

The following edition is based on that of Lehmann, but the numeration and punctuation are mine. As elsewhere in the volume, I omit to comment on the biblical and liturgical items in this list: nos. 1–3, 5, 10, 16–17.

  1. 1. quatuor e[uan]gelium sancta

  2. 2. duo sacramentorium

  3. 3. duo homelias

  4. 4. quindecim libri Augustini

  5. 5. undecem episto[le] Pauli

  6. 6. dealogorum

  7. (p.154)
  8. 7. rotarum

  9. 8. regule

  10. 9. liber loco rum

  11. 10. liber profetarum

  12. 11. liber Cipriani testimoniali

  13. 12. Sedulius metri [ …]

  14. 13. de igni purgatorio

  15. 14. pastoralis

  16. 15. uita Pauli et Antonio

  17. 16. .ii. antefonarias

  18. 17. duo libri Pauli

4. Presumably Augustine’s De trinitate, which is divided into fifteen books; possibly the manuscript in question here is Paris, BNF, lat. 9538, an eighth-century manuscript in Anglo-Saxon script possibly from Echternach; see also below, App. C, no. 10. 6. Gregory, Dialogi. 7. Isidore, De natura rerum. 8. Presumably a collection of monastic rules, as distinct from Gregory’s Regula pastoralis, which is listed as no. 14 below. 9. A liber locorum presumably pertains to places in the Holy Land, and might thus refer either to Jerome’s Latin translation, under the title De situ et nominibus locorum Hebraicorum, of the Onomasticon of Eusebius, or to one of the early Holy Land pilgrimages (e.g. Egeria), or to a work such as Adomnán, De locis sanctis; Bede’s redaction of Adomnán’s work of the same title [CPL 2333] is probably too late to be in question here. 11. Cyprian, Testimonia ad Quirinum, a biblical florilegium. 12. Caelius Sedulius, Carmen paschale. 13. A book containing a dream-vision description of the tortures of hell, such as that of the monk of Much Wenlock recorded by Boniface, Ep. x, or Bede’s account of the vision of Dryhthelm in HE v. 12, or the Visio Baronti [CPL 1313]. 14. Gregory, Regula pastoralis. 15. Jerome, Vita S. Pauli primi eremitae, the central episode of which concerns the meeting of SS Paul and Antony in the desert.