Analytical techniques for studying and characterizing polymorphs
This chapter reviews the variety of analytical methods used in the investigation and characterization of molecular solids in general, and varieties of crystal forms in particular. The fundamental principles of each technique are described, followed by the specific applications for recognizing and distinguishing crystal forms. Illustrative examples from the current literature are given. The analytical techniques covered include optical/hot stage microscopy, thermal methods (e.g., DSC, TGA, DTA), X-ray crystallography (powder [XRPD], single crystal), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, solid sate nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SSNMR), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), and density measurements. The chapter closes with a discussion of the development of instrumentation combining these techniques and questions to be answered in determining if two samples are the same or different crystal forms.
Keywords: hot stage microscopy, thermal methods, X-ray crystallography, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy, density measurements
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