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Speech and HarmControversies Over Free Speech$
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Ishani Maitra and Mary Kate McGowan

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199236282

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236282.001.0001

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Genocidal Language Games 1

Genocidal Language Games 1

Chapter:
(p.174) Genocidal Language Games1
Source:
Speech and Harm
Author(s):

Tirrell Lynne

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236282.003.0008

This chapter examines the role played by derogatory terms (e.g. ‘inyenzi’ or cockroach, ‘inzoka’ or snake) in laying the social groundwork for the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994. The genocide was preceded by an increase in the use of anti-Tutsi derogatory terms among the Hutu. As these linguistic practices evolved, the terms became more openly and directly aimed at Tutsi. Then, during the 100 days of the genocide, derogatory terms and coded euphemisms were used to direct killers to their victims. Understanding these speech acts helps to illuminate the important ways that power is enacted through discourse, how speech acts can prepare the way for physical and material acts, and how speech generates permissions for actions hitherto uncountenanced. Studying the role of speech acts and linguistic practices in laying the groundwork of the genocide illuminates how patterns of speech acts become linguistic practices that constitute permissibility conditions for non-linguistic behaviors. Further, the analysis presented here helps to make sense of the view that a steady, deep, and widespread derogation of a group can be part and parcel of genocide, not only an antecedent to it.

Keywords:   genocide, Rwanda, derogatory terms, epithets, slurs, linguistic violence, language games, speech acts, expressive commitment, inferential roles, status-functions, harm

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