Electron donor–acceptor complexes
The chapter opens with a comparison of the bond distances, bond energies, and electric dipole moments of ethane and amine borane. Minimum energy rupture of the covalent CC bond in ethane proceeds homolytically to yield two methyl radicals. Minimum energy rupture of the NB bond in H3NBH3 proceeds heterolytically to yield two closed-shell molecules (H3N and BH3). Such bonds are referred to as dative or electron donor-acceptor bonds. Dative bonds are longer and weaker than a covalent bond between the same atoms, and are more sensitive to inductive effects or change of phase. The structures and bond energies of a number of complexes with N, P, O, or S donor atoms and B, Al, Be, Zn, Si, As, Sb acceptor atoms are described. Ring or cage compounds with dative bonding are discussed. Finally, the dative π-bonding in aminoborane (H2NBH2) and borazine (B3N3H6) is discussed.
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