Biases in responding
Although it is hoped that respondents will answer all items honestly and accurately, this is often not the case. Various factors affect how a person will respond. These include the cognitive demands required in answering a question (understanding the item, recalling the relevant information, mapping the response onto the presented alternatives, and editing the answers). The editing process includes social desirability bias, yea- or nay-saying, end-aversion bias, the halo effect and so forth. Other factors, including difficulties in assessing change and framing, are discussed.
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