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The Creation of States in International Law$
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James R. Crawford

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199228423

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228423.001.0001

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Unions and Federations of States

Unions and Federations of States

(p.479) Chapter 11 Unions and Federations of States
The Creation of States in International Law


Oxford University Press

The fundamental principle in the context of political union, no less than in the context of status, is that the incidents of a particular arrangement are to be determined only by an examination of that arrangement, and not by deductions from some a priori category or construction. The basic principles — apart from the general principle of consent and the like — are those relating to the attribution of legal personality, and especially the criteria for statehood. Four typical kinds of political union are currently recognised: real and personal unions, federations and confederations. In most cases, the political union of two or more States coexists with substantial political and administrative continuity within the entities concerned, and a much more extensive degree of ‘succession’ to legal relations — extending even to membership in international organisations — has accordingly been the practice.

Keywords:   statehood, personal unions, federations, confederations, international organisations, real unions, succession, political unions

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