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The Creation of States in International Law$
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James R. Crawford

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199228423

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228423.001.0001

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Unions and Federations of States

Unions and Federations of States

Chapter:
(p.479) Chapter 11 Unions and Federations of States
Source:
The Creation of States in International Law
Author(s):

JAMES CRAWFORD

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228423.003.0011

The fundamental principle in the context of political union, no less than in the context of status, is that the incidents of a particular arrangement are to be determined only by an examination of that arrangement, and not by deductions from some a priori category or construction. The basic principles — apart from the general principle of consent and the like — are those relating to the attribution of legal personality, and especially the criteria for statehood. Four typical kinds of political union are currently recognised: real and personal unions, federations and confederations. In most cases, the political union of two or more States coexists with substantial political and administrative continuity within the entities concerned, and a much more extensive degree of ‘succession’ to legal relations — extending even to membership in international organisations — has accordingly been the practice.

Keywords:   statehood, personal unions, federations, confederations, international organisations, real unions, succession, political unions

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