Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Cicero as EvidenceA Historian's Companion$

Andrew Lintott

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199216444

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216444.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.440) APPENDIX 7: Events after Caesar's Murder

(p.440) APPENDIX 7: Events after Caesar's Murder

Source:
Cicero as Evidence
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

  • 44 BC

    • 15 March: Cicero urged by conspirators on Capitol to be their emissary to Antonius (Cic. Phil. 2. 89). Hirtius visits D. Brutus in the evening with warnings about Antonius' attitude (Fam. 11. 1. 1–2)

    • 16 March: D. Brutus writes to M. Brutus and Cassius in desperation (ibid.).

    • 17 March: Festival of Liberalia. In a senate meeting in the temple of Tellus Cicero advocates reconciliation with the conspirators. This leads to an amnesty, combined with abolition of dictatorship and recognition of acta of Caesar. (Phil. 1. 4, 31, 2. 89; Att. 14. 11. 1, 14. 2; Dio 44. 22. 2–34. 1). Contio held by M. Brutus on Capitol (Att. 15. 1A. 2). M. Brutus dines with Lepidus and Cassius with Antonius (Dio 44. 34. 7). Appian's version has no mention of Cicero (BCiv. 2. 126. 525 ff.). Plutarch dates the meeting wrongly to the 16th (Brut. 19).

    • c.20 March: Opening of Caesar's will; funeral; Antonius' laudatio; raids by plebs on houses of conspirators and their friends (Phil. 2. 91; Att. 14. 10. 1; 14. 11. 1; App. BCiv. 2. 143. 596 ff.; Dio 44. 35–50; Suet. Iul. 83. 5; Plut. Brut. 20)

    • Late March–mid‐April: Dolabella is allocated Syria as province (Att. 14. 9. 3). Provinces assigned by Caesar to Trebonius (Asia), D. Brutus (Cisalpine Gaul), and Tillius Cimber (Bithynia) are confirmed (App. BCiv. 3. 2. 4–5, 6. 18; Att. 14. 10. 1, 14. 13. 2). M. Brutus and Cassius were due to get Macedonia and Syria under Caesar's arrangements (BCiv. 3. 2. 5).

    • ?Early April: Antonius proposes recall of Sex. Pompeius (currently in revolt in Spain: Att. 14. 13. 2), compensation for his confiscated property (said to be at the level of 200 million sesterces), and a naval command for him (App. BCiv. 3. 4. 11). See Att. 16. 4. 2 for his return to further Spain from New Carthage on hearing the news of Caesar's assassination, 15. 10. 3 for his rapturous reception at Carteia.

    • Mid‐April: Caesar's heir Octavius arrives in Campania on 18th after crossing Adriatic from Apollonia (Att. 14. 10. 3). He visits Cicero at Cumae (14. 11. 2, 12. 2).

    • Mid–late April (after Att. 14. 6. 1, of 12 Apr.): Amatius, the pseudo‐Marius, is executed by Antonius and Dolabella; his altar and statue‐column to Caesar are destroyed by Dolabella (Att. 14. 15. 1, 14. 16. 2; Fam. 9. 14; 12. 1. 1; Phil. 1. 5, 2. 107; Val. Max. 9. 15. 1; App. BCiv. 3. 2. 3, 3. 6).

    • April–May: Antonius in Campania with veteran escort (cf. Att. 14. 5. 2), settles demobilized soldiers (Phil. 2. 100–7; cf. Att. 14. 21. 2 for his telling soldiers to take an oath to uphold Caesar's acta and keep their arms prepared). M. Brutus and Cassius remain outside Rome. While in Lanuvium mid‐April–end May, they write (p.441) to Antonius expressing disquiet over his proposed legislation on 1 June (Fam. 11. 2. 1, 3, cf. Att. 14. 10. 1, 15. 4. 2).

    • Early May: Cicero at Pompeii writes to Cassius about Antonius' corruption (Fam. 12. 1, cf. Phil. 2. 92–7; Att. 14. 12. 1). Octavius goes to Rome and holds a contio; Cicero wonders whether the tribune L. Antonius gave him a platform (Att. 14. 20. 5; 15. 2. 3). Octavius declares acceptance of his inheritance before praetor C. Antonius (App. BCiv. 3. 14. 49).

    • Mid‐May: An attempt to display Caesar's golden chair at games is vetoed by tribunes (Att. 15. 3. 2, 21 May; cf. App. BCiv. 3. 28. 105–7; Plut. Ant. 16. 5).

    • 1 June: Antonius' agrarian law and a law assigning provinces are passed by violence and with contravention of auspices (Phil. 1. 8, 5. 8–10, 8. 25, 10. 17, 13. 5, 31; cf. Att. 15. 4. 1, news of the plan to remove D. Brutus from his province; App. BCiv. 3. 25. 92–6). L. Antonius is to head new land‐commission; Antonius to get Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul with Macedonian legions for five years; Dolabella to get Syria for five years (cf. Att. 15. 11. 4 for Dolabella inviting Cicero to be his legatus on June 3).

    • ?Early June: A law is passed permitting the consuls to investigate all Caesar's decrees, regulations, and enactments (Att. 16. 16A. 4, 16. 16C. 3; Phil. 8. 26).

    • 5 June: The senate passes a decree giving M. Brutus and Cassius corn‐supply jobs in Asia and Sicily respectively (Att. 15. 9. 1, cf. 15. 5. 2, 15. 11. 1). For their previous allocation of Crete and Cyrene see App. BCiv. 3. 8. 29; Plut. Brut. 19. 5.

    • c.8 June: A conference of Brutus' family and friends is held at Antium (Att. 15. 11).

    • 25 June: M. Brutus leaves for Greece (Att. 15. 24).

    • 30 June: Cicero sets out from his Tusculan villa for Greece (Att. 15. 25).

    • June–July: Lepidus, now in Spain, negotiates with Sextus Pompeius about his recovery of citizenship and status (Att. 15. 29. 1; Phil. 5. 39–41; cf. Dio 45. 9. 4).

    • 7–13 July: The ludi Apollinares are held by C. Antonius on behalf of M. Brutus, the nominal praetor urbanus, in his absence (Att. 16. 1. 1, 16. 2. 3, 16. 4. 1); demonstrations and counter‐demonstrations (App. BCiv. 3. 23. 87–91).

    • 20–30 July: The ludi Victoriae Caesaris are held with Matius one of the procurators in charge (Fam. 11. 27. 8; 28. 6).

    • Late July–early August: M. Brutus and Cassius issue an edict as they demit their praetorships and prepare to leave Italy (Phil. 1. 8; Att. 16. 7. 1). Antonius replies with a hostile letter like an edict, to which Brutus and Cassius reply on 4 August (Fam. 11. 3; Att. 16. 7. 7).

    • 1 August: L. Piso attacks Antonius in the senate (Att. 16. 7. 5–7).

    • 6–7 August: Cicero, at the south‐western tip of Italy, hears of Piso's intent to renew his attack on 1 September (Att. 16. 7. 1) and turns back from journey: meets Brutus at Velia on 17 August (ibid. 5).

    • 1 September: In the senate Antonius attacks Cicero in his absence (Phil. 1. 11 ff.).

    • (p.442)
    • 2 September: Philippic 1.

    • 19 September: Antonius' reply to Philippic 1 (Fam. 12. 2. 1; Phil. 5. 19). Philippic 2 is later composed as if it were an immediate reply (on the additional fifth day of games in circus) (Phil. 2. 110). Cf. Att. 16. 11. 1 for the final polish being applied to it on 5 November.

    • 2 October: After his dedication of Caesar's statue on the Rostra with the title ‘Parenti optime merito’, Antonius replies to the tribune Cannutius to the effect that the conspirators were traitors; Cicero was the head of the plot, and Brutus, Cassius, and Cannutius were acting on Cicero's advice (Fam. 12. 3. 1–2).

    • 9 October: Antonius leaves Rome for the Macedonian legions at Brundisium (Fam. 12. 23. 2).

    • 2 November: Caesar Octavianus is collecting veterans—3000, given 500 denarii a man (Att. 16. 8. 1–2).

    • c.10 November: Caesar Octavianus marches on Rome (Att. 16. 11. 6). At a contio given by Cannutius he points to the new statue and prays that his own achievements may be worthy of Caesar (Att. 16. 15. 3, cf. 14. 1 on Cicero's doubts about him).

    • Mid‐November: Antonius returns to Rome with legio V Alaudae (Att. 16. 10. 1, cf. 8. 2).

    • November24 : Antonius calls a senate meeting, but legio Martia mutinies at Alba (Phil. 3. 19, 39; 13. 19; App. BCiv. 3. 45. 185).

    • c.26–7 November: Legio IV mutinies; Antonius visits Tibur (Phil. 3. 39, 4. 6, 13. 19; App. BCiv. 3. 45. 185–7).

    • 28 November: A further senate meeting is held and a new allocation of provinces made. Antonius exacts oath of loyalty (Phil. 3. 20–6, 5. 23–4, 13. 19; App. BCiv. 3. 46. 188).

    • 29 November: Antonius leaves for Cisalpine Gaul (Phil. 3. 32, 5. 24, 13. 20; App. BCiv. 3. 46. 189).

    • 20 December: Philippic 3 to senate; with his motion in support of D. Brutus and Octavianus Cicero prepares ground for action against Antonius on 1 January (Fam. 10. 28. 2, 11. 6. 2–3). Philippic 4 to people.

    • c.December–January 43: M. Brutus enters Macedonia and Cassius Syria (Fam. 12. 4. 2), cf. Att. 15. 13. 4 (25 October) for Caecilius Bassus anticipating Cassius'arrival in Syria.

  • 43 BC

    • 1 January: Philippic 5. Cicero proposes to declare a military emergency (tumultus) against Antonius (5. 31) and to confer imperium pro praetore with further privileges and praetorian status for C. Caesar (Octavianus) (5. 46).

    • 2–3 January: Further senate debates are held, at the end of which honours for Caesar Octavianus are approved (Res Gestae 1. 1–2), but the military emergency is not put to the vote (Phil. 6. 2–3). Instead an embassy to Antonius is proposed.

    • 4 January: Philippic 6 to the people. The embassy to Antonius is set in motion (Phil. 6. 4 ff.).

    • (p.443)
    • Mid–late January: The tumultus and military levies are decreed, cf. Dio 46. 31. 2. Philippic 7, a digression from a debate on other subjects, is a review of this (7. 11 ff.; Dio 46. 29. 5). The ‘last decree’ of the senate is also passed now or later (RG 1. 3). Hirtius and Octavianus set out for Mutina (cf. Fam. 12. 5. 2).

    • Late January: Piso and Philippus return from embassy with ‘intolerable demands’ from Antonius. Itemized in Phil. 8. 25–7, they included Transalpine Gaul with 6 legions, reinforced by men from D. Brutus' army. Rumours about Cassius arrive at Rome and firmer news about M. Brutus. It is also reported that Dolabella is about to take over Syria (Fam. 12. 4. 2).

    • 2–3 February: Debates are held in the senate. On the 2nd the motion of L. Caesar urging further negotiation is preferred to that of Cicero advocating immediate war (Phil. 8. 1–2). Philippic 8 on the 3rd (see §6 and Ep. Caes. Iun. 1. 16) is a reply to Caesar and Fufius Calenus (11 ff.), proposing that the senate should make no more offers after the return of Antonius' envoy L. Varius (32–3).

    • 4 February: Saga, military cloaks, are put on, in recognition of a military emergency (Phil. 8. 6; Ep. Caes. Iun. 1. 16).

    • Shortly after 4 February: Philippic 9. Cicero proposes honours, a bronze statue on the Rostra and tomb at public expense in campus Esquilinus for Servius Sulpicius Rufus (13–17).

    • Mid‐February: Philippic 10. After letter to senate from M. Brutus stating that he had taken over Macedonia from C. Antonius and the Illyrian legions from Vatinius (Phil. 10. 6–11, cf. Fam. 12. 5. 1), Cicero proposes that Brutus should have imperium in Macedonia, Illyricum, and all Greece (25–6).

    • End February: Philippic 11. After news of Dolabella's murder of Trebonius (Phil. 11. 5) and rumours of Cassius' success reach Rome (32, cf. Fam. 12. 5. 1), Cicero fails to get approval for a grant of maius imperium to Cassius with a commission to make war on Dolabella (Phil. 11. 30–6; Fam. 12. 7. 1–2; Ad Brut. 4. 2).

    • 7 March: Cassius writes to Cicero from Syria that he has acquired the support of Caecilius Bassus, Staius Murcus, Q. Marcius Crispus, and A. Allienus (Fam. 12. 11. 1).

    • Early March: Philippic 12: Cicero opposes a second embassy to Antonius and declines to be a member himself.

    • 19–20 March: After the senate debate on the 19th Pansa leaves Rome (Fam. 12. 25. 1; cf. Phil. 13. 16 and below).

    • 20 March: Philippic 13 after letters from Lepidus and Plancus urging conciliation (Phil. 13. 7 ff.; cf. Fam. 10. 6. 1, 3; 10. 27). Cicero reads excerpts from a letter written by Antonius to the consuls and Octavianus (Phil. 13. 22 ff.). Aid to Sex. Pompeius is voted (ibid. 8–11). Cf. Dio 46. 40. 3 for his receiving command of all the sea and for the recognition of Cassius and Brutus, the latter mentioned by Antonius (Phil. 13. 25).

    • 9 April: Lentulus Spinther's letter about Cassius is read by Cicero in the senate (Ad Brut. 2. 3).

    • 11 April: Cicero receives news from Brutus about Cassius' success (Ad Brut. 4. 2, 5).

    • (p.444)
    • 14 or 15 April: Battle of Forum Gallorum (Fam. 10. 30, from Galba; Ad Brut. 9). See Ch. XIX n. 113.

    • 21 April: After news of Forum Gallorum arrives at Rome (Phil. 14. 26–7; Fam. 10. 30), Cicero delivers Philippic 14 on Parilia (Phil. 14. 14). Cicero outbids Servilius Isauricus in proposing days of thanksgiving (supplicationes) (ibid. 11 ff., 36–80), and uses the thanksgiving as an argument for declaring the defeated Antonians hostes (21–4).

    • c.21 April: Battle of Mutina, deaths of Hirtius and (shortly after battle) Pansa. News reaches Rome by 27th (Ad Brut. 10. 13. 1).

    • 27 April: Antonians are declared hostes and Cassius is instructed to hunt down Dolabella (Ad Brut. 13. 1, cf. 11. 2).

    • 7 May: Cassius, in receipt of Cicero's letter (Fam. 12. 7) of early March, is about to march against Dolabella in Cilicia (Fam. 12. 12).

    • c.10 May: D. Brutus, pursuing Antonius, is 30 miles behind him at Pollentia NW of Genoa (Fam. 11. 13).

    • 24 May: D. Brutus tells Cicero that his comment about Caesar Octavianus, ‘laudandum adulescentem, ornandum tollendum’, has been passed on to Octavianus (Fam. 11. 20. 1).

    • 29 May: In Transalpine Gaul Lepidus joins Antonius near Forum Iulii (Fam. 10. 23. 2).

    • 30 May: Lepidus writes letter of apology to the senate (Fam. 10. 35, cf. Ad Brut. 20. 1). See Fam. 10. 11. 2 for his enlistment of veterans of legio X; 10. 33. 2 for his earlier speeches at Narbo in favour of peace.

    • End May or early June: Cicero writes to D. Brutus that the senate is no longer his instrument. Legiones IV and Martia will not join Brutus (Fam. 11. 14. 1).

    • 6 June: Plancus, who has been approaching Antonius and Lepidus down the Rhône valley, hears of their alliance, retreats, and asks for help: ‘Caesar should come himself with his strongest forces; if he is engaged, his army should be sent’ (Fam. 10. 23, esp. 6).

    • ca.10 June: D. Brutus joins Plancus (Fam. 11. 13a, 11. 25. 2, 11. 26; cf. 10. 24. 3; Ad Brut. 22. 2).

    • Mid June: Embassy of Octavian's veterans to the senate seeking a consulship for their leader. Cicero is suggested as his colleague (Ad Brut. 18. 3; Fam. 10. 24. 6; App. BCiv. 3. 82. 337–8; Dio 46. 42. 2–43. 4).

    • 27 July: Cicero's last letter to M. Brutus. He still hopes to control Octavianus (Ad Brut. 26, esp. 3).

    • 28 July: Plancus' last letter to Cicero, complaining that Antonius' survival in strength is all down to Caesar (Octavianus) (Fam. 10. 24, esp. 6).

    • Mid July–?early August: Octavianus' march on Rome from Cisalpine Gaul (Dio 46. 43. 5–45. 2; App. BCiv. 3. 89. 363–94. 387). He reaches Rome after 27 July.

    • 19 August: Octavianus elected consul with Q. Pedius (EJ2 p. 50; Tac. Ann. 1. 9; Dio 46. 45. 3; App. BCiv. 3. 94. 388).

    • (p.445)
    • 27 November: After a conference at Bononia, the triumvirate comes into being, created by a lex Titia (Fasti of Colocci, Inscr. It. xiii. 1, p. 273, EJ2 p. 32 for the date). Proscription is set in motion.

    • 7 December: Killing of Cicero (Tac. Dial. 17. 2 for the date).

Notes:

(113) Ad Brut. 9. 2 gives the date of the news arriving at Rome. The MS text of the date of dispatch of Fam. 10. 30 is corrupt. It should be either 15 April (a.d. XVII K. Mai) or 16 (a.d. XVI. K. Mai.), not a.d. XII kal. Mai. Octavianus was first hailed imperator on a day after the victory (Feriale Cumanum, Inscr. It. xiii. 2, pp. 279, 442); the two days are restored in that text as 15 and 16 April, following the date (xvii K.) in Ovid, Fasti, 4. 673.