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The World's First Railway SystemEnterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain$

Mark Casson

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199213979

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213979.001.0001

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(p.439) APPENDIX 5 Analysis of Hubs

(p.439) APPENDIX 5 Analysis of Hubs

Source:
The World's First Railway System
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.439) APPENDIX 5

Analysis of Hubs

The World's First Railway System Appendix 5

The Definition of a Hub

A major advantage of the counterfactual system lies in its efficient pattern of hubs. To demonstrate this rigorously, however, it is necessary to define the meaning of a hub. For the purpose of this analysis a hub is defined as the point at which three or more lines meet and where traffic can be conveniently interchanged.

The focus on passenger traffic is retained in the analysis of hubs. The interchange of passengers, who can make their own way between stations or between platforms, is simpler than the interchange of goods, which involves transhipment of consignments or the shunting of wagons in freight yards, and possibly the operation of local ‘transfer freight trains’ between yards as well.

The definition rules out as a hub any point where only two lines meet, irrespective of the amount of traffic originating or arriving there. Thus an intermediate station at which there is no junction cannot be a hub however much traffic it generates. On the counterfactual system, for example, Birkenhead, Grimsby, Hartlepool, Llanelli, and Pembroke are all ports that generate significant amounts of traffic, but they are not hubs, because they are simply intermediate points on a coastal loop line. A similar point applies to major resorts like Blackpool, Bournemouth, Newquay, and Scarborough. Neither can a station at which one or two dead‐end branches terminate be a hub. Thus large coastal centres on dead‐end spurs, such as Portsmouth, are not hubs.

Not all three‐way junctions are hubs, either. This is because there may be a more convenient location nearby for the interchange of traffic. If all three‐way junctions were hubs then there would be an enormous number of hubs, with many having little potential for interchange. Through trains that called at every one of these hubs would have a very large number of stops to make, and journeys would consequently be very slow.

Composite Hubs

In many cases a constellation of neighbouring three‐way junctions constitutes a convenient interchange; this may be termed a ‘composite hub’. There is a main station, usually at the most important junction, and a range of stations at the other junctions; these are known as the ‘satellite hubs’. Many of the hubs identified in our analysis are composite hubs, and some have a substantial number of satellites. A hub with no satellites is known as a ‘simple hub’. The preponderance of composite hubs reduces the number of hubs that are used to describe the network and effects a significant economy in the analysis.

The most important junction in a composite hub is the one that handles the most interchange traffic. Typically the satellite junctions feed traffic into and out of this hub. If a satellite handles a large amount of interchange traffic that is not funnelled through the major hub then it is more appropriate to distinguish it as a separate hub in its own right.

Consider the lines of the counterfactual centred on Bidford‐on‐Avon, for example. The major traffic flows are to and from Evesham, to the south‐west, and so Bidford is the natural point at which passengers on trains from Evesham to Birmingham (p.440) change for Leamington, and passengers from Evesham to Leamington change for Birmingham. However, passengers from Bromsgrove to Birmingham will prefer to change at Redditch, while passengers from Moreton‐in‐Marsh to Leamington will prefer to change at Stratford‐on‐Avon. Thus Redditch and Stratford function as satellite hubs to Bidford, at which more modest levels of traffic are interchanged. Most of the traffic through Redditch and Stratford is on its way to or from Evesham, but not of all of it goes that way.

A common configuration of three‐way junctions arises where two routes cross at an acute angle. At Wells, Somerset, for example, a line running north‐east from Taunton and Langport to Radstcok and Bath intersects a line running south‐west from Cheddar to Bruton. The lines from Langport and Cheddar converge at Wells, share the tracks between Wells and Shepton Mallet, and then diverge. Passengers could change from one route to another at either Wells or Shepton Mallet. Since Wells is the more important town, however, and the number of passengers from the Langport line who wish to change at Wells is likely to exceed the number of passengers who want to change from the Bruton line to the Radstock line, it is most appropriate to designate Wells as the composite hub and Shepton Mallet as its satellite. If Shepton Mallet were the more important town, and there was more traffic from Bruton to Radstock than there was from Langport to Cheddar then it would be appropriate to designate Shepton Mallet as the major hub instead. Likewise, if Wells and Shepton Mallet were equally important sources of traffic, and interchange from Langport to Cheddar and from Bruton to Radstock were equally great then it would be appropriate to identify Wells and Shepton Mallet as independent simple hubs.

Table A5.1. Hubs on the counterfactual system

Code

Hub

T

B

Satellite hubs

Analogues

AB

Aberdeen

5

1

Dyce (3), Montrose (3)

Aberdeen

AD

Arundel

4

Ford

AH

Ashford

4

Ashford

AL

Alford

5

1

Louth (3)

Firsby, Louth

AM

Aldermaston

4

Reading

AR

Ayr

4

Prestwick (3)

Ayr

AS

Ash

7

Bentley (3)

Farnham

AV

Abergavenny

10

Brynmawr (4), Beaufort (3), Dukestown (3), Llechryd (3), The Bryn (3)

Abergavenny

AW

Aberystwyth

4

1

Llanafan (3), Aberdovey (3)

Aberystwyth

AX

Axminster

5

2

Chard Junction (3), Whitford (3)

Sidmouth Junction

AY

Aylesbury

8

Princes Risborough (4), North Lee (3), Loudwater (3)

Aylesbury

BA

Bishop Auckland

4

Bishop Auckland

BAK

Bakewell

3

Chinley

BAR

Barnstaple

3

1

Barnstaple

BAS

Basingstoke

3

Basingstoke

BB

Banbury

4

Banbury

BC

Balkholme

5

Goole (3)

Goole

BD

Bedford

4

Willington (Beds.) (3)

Bedford

BDG

Brading (IoW)

3

Sandown (IoW)

BE

Bury St. Edmunds

4

Bury St. Edmunds

BET

Beighton

4

Killamarsh

BF

Bradford

5

Halifax (3), Dudley Hill (3)

Low Moor, Laisterdyke

BG

Bridgend

7

4

Tondu (4), Pyle (3)

Bridgend

BGH

Brighouse

4

Greetland (3)

Mirfield, Greetland

BH

Buckhurst Hill

4

BHD

Barrhead

6

Lugton (4)

Lugton, Giffen

BI

Brigg

5

Gunness (3), Caistor (3)

Barnetby, Ulceby

BJ

Barnard Castle

5

1

Winston

Barnard Castle

BK

Barking

4

Barking, Stratford

BKH

Buckingham

5

Winslow (3)

Verney Junction

BL

Bolton

4

Lostock (3)

Bolton, Blackrod

BM

Birmingham

9

1

Handsworth (3), Coleshill (3), Old Hill (3)

Birmingham, Whitacre

BMY

Bromley

4

Bromley

BN

Brighton

4

Shoreham (3), Goring‐by‐Sea (3)

Brighton

BNE

Bourne

4

Aslackby (3)

Bourne

BO

Boston

3

Boston

BP

Barmouth

3

Barmouth

BQ

Brecon

4

Sennybridge (3)

Talyllyn Junction

BR

Bristol

10

4

Filton (5), Nailsea (4), Bath (3), Limpley Stoke (3)

Bristol, Bath, Yatton, Patchway

BRW

Bridgwater

6

Loxton (4), Highbridge (3)

Bridgewater, Highbridge

BS

Bury

6

Helmshore (3), Whitefield (3)

Bury

BT

Bruton

5

Frome (3)

Frome

BTF

Brentford

4

Kew Bridge

BU

Builth Wells

4

Llandrindod Wells (3)

Builth Road

BV

Bidford‐on‐Avon

6

Evesham (4), Stratford‐on‐Avon (3), Redditch (3)

Evesham, Stratford‐on‐Avon, Broom Junction

BVL

Beverley

5

1

Market Weighton (3)

Market Weighton

BW

Brentwood

5

1

Shenfield

BX

Bangor

6

Menai Bridge (4), Caernarvon (3)

Bangor

BY

Burley‐in‐Wharfedale

4

Pool (3)

Otley, Menston

BZ

Brough (Cumbria)

3

Kirkby Stephen

CA

Clayton‐le‐Moors

8

2

Blackburn (4), Burnley (3), Elslack (3)

Blackburn, Accrington, Rose Grove

CB

Cambridge

10

Linton (3), Swaffham Bulbeck (3), Newmarket (3), Wixoe (3)

Cambridge, Fordham

CC

Castlecary

4

Larbert

CD

Chelmsford

5

Little Waltham (3)

Romford, Witham

CE

Coldstream

4

Swinton (3)

Tweedmouth

CF

Cardiff

5

Tongwynlais (3)

Cardiff

CG

Coatbridge

4

Coatbridge

CH

Chester

10

Sutton Weaver (4), Queensferry (3), Hooton (3), Broxton (3)

Chester

CHF

Chesterfield

4

Staveley (3)

Chesterfield

CI

Carrbridge

3

Aviemore

CJ

Criccieth

4

Penrhyndeudraeth (3)

Portmadoc

CK

Catterick

6

1

Middleton Tyas (3)

CL

Carlisle

8

1

Todhills (3), Creca (3), Bromfield (3), Haltwhistle (3)

Carlisle, Gretna, Longtown, Haltwhistle, Abbeyholme

CLP

Clapham

6

Clapham Junction, London Waterloo, Wandsworth Road, Peckham Rye, Herne Hill

CM

Carmarthen

7

Narberth (3), Llanddarog (3), Llangeler (3)

Carmarthen, Whitland

CN

Croydon

5

East Croydon, West Croydon, Norwood Junction

CO

Conway

4

Newnham, Lydney

Llandudno Junction

CP

Chippenham

6

Melksham (3), Great Somerford (3)

Chippenham

CR

Colchester

5

2

Manningtree (3), Coggeshall (Broad Green) (3)

Colchester, Halstead

CRL

Crianlarich

4

1

Connel Ferry (3)

Crianlarich

CS

Chester‐le‐Street

4

Durham

CT

Chatham

9

1

Dartford (4), Sittingbourne (3), Faversham (3), Strood (3), Burham (3)

Gravesend, Sittingbourne

CU

Chorley

5

Preston

CV

Coventry

4

Coventry

CW

Crewkerne

4

Yeovil

CX

Cirencester

5

Cherington (3), Ampney St. Peter (3)

Swindon

CY

Canterbury

5

Sandwich (3)

Canterbury

CZ

Cranbrook

4

DA

Dalton‐in‐Furness

3

Dalton‐in‐Furness

DB

Derby

8

Willington (Derbys) (4), Burton‐on‐Trent (3), Uttoxeter (3)

Derby, Burton‐on‐Trent, Egginton, Uttoxeter

DC

Doncaster

4

Doncaster

DD

Dundee

3

Dundee

DF

Dumfries

4

Newton Stewart (3)

Dumfries

DH

Durham

6

Spennymoor (3), Pittington (3)

Durham

DK

Dorking

4

Redhill

DL

Darlington

4

Darlington

DM

Dunfermline

4

Cowdenbeath (3)

Dunfermline

DN

Downham Market

4

Kings Lynn

DR

Dorchester

4

1

Upwey (3)

Weymouth

DS

Diss

3

Tivetshall

DV

Dover

5

1

Whitfield (4), Lympne (3)

Dover

DW

Dewsbury

6

Mirfield (3), Batley (3)

Dewsbury, Thornhill, Horbury and Ossett

DZ

Devizes

4

Manningford Bruce (3)

Savernake

ED

Edinburgh

8

Falkirk (3), Penicuik (3), Longniddry (3)

Edinburgh, Portobello, Dalmeny

EG

East Grinstead

4

East Grinstead

EL

Ealing

4

Ealing, South Acton, Gunnersbury

EP

Epsom

5

Ewell (3), Carshalton (3)

Epsom, Sutton, Mitcham Junction

ER

East Dereham

4

Shipdham (3)

East Dereham

EX

Exeter

7

Tiverton (3), Great Matridge (3), Heathfield (3)

Exeter, Tiverton, Newton Abbot

EY

Ely

4

Ely

FB

Fochabers

6

Elgin (3), Craigellachie (3)

Elgin

FF

Forfar

3

Forfar

GB

Gainsborough

4

Epworth (3)

Gainsborough

GD

Godstone

5

Redhill, Oxted

GF

Guildford

6

1

East Horsley (3)

East Horsley

GG

Glasgow

10

1

Uddingston (3)

Glasgow

GK

Greenock

5

Port Glasgow (3), Bishopton (3)

Paisley

GL

Gloucester

8

1

Stonehouse (Glos.) (3), Cam (3), Newnham (3)

Gloucester

GN

Gurnos

4

Colbren (3)

Neath

GT

Grantham

3

Grantham, Honington

HA

Hay‐on‐Wye

5

Willersley (4), Three Cocks (3)

Talyllyn Junction, Titley

HB

Halstead

4

Colchester

HC

Hitchin

6

Stevenage (4), Baldock (4)

Hitchin

HE

Hengoed

4

Caerphilly

HF

Huddersfield

6

Deighton (4), Honley (3)

Huddersfield

HH

Hatherleigh

4

Shilstone (3)

Exeter

HI

Hirwaun

4

Pont Nedd Fechan (3)

Neath

HL

Hull

3

1

Hull

HM

Hamilton

4

Clarkston (3)

Hamilton

HN

Huntingdon

7

Warboys (3), Chatteris (3), Tempsford (3)

Huntingdon, St. Ives

HO

Harlow

4

Broxbourne

HR

Hereford

6

Bodenham (3)

Hereford

HS

Horsham

7

Pulborough (3)

Christs Hospital

HT

Hastings

6

Rye (3), Hurst Green (3), Pevensey (3)

Hastings, Robertsbridge

HV

Havant

5

1

Chichester (3), Cosham (3)

Havant, Chichester

HW

Haverfordwest

3

IK

Ilkeston

4

Trent, Trowell, Codnor Park, Daybrook

IP

Ipswich

8

3

Saxmundham (4), Stowmarket (3)

Ipswich

IT

Ilketshall

5

1

Bungay (3), Halesworth (3)

Beccles

IV

Inverness

6

2

Muir of Ord (3), Invermoriston (3)

Inverness, Dingwall

KK

Kirkaldy

4

Balgonie (3)

Thornton Junction

KL

Kirkby Lonsdale

6

Milnthorpe (3), Bell Busk (3)

Carnforth

KM

Kilmarnock

5

Stonehouse (Lanark) (3)

Kilmarnock

KN

Knottingley

4

Pontefract

KW

Kilwinning

5

Irvine (3)

Kilwinning

KY

Kings Lynn

5

Kings Lynn

LA

Launceston

4

Lydford (3), Collamore Head (3)

Launceston

LB

Leighton Buzzard

7

Luton (3)

Bletchley

LC

Lancaster

4

1

Garstang (3)

Lancaster

LD

Loudwater

4

Princes Risborough

LE

Leicester

10

Loughborough (3), Shepshed (3), Desford (3), Gotham (3), Melbourne (3)

Leicester

LF

Lichfield

8

Cannock (3), Colwich (3)

Lichfield, Rugeley

LG

Langport

5

Taunton

LH

Littlehampton

3

LI

Lincoln

7

Torksey (3), Metheringham (3), Market Rasen (3)

Lincoln, Woodhall Junction

LJ

Consett (Leadgate)

3

Blackhill

LK

Lanark

4

1

Hyndford Bridge (3)

Carluke

LL

Lechlade

4

LM

Leamington

5

Warwick (3), Southam (3)

Leamington, Fenny Compton

LN

Lewisham

6

New Cross, New Cross Gate, Catford Bridge

LNC

London (North Central)

3

Dalston Junction

LNE

London (North East)

4

London Kings Cross, London Liverpool Street, London Fenchurch Street, Finsbury Park

LNN

London (North West)

5

London Paddington, Willesden Junction, Kentish Town, West Hampstead

LNW

London (West Central)

3

Kensington (Addison Road, Earls Court, West Brompton

LO

Lostwithiel

5

2

Llanhydrock (3), Liskeard (3)

Bodmin Road, Par

LQ

Leatherhead

4

Epsom

LR

Llangurig

3

Welshpool

LS

Leeds

8

Rawdon (3), East Ardsley (3)

Leeds, Lofthouse

LT

Lathrisk

5

1

Auchtermuchty (3), Dairsie (3)

Ladybank, Leuchars

LV

Liverpool

5

Huyton (3)

Liverpool, Ditton Junction, Halewood

LW

Lewes

5

1

Lewes

LX

Loxton

4

Yatton, Highbridge

LY

Llandovery

4

Llandeilo (3)

Llandeilo

MA

Macclesfield

3

Macclesfield

MB

Mobberley

5

Altrincham (3), Wilmslow (3)

MC

March

4

Chatteris (3)

March

MD

Maidstone

6

Chart Sutton (3), Headcorn (3)

Maidstone

MF

Mansfield

4

Shirebrook (3)

Mansfield, Langwith Junction

MH

Mauchline

3

Mauchline

MI

Middleton

4

Manchester

ML

Melrose

6

2

Maxton (3), Ancrum (3), Lindean (3)

St. Boswells, Galashiels

MM

Melton Mowbray

4

Manton (3)

Melton Mowbray

MN

Manchester

9

Stretford (3), Worsley (3)

Manchester

MO

Moreton‐in‐Marsh

5

Chipping Norton (3)

Lingham

MP

Morpeth

5

1

Wallsend (3)

Morpeth, Newsham, Tynemouth

MT

Merthyr Tydfil

3

Cefn‐coed (3), Dowlais (3)

Merthyr Tydfil, Dowlais

MU

Monmouth

5

Raglan (3), Coleford (3)

Monmouth

MW

Motherwell

4

Motherwell

MX

Mexborough

5

Cudworth (3), Rotherham (3)

Rotherham, Swinton, Barnsley

MZ

Mold

4

Bodfari (3), Buckley (3)

Hope

NA

Newton Aycliffe

4

Ferryhill

NB

Newbury

4

Hungerford (3)

Newbury

ND

Neath

4

Neath

NE

Newcastle

8

Monkton (3), Swalwell (3)

Newcastle

NG

Nottingham

6

Harby (3)

Nottingham, Radcliffe

NH

Northampton

11

1

Crick (4), Ravenstone (3), Whilton (3), Wellingborough (3), Irthlingborough (3), Kettering (3)

Northampton, Rugby, Roade

NK

Newark

4

Southwell (3)

Newark

NL

Northleach

5

Cheltenham (3)

Cheltenham

NN

Nuneaton

5

Nuneaton

NO

Newport (IoW)

5

Whiteley Bank (3)

Newport (IoW)

NP

Newport (Mon.)

9

Pontypool (3), Little Mill (3), Lydney (3), Cross Keys (3), Pontllanfraith (3), Aberbeeg (3)

Newport (Mon.), Pontypool, Lydney

NQ

Newport (Essex)

4

Broxbourne

NR

Norwich

6

1

Swanton Abbot (3)

Norwich, North Walsham

NS

Newport (Staffs)

4

NT

Newent

5

Ross‐on‐Wye (3), Bromsberrow Heath (3)

Worcester

NW

Northwich

5

Middlewich (3)

Northwich

OD

Oldham

4

Oldham

OM

Ormskirk

5

Digmoor (3)

Ormskirk

OS

Ottery St. Mary

4

Harpsford (3)

Sidmouth Junction

OT

Otford

5

Ightham (3), West Malling (3)

Swanley

OX

Oxford

9

Kidlington (4), Radley (3), Witney (3), Thame (3)

Oxford

OW

Oswestry

4

Oswestry

PA

Paisley

4

Paisley, Elderslie

PB

Peterborough

6

Werrington (4)

Peterborough

PC

Penistone

4

Penistone

PD

Pontarddulais

5

Treneddyn (3), Ammanford (3)

Pontarddulais

PE

Peebles

3

Peebles

PF

Poulton‐le‐Fylde

4

1

Preston

PG

Paignton

6

4

Halwell (4), Newton Abbot (3)

Newton Abbot

PH

Perth

7

3

Aucheterarder (3), Cargill (3), Ballinluig (3)

Perth, Coupar Angus

PJ

Polegate

4

Polegate

PK

Pickering

5

Thornton‐le‐Dale (3), Grosmont (3)

Malton

PL

Poole

6

1

Christchurch (4), Swanage (3)

Bournemouth, Hamworthy, Broadstone

PM

Plymouth

5

2

Liskeard (3), South Brent (3)

Plymouth

PN

Penrith

4

Penrith

PO

Ponders End

5

Cockfosters (3)

Tottenham Hale, South Tottenham, Seven Sisters, Lower Edmonton

PP

Pontypridd

6

2

Abercynon (4), Porth (3)

Pontypridd, Quakers Yard

PR

Preston

6

Kirkham (3)

Preston

PT

Petersfield

4

Havant

PZ

Penzance

4

2

Ludgvan (3), Lelant (3)

Penzance

RC

Rochdale

5

Rochdale

RG

Reading

5

Wokingham (3)

Reading

RL

Rhyl

4

Colwyn Bay (3)

Rhyl

RM

Romsey

4

Mottisfont (3)

Romsey

RP

Ripon

4

West Tanfield (3)

Starbeck

RR

Redruth

4

RU

Ruabon

5

Wrexham (3)

Wrexham

SA

St. Albans

5

St. Albans, Hatfield, Harpenden

SB

Salisbury

7

Wilton (3), Warminster (3), Alderbury (3), Idmiston (3)

Salisbury

SD

Stafford

4

Stafford

SE

Selby

4

Selby

SF

Sheffield

3

Sheffield

SG

Spalding

6

Gosberton (4), Holbeach (3), Long Sutton (3)

Spalding

SH

Southampton

7

1

North Stoneham (4), Millbrook (4), Brockenhurst (3), Botley (3), Fareham (3)

Southampton, Fareham

SHP

Shipley

4

Keighley (3)

Shipley

SI

St. Helens

4

St. Helens

SJ

Stranraer

3

Whitecrook (3)

Stranraer

SK

Stoke‐on‐Trent

11

3

Kidsgrove (5), Stone (4), Nantwich (3), Draycott (3)

Stoke‐on‐Trent, Crewe, Sandbach

SL

Stirling

7

1

Denny (3), Alloa (3), Dunblane (3), Callander (3)

Stirling, Larbert, Alloa

SM

Southport

3

Southport

SN

Snaith

4

Hull

SND

Sandy

4

Sandy

SO

Sleaford

6

Heckington (3), Aunsby (3)

Sleaford

SP

Stourport

7

Kidderminster (3), Stourbridge (3), Coalport (3)

Stourbridge Junction, Bewdley

SPB

Spean Bridge

3

SQ

Stockton‐on‐Tees

8

Eaglescliffe (3), Crathorne (3), Stokesley (3), Easington (3)

Stockton‐on‐Tees, Middlesbrough, Eaglescliffe

SR

Shrewsbury

7

Shrawardine (3), Uppington (3), Leighton (3), Oakengates (3)

Shrewsbury, Wellington, Buildwas

SS

Sedbergh

6

Sedbergh Junction (3), Beck Foot (3), Constable Burton (3)

Tebay, Oxenholme

ST

Staines

10

Feltham (3), Chobham (3), Addlestone (3), Cookham (3)

Staines, Virginia Water, Woking, Slough

STP

Stockport

5

Stockport

STT

Stockton‐on‐Teme

4

1

Leominster

STY

Stalybridge

6

Hadfield (3), Grasscroft (3)

Stalybridge, Guide Bridge, Godley

SU

Sunderland

4

Penshaw (3)

Sunderland, Penshaw

SUB

Surbiton

4

Wimbledon

SV

Swannington

3

Coalville

SW

Swansea

4

Gorseinon (3)

Swansea

SWD

Swindon

4

Swindon

SX

Skipton

4

Skipton, Hellifield

SY

Symington

6

Biggar (3), Pettinain (3), Millhousebridge (3)

Carstairs, Lockerbie

SZ

Sudbury

4

Colchester

TA

Taunton

7

1

Wrantage (3), Ilminster (3)

Taunton

TB

Trowbridge

5

Westbury

TC

Twickenham

4

Richmond

TE

Thorne

5

Doncaster, Stainforth

TF

Thetford

6

Roudham (4)

Thetford

TG

Tring

4

Boxmoor (3)

TH

Thirsk

5

Northallerton (3), Carlton Husthwaite (3)

Thirsk, Northallerton

TK

Tewkesbury

5

Coombe Hill (3), Upton‐on‐Severn (3)

Ashchurch

TM

Todmorden

4

Sowerby Bridge (3)

Todmorden, Sowerby Bridge

TN

Tenterden

4

TR

Truro

6

1

Treluswell (4)

Truro

TU

Turriff

5

1

Milltown (3)

Keith, Tillynaught

TW

Tunbridge Wells

7

Hadlow (3), Hever (3), Bells Yew Green (3), Hurst Green (3)

Tunbridge Wells, Tonbridge, Eridge

UK

Uckfield

4

UP

Upminster

3

1

Upminster

UX

Uxbridge

4

West Drayton

WA

Walsall

5

Walsall

WB

Wetherby

6

Knaresborough (3)

Church Fenton, Starbeck

WC

Worcester

8

Pirton (3), Knightwick (3), Welland (3)

Worcester

WD

Wadebridge

4

Tredinnick (3)

Wadebridge

WE

Ware

4

St. Margarets (3)

Hertford, Broxbourne

WF

Woofferton

7

Walford (4), Ludlow (3), Leominster (3)

Leominster

WG

Wigan

6

Wigan

WH

Wolver‐hampton

7

Penkridge (3), Shifnal (3)

Wolverhampton

WI

Whitchurch (Salop)

6

Penley (3)

Whitchurch (Salop)

WJ

Whitchurch (Hants)

5

Andover (3)

Whitchurch (Hants)

WK

Wakefield

4

Wakefield

WL

Wallingford

4

Pangbourne (3)

Didcot

WM

Weston‐super‐Mare

3

Weston‐super‐Mare, Yatton

WN

Winchester

4

Shawford (3)

Eastleigh

WO

Welshpool

4

Arddlin (3), Berriew (3)

Welshpool

WP

Worksop

5

Ranby (3), North Leverton (3)

Shireoaks

WQ

Workington

3

Workington

WR

Warrington

8

Hollins Green (3)

Warrington, Earlstown, Glazebrook

WS

Wishaw

5

Carluke (3)

Wishaw, Carluke, Newmains

WT

Watford

7

Amersham (4), Rickmansworth (3)

Watford Junction

WU

Wisbech

4

Wisbech

WV

Wimbledon

3

Wimbledon

WW

Wembley

4

Harrow, South Ruislip

WX

Wells‐next –the‐Sea

3

Melton Constable

WY

Wednesbury

4

Dudley, Dudley Port

WZ

Wells (Somerset)

4

Shepton Mallet (3)

Frome, Glastonbury

YK

York

5

York

YN

Ynystawe

4

YV

Yeovil

6

Milborne Port (3), Wincanton (3)

Yeovil

(p.441) (p.442) (p.443) (p.444) (p.445) (p.446) (p.447) (p.448)

(p.449) When summarizing the properties of a composite hub, the focus is on the number of lines entering and leaving the hub as a whole—that is, the number of lines crossing the boundary and not the number of lines that lie within it. Thus both Bidford‐on‐Avon and Wells are four‐way hubs. However, the number of lines entering or leaving a satellite hub includes both internal and external lines; thus all three of the satellite hubs discussed above are three‐way hubs, since although only two of the lines leaving each satellite cross the boundary of the composite hub, the third line (to the major hub), although internal, is crucial to the role of the satellite within the hub as a whole.

Not all four‐way hubs are composite, of course. A good example of a simple four‐way hub is Lechlade. Lying at the intersection of a line from Swindon to Witney and a line from Cirencester to Abingdon, Lechlade provides connections from any one of the four towns to any other without any need for satellite hubs.

The logic of the composite hub is that the primary role of each satellite is to feed traffic into the major hub, and providing its own connections is a secondary role. From this perspective the distance between the major hub and its satellite is irrelevant. A consequence of this is that composite hubs may be spatially quite dispersed, with long distances between the major hub and some of its satellites. This is quite unlikely in well‐populated areas. Both Somerset and the Avon Valley in Warwickshire, though rural, are reasonably populous and so the composite hubs at Bidford and Wells are reasonably compact. But in more remote areas, such as the northern Pennines, hubs may be quite dispersed. This is illustrated by the hub at Sedbergh, on a trans‐Pennine route through Wensleydale, which runs east to Constable Burton, where it divides into lines for Darlington to the north and Ripon to the south. Constable Burton, on the opposite side of the Pennines, is much closer to the hubs at Darlington and Ripon than it is to Sedbergh. But its primary role is to consolidate trans‐Pennine traffic to and from Sedbergh. Traffic between Darlington and Ripon will go (p.450) direct through Catterick rather than deviate to the west through Constable Burton. It is therefore inappropriate to consolidate Constable Burton with either Darlington or Ripon. It is also inappropriate to identify it as an independent hub since it is a small village that generates little traffic of its own, and the even the nearest town, Leyburn, is not a major traffic‐generating centre in the same league as Darlington or Ripon. Sedbergh, on the other hand, is a major junction on the West Coast main line where lines to Brough and Kendal (via Beck Foot) diverge.

In other cases, however, distance leads to independence as regards traffic flow. Boston in Lincolnshire, for example, is a relatively isolated three‐way hub. As a small hub, it might seem appropriate to consolidate it with the five‐way hub at Alford (to the north), or the six‐way hubs at Sleaford (to the east) or Spalding (to the south). Sleaford and Spalding have a direct trunk connection that bypasses Boston, however, and so it is inappropriate to consolidate it with either of them. Boston collects traffic from London (via Spalding) and the Midlands (via Sleaford) and consigns it to Grimsby via Alford. Thus if consolidation is to be effected then Alford is the logical choice for a composite hub. But much of the traffic handled at Alford has nothing to do with Boston; it is traffic between Mablethorpe and Lincoln. More importantly, a lot of traffic is generated locally at the port at Boston, and most of this is consigned south and east rather than north through Alford. Apart from Grimsby through traffic, therefore, Boston and Alford are relatively independent, and it is therefore appropriate to analyse them as independent hubs, even though the total number of hubs identified is increased as a result.

Bypasses

A useful way of thinking about a hub is as a ‘pinch point’ at which traffic on different routes is all channelled through the same point. Such a pinch point can easily become congested, however, and as a result it may be bypassed. The question then arises as to whether the three‐way junctions at which the bypass begins and ends should be consolidated into a composite hub centred on the town or city that is bypassed. Bypasses are quite common in the counterfactual system. Indeed, it is a characteristic of any robust well‐connected system that any point on the system can be easily bypassed. Bypasses expedite long‐distance express traffic and can also act as diversionary routes. Thus the treatment of bypasses is an important issue in the analysis of hubs.

Although the principle of simplification suggests that bypasses should be internalized within the boundaries of a composite hub, economic logic suggests the exact reverse. In a composite hub the primary role of the satellites is to channel traffic into the major hubs and not away from it—as a bypass does. What this means in practice is that if an express bypasses a hub then passengers cannot make connections because the train does not stop. If the train were to stop then it would stop at one of the satellites—or even at both satellites at either end of the bypass. Not only would this defeat the object of speeding up the train, but also it would involve stopping the train at a small place affording limited onward connections rather than at the major centre affording many onward connections. If passengers took a connecting train from the satellite to the major hub then those requiring onward connections would have to change twice rather than just the once at the major hub. The use of bypasses is such an important feature of a network that it cannot be subsumed as an activity internal to a hub. Thus in analysing hubs the points at which bypasses begin and end are identified as independent hubs in their own right.

(p.451) Hubs on the Actual System

Company‐specific Hubs

So far the concept of a hub has been illustrated by reference to the counterfactual system. This is because hubs are much easier to identify on the counterfactual system than on the actual system. This in turn reflects the fact that the counterfactual system has been devised using a formal algorithm whereas the actual system has not. There is no doubt, as explained elsewhere, that Victorian railway engineers and policymakers understood the value of networks and the important role that hubs play within them. But in practice each railway company tended to apply the hub concept to its own system, by developing company‐specific hubs like Crewe on the London and North Western Railway, Derby on the Midland Railway, and York on the North Eastern Railway. Other towns and cities evolved into hubs because they were served by competing lines and therefore provided opportunities for traffic to switch from one company's system to another—an opportunity which the companies often strove to deny. As a result, there are a number of difficult issues that must be confronted when applying the hub concept to the actual system.

Multiple Stations

In the counterfactual each town is served by a single main station. The exception is London, which has five central stations located on an inner orbital line. By contrast, on the actual system towns and cities often have separate stations belonging to different companies. The question then arises as to whether a town where different lines converge on different stations qualifies as a hub, and if so, whether each station separately is to be considered as a hub, or the set of stations as a whole.

The simplest way to preserve comparability between the actual and counterfactual systems is to focus on location, and to adopt the convention that any town or city on which routes converge is a potential hub, irrespective of how many stations are involved. A multiplicity of stations is then interpreted as a structural weakness of the hub.

Lines that are Not Regularly Used

Comparing the networks of lines owned by the companies with the networks of services operated over them shows that many lines were not used. More precisely, they were not used for passenger traffic—which is the basis of the comparison made in this study. Thus many places that would have functioned as hubs if all the lines had been used did not in practice function as hubs at all.

Many of these unused lines were constructed for strategic reasons to gain access to another company's network, and were not used because the other company prevented the use of their network. The lines were often short spurs built where two lines crossed each other or ran parallel to each other. In some cases the lines were built in anticipation of running powers that were never obtained, and in other cases they became redundant because running powers proved to be unenforceable, so that traffic was routed some other way instead. In other cases the lines were used for freight traffic only, because a passenger service was considered to be unremunerative.

In analysing the actual network the focus has been placed on centres that actually functioned as hubs, which means that the lines included in the study are those that were actually operated rather than all of those that were built. Thus the hubs identified on the actual system are fewer than would otherwise appear. Since one of our main findings is that (p.452) the actual system involved a wasteful proliferation of hubs, this ensures that the finding cannot be explained simply by the inclusion of purely ‘hypothetical’ hubs.

Intersections that are Not Hubs

On the actual system railways sometimes crossed each other in open countryside, with no physical connection between them. In most cases the lines went over or under each other, but in a few cases the crossing was ‘on the flat’. So far as connections are concerned however, the situation was the same, although a flat crossing obviously raised additional issue regarding conflicting traffic movements and safety considerations.

It seems unrealistic to describe mere crossings as hubs—particularly where there were no stations nearby. Where the crossings occurred near towns or villages, stations would normally be provided, but they were often some distance apart. With no connecting spurs, all the ‘connecting’ had to be done by passengers making their own way between the stations by taxi, bus, or on foot.

A defining characteristic of a hub is that interchange must be convenient, and this implies that some facility for interchange must be provided. A minimum requirement used in this study is that there must be stations in appropriate locations and at least one junction. In other words, a mere crossing place is not a hub; it is only when the crossing is combined with some stations and a junction that it becomes a hub. This junction may link the intersecting lines, or may simply branch off from one of these lines in some other direction.

The requirement of at least one junction rules out places like Tamworth, where the Midland main line from Derby to Birmingham crossed over the London and North Western main line from London to Crewe. Although there was a connecting spur linking Derby to Crewe, it was never used for passenger traffic. A potentially more useful spur, linking Derby to London, was never built because it was against the Midland's interests to do so. However, the two stations—high level and low level—were built on top of each other to facilitate passenger interchange. This seems to have been a concession to local passengers from Burton‐on‐Trent, rather than a serious attempt to improve the connectivity of the main line railway system, however. Thus the failure of Tamworth to qualify as a hub is plausible given that the Midland Railway was opposed to its use for this purpose.

The issue of crossings that are not hubs does not arise on the counterfactual, as one of the characteristics of an efficient network is that lines do not normally cross unless there is a need to interchange traffic between them. The only exception is where a high‐speed bypass around a large town or city intersects the route of a local line into the city centre, so that it is efficient to concentrate all connections between the local branch and the rest of the system at the central hub.

Reversals

Reversal of the direction of travel complicates the operation of a hub. Reversing a train is more complicated than running it straight through, and reversing the direction of travel when joining a connecting train can be disconcerting for a passenger. On the counterfactual system most trains and most passengers maintain the same direction of travel throughout their journey and normally leave a hub in the same direction they entered it. They normally do not change direction by more than 90 degrees.

On the actual system, however, quite a number of reversals occur. This is because there are quite a lot of dead‐ends on the actual system. In particular, passengers travel into a terminal station in one direction and leave it in the opposite direction. There are a number (p.453) of important centres which are served mainly by a set of terminal stations, so that if passengers do not continue their journey by changing stations then they continue by reversing out of the station at which they have arrived. The question then arises as to whether locations with such inconvenient arrangement can be properly designated as hubs. Consistent application of general principles suggests that such places can indeed be regarded as hubs.

Continuity of direction of travel is not a defining characteristic of a hub. Furthermore, the geography of certain locations favours the use of terminals at which reversals occur. An obvious case is coastal hubs such as Cromer and Yarmouth, where the object is to deliver passengers as close as possible to the beach. Another example concerns large cities. When driving a railway into the heart of a city where the price of land is high and the nuisance created by the railway is very great, a dead‐end line to a city‐centre terminus may be far less costly than pushing a through line into the area. The operational inconvenience is more than compensated for by the saving of capital cost. The inefficiency in this case results from driving the railway into the heart of the city to begin with, instead of improving urban public transport to link the station better to the city. This drive was one of consequences of the competition between railway companies. Direct access by rail to the city centre was seen as important in promoting suburban living for office‐workers and other commuters. Competition to develop different areas of the commuter belt led to termini being pushed ever further into cities. Once the terminals had been constructed for the benefit of commuters, it was considered logical to use them for express services too—a tendency reinforced by the duplication of trunk lines, which made the location of the city centre terminus an important factor in the choice of route by inter‐city business travellers. Thus increasing numbers of people travelled into the city in order to connect with expresses there—whether they left from the terminal they entered or from another terminal elsewhere. It would be misleading to analyse the role of hubs in the actual system without recognizing that in practice many passengers reversed direction of travel.

Scope of the Comparison

As the counterfactual does not address the provision of tube transport in London or other major cities, the network analysis of the actual system excludes hubs on the London Underground system. More specifically, it excludes the hubs, such as Oxford Circus—which are used by the ‘tube’ railways, but includes hubs, such as West Brompton and Ealing—that were used by some of the present underground lines when they were still an integral part of the ‘overground’ system, before the modern London Transport Underground system had been formed.

The hubs on the actual system are listed in Table A5.2. The hubs are ordered geographically. For each hub the total number of lines converging is indicated (T), together with the number of these lines which are dead‐end branches (B), the number of different companies involved (C), and the number of town‐centre stations involved (S). The satellite hubs are also identified, together with analogous hub(s) on the counterfactual system.

There are a number of prominent intersections which have not been identified as hubs because their interchange potential is weak. These are listed in Table A5.3, classified according to their configurations.

The comparison is made for the year 1914. One consequence of this is that some of the proliferation of termini on the actual system is understated, as some rationalization of termini had already been effected by that date. Thus end‐on terminals had been converted (p.454)

Table A5.2. Hubs on the actual system

Hub

T

B

C

S

Satellite hubs

Analogues

East Anglia

Southend

5

1

2

2

Pitsea, Grays

Romford

6

3

2

1

Shenfield, Wickford, Woodham Ferres

Brentford

Witham

5

2

1

1

Kelvedon

Chelmsford

Colchester

10

5

1

2

Marks Tey, Chappel, Long Melford, Wivenhoe, Thorpe‐le‐Soken, Manningtree, Bentley

Colchester, Halstead, Sudbury

Ipswich

9

5

1

1

Haughley, Westerfield, Wickham Market, Saxmundham, Mellis

Ipswich

Bury St. Edmunds

5

1

1

Kennet

Bury St. Edmunds

Beccles

6

1

1

1

Halesworth, Aldeby

Ilketshall

Yarmouth

6

2(3)

3

St. Olaves

Lowestoft

4

2(3)

1

Somerleyton

Wymondham

4

1

1

Tivetshall

4

1

1

Forncett

Thetford

4

1

1

Roudham

Thetford

Fordham

4

1

1

Cambridge

East Dereham

4

1

1

1

County School

East Dereham

Melton Constable

4

1

1

Wells‐next‐the‐Sea

Norwich

9

2

3

Whittingham, Brundall, Reedham, Wroxham, Haddiscoe (Low Level)

Norwich

North Walsham

5

2

2

Norwich

Cromer

3

3(3)

2

Kings Lynn

10

3

2(3)

1

Sutton Bridge, South Lynn, Heacham, Swaffham, Magdalen Road, Denver

Kings Lynn

March

5

2(2)

1

March

Wisbech

5

1

2(3)

2

Wisbech

St. Ives

5

1

2(2)

1

Somersham

Huntingdon

Ely

6

1

1

Ely

Cambridge

10

2

1

Bartlow, Shelford, Haverhill

Cambridge

Humberside and Lincolnshire

Grimsby

3

2

1

Barnetby

5

1

1

1

Scunthorpe

Brigg

Ulceby

3

1

1

1

Brigg

Gainsborough

5

3(5)

2

Haxey

Gainsborough

Louth

4

1

1

Alford

Firsby

6

2

1

1

Willoughby

Alford

Lincoln

8

4(4)

2

Saxilby

Lincoln

Woodhall Junction

5

1

1

1

Bardney

Lincoln

Boston

4

1

1

Boston

Sleaford

5

2

1

Sleaford

Honington

4

1

1

Grantham

Spalding

6

3(3)

1

Spalding

Tyne and Wear

Newcastle

15

1

1

Newcastle

Hexham

4

2

1

Haltwhistle

4

2

1

1

Brampton

Carlisle

Morpeth

8

3

2

1

Scotsgap, Chevington, Alnmouth, Chathill

Morpeth

Newsham

5

2

1

1

Bedlington, Hartley

Morpeth

Tynemouth

4

1

1

Monkseaton, Percy Main

Morpeth

Tyne Dock

3

1

1

Sunderland

8

1

1

Murton, East Boldon, Pittington, Wellfield, Millfield

Sunderland

Penshaw

4

1

1

Sunderland

Blackhill

4

1

1

Consett (Leadgate)

Durham

7

1

1

2

Durham

Darlington

6

1

1

2

Croft Spa

Northallerton

5

1

1

Thirsk

Bishop Auckland

7

1

1

Wear Valley Junction, Shildon

Bishop Auckland

Barnard Castle

4

1

1

Barnard Castle

Kirkby Stephen

5

2

2

Brough

Ferryhill

7

1

1

Sherburn House

Newton Aycliffe

Stillington

5

1

1

Carlton

Leamside

4

1

1

Penshaw

Hart

5

1

1

1

Castle Eden

Stockton‐on‐Tees

Stockton‐on‐Tees

6

1

1

1

Billingham

Stockton‐on‐Tees

Middlesbrough

9

3

1

1

Thornaby, Nunthorpe, Hutton Gate, Cargo Fleet, Marske

Stockton‐on‐Tees

Eaglescliffe

5

1

1

Picton

Stockton‐on‐Tees

Battersby

3

1

1

North Yorkshire and Humberside

York

8

1

2

2

Alne

York

Thirsk

5

1

1

Pilmoor

Thirsk

Starbeck

10

1

1

Melmerby, Spofforth, Knaresborough, Harrogate, Weeton

Wetherby, Ripon

Church Fenton

7

1

1

Wetherby

Whitby

7

1

2

Grosmont, Brotton, Pickering

Seamer

6

1

1

Seamer, Driffield

Hull

11

3

2

2

Beverley, Staddlethorpe, Calton, Kirk Smeaton, Wilmington

Hull

Malton

5

1

1

Rillington

Pickering

Market Weighton

4

1

1

Beverley

Trent and Ouse

Doncaster

9

5

1

Mexborough, Arksey

Doncaster, Thorne

Selby

8

1

1

1

Selby

Goole

6

1

3(2)

1

Reedness

Balkholme

Stainforth

4

1

1

Thorne

Retford

5

2

2

Shireoaks

4

1

1

Worksop

Newark

6

2

2

Rolleston Junction

Newark

Tuxford

5

2

2

Edwinstowe

Grantham

7

1

1

Essendine, Barkston, Bottesford

Grantham

Bourne

4

2(2)

Bourne

Peterborough

7

5(4)

2

Peterborough

Wansford

4

1

2

1

Huntingdon

5

3(3)

2

Huntingdon

Aire and Calder

Leeds

15

4

3

Calverley, Farnley, Methley, Garforth, Beeston, Bramley, Arthington, Cross Gates, Micklefield

Leeds

Lofthouse

6

1

1

Ardsley

Leeds

Shipley

6

2

2

2

Keighley

Shipley

Castleford

6

1

1

Pontefract

6

3(3)

2

Knottingley

Knottingley

Moorthorpe

4

2(4)

1

Hemsworth

South Elmsall

4

2(4)

1

Wakefield

13

2

2

Horbury, Osset, Sandal

Wakefield

Menston

4

1

1

Guiseley

Burley‐in‐Wharfedale

Otley

4

2(2)

1

Burley‐in‐Wharfedale

Skipton

7

2

1

1

Earby

Skipton

Hellifield

7

2

1

Clapham, Wennington, Hawes Junction

Skipton

Todmorden

3

1

1

Todmorden

Sowerby Bridge

4

1

1

Todmorden

Laisterdyke

6

1

1

Bradford

Low Moor

6

2

1

Wyke, Bowling Junction

Bradford

Halifax

4

2

2

Bradford

Queensbury

4

2

2(2)

1

Holmfield

Bradford

Dudley Hill

6

1

1

Drighlington

Bradford

Greetland

4

1

1

Brighouse

Mirfield

6

3

1

Brighouse

Dewsbury

7

1

3

3

Batley

Dewsbury

Thornhill

5

2

1

Dewsbury

Horbury and Ossett

4

1

1

Dewsbury

Huddersfield

10

3

2

2

Huddersfield

Normanton

4

3

1

North Midlands

Sheffield

9

2

2

Dore, Woodhouse, Brightside

Sheffield

Rotherham

5

2

2

Mexborough

Swinton

5

2

2

Mexborough

Barnsley

6

3

2

Mexborough

Killamarsh

5

2

2

Beighton

Penistone

4

2

1

Penistone

Chesterfield

9

2

3

Barrow Hill, Staveley, Clay Cross

Chesterfield

Ambergate

5

1

1

Millers Dale

Derby

Langwith

7

3

2

Elmton

Mansfield

Kirkby‐in‐Ashfield

8

3

2

Mansfield

Mansfield

Pleasley

5

2

2

Trowell

6

1

1

1

Ilkeston

Daybrook

8

2

1

1

Ilkeston, Carlton, Kimberley

Ilkeston

Codnor Park

7

1

2

2

Butterley, Westhouses, Pye Bridge, Ripley

Ilkeston

Trent

6

1

1

Weston‐on‐Trent

Ilkeston

Derby

10

1

2

2

Duffield, Swarkestone, Peartree

Derby

Egginton

4

2

1

Derby

Burton‐on‐Trent

7

1

1

Repton, Gresley, Barton, Rolleston‐on‐Dove

Derby

Uttoxeter

6

2

1

Rocester, Tutbury

Derby

Nottingham

11

3

3

Radford, Bingham, Netherfield

Nottingham

Radcliffe

4

1

1

Nottingham

South and East Midlands

Leicester

10

4

4

Lowesby, Syston, Wigston

Leicester

Melton Mowbray

11

3

2

Saxby, John O'Gaunt, Hallaton, Manton, Harby, Redmire

Melton Mowbray

Market Harborough

6

3

2

Seaton

5

1

1

Rockingham

Bedford

7

3

2

Bedford

Sandy

4

1

2

Sandy

Kettering

4

1

1

Northampton

Wellingborough

5

1

2

2

Northampton

Northampton

6

2

3

Northampton

Rugby

9

3

2

Northampton

Roade

7

1

2

1

Blisworth, Wolverton, Weedon

Northampton

Nuneaton

8

3(2)

2

Shackerstone, Donnisthorpe

Nuneaton

Coventry

4

1

1

Coventry

Leamington

7

2

2

Kenilworth, Hatton

Leamington

Fenny Compton

5

2

2

Byfield

Leamington

Towcester

4

1

1

Woodford and Hinton

5

2

1

Calvert

Bletchley

6

1

1

1

Leighton Buzzard, Cheddington

Leighton Buzzard

Cumbria and The Lakes

Carlisle

9

1

6

1

Drumburgh, Wigton

Carlisle

Gretna

4

3

1

Carlisle

Longtown

4

1

1

Riddings

Carlisle

Abbeyholme

4

2

1

Carlisle

Haltwhistle

4

2

1

Brampton Junction

Carlisle

Aspatria

6

2

1

Dearham

Workington

7

1

4(4)

2

Camerton, Brigham

Workington

Whitehaven

7

4(3)

1

Moor Row, Ullock, Corkicle, Parton

Distington

5

2(3)

1

Ravenglass

4

1

1

1

Sellafield

Dalton‐in‐Furness

7

3

1

1

Ulverston, Arnside, Foxfield

Dalton‐in‐Furness

Barrow‐in‐Furness

3

1

1

1

Penrith

4

2

1

Penrith

Tebay

4

2

1

Low Gill

Sedbergh

Oxenholme

4

2

1

Sedbergh

Carnforth

5

1

2

1

Hest Bank

Lancaster

7

4

2

2

Lancaster

Morecambe

4

1

2

2

North‐west

Preston

12

6

3

1

Kirkham, Poulton‐le‐Fylde, Garstang, Euxton

Preston, Poulton‐le‐Fylde

Blackburn

7

2

1

Bamber Bridge

Clayton‐le‐Moors

Accrington

3

1

1

Clayton‐le‐Moors

Rose Grove

4

1

1

Clayton‐le‐Moors

Southport

7

2(4)

3

Burscough Bridge

Southport

Wigan

13

3

3

Board Head, Hindley, Rainsford

Wigan

Chorley

4

2(2)

1

Chorley

Bolton

8

2

2

Bolton

Blackrod

4

1

1

Bolton

Warrington

11

3(5)

1

Broadheath, Sankey

Warrington

Earlstown

7

1

1

1

Newton‐le‐Willows, St. Helens Junction, Kenyon Junction, Pennington

Warrington

Glazebrook

5

1(3)

1

Lowton St. Marys

Warrington

St. Helens

6

2

2

St. Helens

Ditton Junction

5

1

1

Liverpool

Halewood

5

3

1(3)

1

Hough Green, West Derby

Liverpool

Liverpool

9

4(6)

3

Liverpool

Birkenhead

6

4(7)

3

Hooton, Ince

Bidston

6

3

3

1

Burton Point

Frodsham

4

2(2)

1

Helsby

Chester

Northwich

6

1

2(4)

1

Cuddington, Mouldsworth, Altrincham

Northwich

Ormskirk

6

1

1

Aintree, Burscough Junction

Ormskirk

Manchester

23

4(5)

4

Chorlton‐cum‐Hardy, Timperley, Droylsden, Eccles, Miles Platting, Worsley, Ashburys, Longsight, Gorton, Heaton Mersey, Middleton Junction, Daisy Hill

Manchester, Middleton

Bury

7

1

1

2

Ramsbottom

Bury

Rochdale

5

1

1

1

Castleton

Rochdale

Oldham

6

1

3(3)

2

Werneth, Royton

Oldham

Stalybridge

5

3

1

Stalybridge

Guide Bridge

7

4(3)

2

Fairfield

Stalybridge

Godley

4

2(3)

1

Dinting

Stalybridge

Woodley

4

2(3)

1

Romiley

6

1

2(3)

1

New Mills Central

Stockport

12

2(4)

2

Baguley, Cheadle Hulme, Heaton Norris

Stockport

Macclesfield

4

3(3)

2

Chinley

4

2(2)

1

Bugsworth

Bakewell

Buxton

4

2

1

Crewe

7

3

1

Nantwich

Stoke‐on‐Trent

Stoke‐on‐Trent

14

3

1

1

Stone, Cresswell, Longport, Kidsgrove

Stoke‐on‐Trent

Sandbach

5

2

1

Wilmslow

Stoke‐on‐Trent

Leek

4

1

1

1

Cheddleton Junction

Stafford

6

3

1

Norton Bridge

Stafford

North Wales and Welsh Borders

Bangor

9

7

2

1

Caernarvon, Gaerwen, Holland Arms, Dinas, Tryfan

Bangor

Llandudno Junc‐tion

4

2

1

1

Conway

Rhyl

5

2

1

1

Rhyl

Corwen

6

1

2

1

Bala Junction, Denbigh

Portmadoc

5

3

4

3

Afon Wen

Criccieth

Barmouth

3

1

1

Barmouth

Machynlleth

6

3

3

1

Dovey Junction, Cemmaes Road, Towyn

Aberystwyth

3

1

2

2

Aberystwyth

Welshpool

5

3(4)

2

Moat Lane, Buttington

Welshpool

Llanymyncech

4

1

2

2

Chester

9

4(5)

2

Waverton, Saughall

Chester

Hope

5

2

2

Hawarden Bridge

Mold

Wrexham

12

5

3(5)

3

Ruabon, Gobowen, Chirk, Legacy

Wrexham

Oswestry

4

1

2

1

Llynclys

Oswestry

Whitchurch (Salop)

5

2

1

Ellesmere

Whitchurch

Shrewsbury

9

2

4(3)

2

Hanwood, Kinnerley Junction

Shrewsbury

Wellington

7

1

4(3)

1

Hadley, Market Drayton

Buildwas

5

1

1

Lightmoor Junction

Shrewsbury

Craven Arms

5

4(3)

1

Llandeilo

3

2(2)

1

Llandovery

Leominster

6

2

3(3)

1

Woofferton, Cleobury Mortimer

Woofferton

Hereford

6

3(3)

1

Ross‐on‐Wye

Hereford

Titley

4

2

1

1

West Midlands

Birmingham

18

1

3

3

Monumnent Lane, Old Hill, Handsworth, Handsworth Wood, Swan Village, Tyseley, Winson Green

Birmingham

Aston

5

1

1

Perry Barr

Bescot

4

1

1

Great Barr

Walsall

8

2

1

Wednesbury

Walsall

Dudley Port

6

2

1

Tipton

Wednesbury

Dudley

4

2

2

Netherton

Wolverhampton

9

3

2

Priestfield, Darlaston, Shifnal

Wolverhampton

Sutton Coldfield

6

2

2

Castle Bromwich

4

1

1

Lichfield

5

1

2

Lichfield

Rugeley

4

2

1

Colwich

Lichfield

Hampton‐in‐Arden

5

2

1

Stechford

Whitacre

4

1

1

Kings Norton

6

2(2)

1

Longridge, Barnt Green, Bromsgrove

South Wales and Forest of Dean

Whitland

7

6

1

1

Clynderwen, Clarbeston Road, Johnston

Carmarthen

Carmarthen

8

3

2

1

Pencade, Lampeter, Llanelli

Carmarthen

Swansea

9

3

6

5

Gowerton, Pontardawe

Swansea

Neath

9

2

4

3

Hirwaun, Llandore

Neath

Pontarddulais

4

2

2

Pantyffynon

Pontarddulais

Cymmer

6

3

3

Bridgend

4

2

1

Bridgend

Tondu

6

3

1

1

Brynmenyn, Black Mill

Bridgend

Pyle

4

1

1

Bridgend

Port Talbot

5

3

3

Aberavon

Llantrisant

5

1

2

2

Cadoxton

5

1

2

1

Barry

Cardiff

8

5

3

Cogan

Cardiff

Pontypridd

12

4

4

2

Abercynon, Porth, Treforest

Pontypridd

Quakers Yard

5

1

3(3)

2

Pontypridd

Caerphilly

7

1

4

1

Ystrad Mynach, Bargoed

Hengoed

Nelson and Llancaiach

5

4(3)

1

Merthyr

5

4(5)

1

Pontsarn

Merthyr

Dowlais

5

3(4)

4

Merthyr

Talyllyn Junction

7

4

4

1

Three Cocks, Hay‐on‐Wye, Eardisley, Colbren, Pontsticill

Brecon, Hay‐on‐Wye

Brynmawr

7

1

3(3)

1

Beaufort, Nantybwch, Rhymney Bridge

Abergavenny

Abergavenny

4

2

3

Pontrilas

Abergavenny

Newport

12

2

3

1

Chepstow, Machen, Severn Tunnel Junction, Pengam, Risca, Aberbeeg, Llantarnam

Newport

Pontypool

6

1

1

3

Upper Pontnewydd, Little Mill

Newport

Lydney

4

2(2)

2

Newport

Monmouth

5

1

2(2)

2

Lydbrook Junction

Monmouth

Cinderford

5

2

2

2

Drybrook Road, Parkend

Somerset and Severn

Bristol

9

1

2

1

Filton

Bristol

Bath

5

2(3)

2

Bathampton

Bristol

Patchway

4

1

1

Pilning

Bristol

Yatton

6

1

1

1

Congresbury, Puxton

Bristol, Loxton

Weston‐super‐Mare

3

1

2

2

Weston‐super‐Mare

Clevedon

3

2

2

2

Mangotsfield

5

2

1

1

Fish Ponds, Yate

Avonmouth

5

1

2(2)

1

Sea Mills

Bradford‐on‐Avon

5

1

1

Limpley Stoke, Holt Junction

Chippenham

4

1

1

1

Frome

7

1

1

Wells, Witham, Hallatrow, Castle Cary

Bruton, Wells

Glastonbury

4

2

1(2)

1

Edington Junction

Wells

Westbury

5

1

1

Trowbridge

Trowbridge

Gloucester

12

4

4(2)

2

Stonehouse, Durbridge, Grange Court, Newnham, Coaley Junction, Berkeley Road

Gloucester

Cheltenham

6

1

4(3)

3

Andoversford

Northleach

Ashchurch

5

1

1

Wadborough

Tewkesbury

Worcester

9

2

2

Droitwich, Henwick, Norton, Great Malvern, Ledbury, Hartlebury

Worcester

Bewdley

4

1

1

Stourport

Stourbridge Junction

5

1

1

1

Kidderminster

Stourport

Broom Junction

4

3

1

Alcester

Bidford‐on‐Avon

Evesham

5

2

2

Honeyboutne

Bidford‐on‐Avon

Stratford‐on‐Avon

9

2

2

Bearley, Henley‐in‐Arden, Long Marston, Claverdon

Bidford‐on‐Avon

Kingham

5

1

1

1

Moreton‐in‐Marsh

Moreton‐in‐Marsh

Banbury

7

4

2

King Sutton, Farthinghoe

Banbury

Oxford

8

1

2

2

Kidlington, Yarnton, Radley

Oxford

Thames and Chilterns

Swindon

10

4

2

2

Wootton Bassett, Dauntsey, Kemble

Swindon, Cirencester

Didcot

6

2

1

1

Uffington, Wantage Road

Wallingford

Savernake

6

1

2

2

Patney

Devizes

Newbury

5

1

1

1

Newbury

Reading

7

1

3

2

Cholsey, Wokingham

Reading

Princes Risborough

8

1

3(2)

1

High Wycombe, Bourne End, Haddenham

Aylesbury

Aylesbury

6

1

4(4)

2

Quainton Road

Aylesbury

Verney Junction

4

2(3)

1

South West

Penzance

4

2

1

1

Penzance

Truro

4

2

1

1

Chacewater

Truro

Par

4

1

1

1

St. Blazey

Lostwithiel

Bodmin Road

5

3

1

1

Lostwithiel, Liskeard

Lostwithiel

Plymouth

8

4

2

3

Brent, Totnes

Plymouth

Tavistock

6

2

2

2

Lydford, Bere Alston, Yelverton

Launceston

3

2

2

Launceston

Barnstaple

6

2

3

3

Dulverton

Barnstaple

Exeter

11

2

2

2

Yeoford, Okehampton, Halwill, Stoke Canon

Exeter

Tiverton Junction

4

1

1

1

Exeter

Newton Abbot

6

3

1

1

Heathfield, Churston

Exeter, Paignton

Wadebridge

3

2

1

1

Wadebridge

Taunton

7

1

1

1

Norton Fitzwarren, Durston, Athelny

Taunton, Langport

Bridgwater

3

2(3)

2

Bridgwater

Highbridge

5

1

2(3)

1

Bleadon

Bridgwater, Loxton

Wessex and Isle of Wight

Sidmouth Junction

5

2

1

1

Tipton St. Johns, Seaton Junction

Axminster, Ottery St. Mary

Yeovil

7

1

2

3

Chard Junction, Axminster

Yeovil, Axminster

Templecombe

5

2(2)

1

1

Evercreech Junction

Salisbury

5

2

2

Weymouth

5

3

2

3

Melcombe Regis, Upwey, Dorchester, Maiden Newton

Dorchester

Hamworthy

4

1

1

1

Wareham

Poole

Broadstone

5

2(2)

1

Wimborne, West Moors

Poole

Bournemouth

4

1

2(2)

2

Christchurch, Poole

Poole

Southampton

7

1

1

2

Redbridge, Brockenhurst, St. Denys, Ringwood

Southampton

Fareham

9

5

2(2)

1

Botley, Cosham, Fort Brockhurst

Southampton

Romsey

5

1

1

Fullerton

Romsey

Eastleigh

6

2

1

Shawford, Winchester

Winchester

Andover

6

2

2

1

Ludgershall, Grateley

Whitchurch (Hants)

Whitchurch (Hants)

5

2

2

Hurstbourne

Whitchurch (Hants)

Basingstoke

5

2

1

Basingstoke

Sandown (IoW)

4

3

2

1

Brading

Brading

Newport (IoW)

5

4

2

1

Merstone

Newport (IoW)

Fratton

5

3

1(2)

1

Hilsea

Havant

6

2

3(2)

1

Farlington, Petersfield

Havant

Chichester

4

1

2

2

Havant

Guildford

9

3

1

Wanborough, Ash, Effingham

Guildford

Farnham

8

1

1

1

Bentley, Aldershot, Ash Vale, Alton

Ash

Christs Hospital

7

1

1

Horsham, Pulborough, Midhurst

Horsham

Ford

5

2

1

1

Barnham

Arundel

Kent and Sussex

Brighton

6

2

1

1

Shoreham

Brighton

Lewes

6

1

1

1

Lewes

Haywards Heath

4

1

1

Wivelsfield

Redhill

6

2

1

Three Bridges

Godstone, Dorking

Oxted

5

3(2)

1

Hurst Green, Selsdon Road

Godstone

East Grinstead

5

1

1

Horstead Keynes

East Grinstead

Eridge

4

1

1

Tunbridge Wells

Tunbridge Wells

Tunbridge Wells

5

2

2

Groombridge

Tunbridge Wells

Tonbridge

9

1

1

1

Paddock Wood, Headcorn, Sevenoaks, Edenbridge

Tunbriddge Wells

Hastings

4

1

2

1

Pevensey

Hastings

Robertsbridge

4

1

2

1

Crowhurst

Hastings

Polegate

4

1

1

1

Polegate

Dover

4

1

1

Folkestone

Dover

Canterbury

7

1

1

2

Minster

Canterbury

Ashford

8

1

1

Sandling, Appledore, Lydd

Ashford

Orpington

4

1

1

1

Petts Wood, Dunton Green

Swanley

6

1

1

St. Mary Cray, Otford, Farningham Road

Otford

Gravesend

8

1

1

2

Hoo, Strood, Dartford, Charlton

Chatham

Sittingbourne

6

2

1

1

Rochester, Faversham

Chatham

Maidstone

5

1

2

Kemsing

Maidstone

London Central

Fenchurch Street

6

3

2

1

Stepney, Burdett Road, Bow Road, West India Docks

London (NE)

Liverpool Street

8

2

2(6)

1

Bishopsgate, Bethnal Green, Deptford Road, Hackney Downs, Clapton

London (NE)

Dalston Junction

4

2

1

1

Canonbury

London (NE)

Kings Cross

4

3

2

Farringdon

London (NE)

Finsbury Park

7

2

1

1

Highgate, Hornsea, Finchley

London (NE)

Willesden Junction

7

1

3(4)

1

Chalk Farm, Queens Park

Willesden

Kentish Town

3

1

1

1

London (NW)

West Hampstead

5

2(3)

2

Gospel Oak, Neasden

London (NW)

Paddington

4

2

1

London (NW)

Waterloo

4

2

2

2

Queens Road

Clapham

Wandsworth Road

6

1

2

1

Brixton

Clapham

Peckham Rye

8

1

2

1

Nunhead, Denmark Hill, Old Kent Road

Clapham

Herne Hill

4

1

1

Clapham

Clapham Junction

12

4(5)

1

Balham, Wandsworth Town, Barnes

Clapham

London Bridge

7

2

1

Southwark Park, South Bermondsey

Ludgate Hill

7

1

2

1

Snow Hill, Loughborough Junction

New Cross

10

1

2(6)

1

St. Johns, Lewisham, Hither Green, Chiselhurst, Grove Park, Blackheath

Lewisham

New Cross Gate

5

2(6)

1

Lewisham

Catford Bridge

6

2

2

1

Ladywell, New Beckenham, Elmers End, Woodside

Lewisham

London E and NE

Upminster

4

2

1

Upminster

Barking

6

1

3(3)

1

Woodgrange Park, Bromley‐by‐Bow

Barking

Stratford

12

4

2

1

Leytonstone, Woodford, Forest Gate, Ilford

Barking

Victoria Park

5

1

1

1

Bow Road

Canning Town

6

5

1

1

Custom House, Stratford Market

Hitchin

5

2

1

Stevenage

Hitchin

Hatfield

5

1

1

1

St. Albans

Harpenden

5

1

2

2

St. Albans

Broxbourne

8

2

1

1

St. Margarets, Cheshunt, Elsenham, Audley End, Bishops Stortford

Ware, Harlow

Hertford

4

2

2

Ware

Seven Sisters

4

1

1

1

Ponders End

Lower Edmonton

4

1

1

Ponders End

Tottenham Hale

5

1

2

1

Ponders End

South Tottenham

5

1

3(3)

1

Junction Road

Ponders End

London West

Watford Junction

5

3

1

1

Watford

Harrow

5

3

1

1

Carpenders Park

Wembley

South Ruislip

5

1

2(2)

1

Greenford

Wembley

South Acton

5

1

3(5)

1

Ealing

Gunnersbury

4

2

1

Ealing

Ealing

6

2

1

West Ealing

Ealing

Kew Bridge

5

1

1

Hounslow

Brentford

Ravenscourt Park

5

2

1

Grove Road

Kensington (Addison Road)

5

4(5)

1

St. Quintin Park

London (NW)

Earls Court

4

1

1

West Brompton

6

2

2(5)

1

Battersea

West Drayton

5

3

1

1

Southall

Uxbridge

Slough

5

2

1

1

Maidenhead, Twyford

Staines

London S and SW

Virginia Water

6

1

1

Ascot, Frimley, Addlestone

Staines

Staines

5

2

2

Feltham

Staines

Woking

6

1

1

Byfleet, Brookwood

Staines

Richmond

6

1

2

1

Twickenham, Strawberry Hill, Whitton

Twickenham

Wimbledon

13

2

3

1

Raynes Park, New Malden, Surbiton, Weybridge, Merton Park, East Putney

Wimbledon, Surbiton

Epsom

4

3(2)

2

Leatherhead

Epsom

Sutton

4

1

1

Epsom

Mitcham Junction

5

1

1

Epsom

East Croydon

6

2

2(2)

1

South Croydon, Purley

Croydon

West Croydon

4

1

1

Croydon

Norwood Junction

7

1

1

Croydon

Selhurst

5

1

1

Crystal Palace

6

2

2

Tulse Hill

7

2

1

Bromley

8

2

2

Shortlands, Beckenham Junction, Bickley

Bromley

Highlands and Grampians

Wick

4

2

1

1

Georgmas, The Mound

Spean Bridge

3

2

2

1

Dingwall

5

2

1

1

Inverness

Inverness

4

1

1

1

Muir Of Ord

Inverness

Crianlarich

6

3

2

2

Connel Ferry, Killin Junction

Forres

4

1

1

1

Gollanfield Junction

Elgin

7

2

2

2

Alves, Craigellachie

Fochabers

Aviemore

4

2

1

Boat of Garten

Carrbridge

Keith

6

1

2

2

Grange, Orbliston

Turriff

Tillynaught

5

1

2

1

Knock, Portessie

Turriff

Aberdeen

11

7

2

1

Dyce, Ellon, Maud, Inveramsay, Kintore, Cairnie Junction, Inverurie, Craigo

Aberdeen

Bridge of Dun

5

2

1

1

Glasterlaw

Aberdeen

Montrose

4

1

2

2

Aberdeen

Brechin

3

1

1

1

Forfar

6

1

1

1

Guthrie

Forfar

Arbroath

5

1

3(2)

1

Friockheim, Elliot Junction

Dundee

8

1

3(2)

3

Inchture, St. Fort

Dundee

Fife and Midlothian

Perth

11

3

3

1

Strathord, Stanley, Bridge of Earn, Newburgh, Tibbermuir

Perth

Coupar Angus

5

2

1

1

Perth

Balquhidder

4

1

1

Crieff

Leuchars

4

1

1

Lathrisk

Ladybank

5

1

1

1

Markinch

Lathrisk

Thornton

5

1

1

1

Kirkcaldy

Kinross

4

1

1

Mawcarse

Dunfermline

6

1

1

2

Dunfermline

Alloa

5

1

1

1

Cambus

Stirling

Stirling

6

2

1

Dunblane, Crieff Junction

Stirling

Larbert

7

2

2

1

Stirling, Castlecary

Buchlyvie

4

2

1

1

Balfron

Manuel

6

1

1

1

Polmont, Philipstoun

Camelon

5

2

2

1

Falkirk (Grahamston)

Edinburgh

Edinburgh

15

7

2

2

Saughton

Edinburgh

Dalmeny

5

1

1

Inverkeithing

Edinburgh

Portobello

20

14

1

1

New Hailes, Ormiston, Longniddry, Drem, Millerhill, Eskbank, Hawthornden, Fountainhall, Leadburn

Edinburgh

Bathgate

4

1

2

Clydeside

Glasgow

29

6

4(3)

3

Stobcross, Gartcosh, Lenzie, Kirkintilloch, West Pollokshaws, Partick, Great Western Road, Bridgeton Cross, Bell Grove, Ibrox, Rutherglen, Shettleston

Glasgow

Carmyle

5

1

1

Glasgow

Paisley

8

2

3(2)

2

Port Glasgow

Paisley

Elderslie

5

1

1

Paisley

Maryhill

7

2

2

Possil Park

Westerton

4

1

1

1

Dumbarton

6

2

3(2)

1

Dalmuir, Dalreoch, Craigendoran

Gartcosh

4

1

1

1

Robroyston

Lugton

5

1

2(2)

2

Barrhead

Giffen

4

1

1

1

Barrhead

Newton

8

1

1

1

Uddingston, Blantyre

Barrhead

Coatbridge

10

2

2

3

Moss End, Gartsherrie, Blackstone

Holytown

5

1

1

Newmains

4

1

1

Wishaw

Carluke

4

1

1

Cleghorn

Wishaw

Wishaw

5

1

1

2

Wishaw

Dalry

4

1

1

Kilwinning

6

3

2

2

Kilwinning

Irvine

5

1

2

2

Bogside

Kilwinning

Kilmarnock

6

2(2)

1

Crosshouse, Hurlford

Kilmarnock

Ayr

7

1

1

1

Barassie, Annbank

Ayr

Mauchline

5

1

1

1

Auchinleck

Mauchline

Strathaven

4

1

1

High Blantyre

Hamilton

11

3

2

2

Bothwell, Ferniegair, Brocketsbrae, Stonehouse

Hamilton

Douglas West

3

1

1

Galloway and Borders

Stranraer

3

1

2(2)

2

Dunragit

Stranraer

Dumfries

7

3

3(2)

1

Castle Douglas, Newton Stewart

Dumfries

Lockerbie

5

1

1

1

Beattock, Kirtlebridge

Symington

Annan

4

2

2

Peebles

3

2

2

Peebles

Galashiels

4

1

1

1

Melrose

St. Boswells

6

1

1

1

Roxburgh, Riccarton Junction

Melrose

Tweedmouth

6

1

2

1

Burnmouth, Coldstream, Reston

Coldstream

(p.455) (p.456) (p.457) (p.458) (p.459) (p.460) (p.461) (p.462) (p.463) (p.464) (p.465) (p.466) (p.467) (p.468)

Table A5.3. Rail crossings and multiple termini

Town or city

Railway companies

Comment

2×2 crossings with interchange arrangementsnot listed as hubs

Tamworth

MR‐LNWR

High level–low level

Builth Road

Cambrian‐LNWR

Radstock

GWR‐SDJR

Whittington

GWR‐Cambrian

High level–low level

Haddiscoe

GER‐GER

High level–low level

2×2 crossings with same name and no interchange arrangementsnot listed as hubs

Fakenham

GER‐MGNR

Appleby

MR‐NER

Dorking

LBSCR‐SECR

Edenbridge

LBSCR‐SECR

Leytonstone

GER‐MR/LTS

Murrow

GNR/GER‐MGNR

Bicester

GWR‐LNWR

Mill Hill

MR‐GNR

Wotton

GCR/MetR‐GCR

Shepton Mallet

SDJR‐GWR

Helmdon

GCR‐SMJR

Brackley

GCR‐LNWR

Braunston

GCR‐LNWR

Thrapston

MR‐LNWR

Reepham

GER‐MGNR

Madeley (Staffs)

LNWR‐NSR

Hawarden

LNWR‐GCR

Crumlin

GWR‐GWR

High‐level/low‐level but separate

Farnborough

LSWR‐SECR

North Camp

LSWR‐SECR

Somerford

GWR‐GWR

Brockley

LBSCR‐SECR

Neston

LNWR/GWR‐GCR

Tibshelf

MR‐GCR

Bolsover

MR‐GCR

Helsby

LNWR/GWR‐CLC

Hartford

LNWR‐CLC

Middlewood

NSR/GCR‐LNWR

Upper/lower

Aintree

LYR‐CLC

Levenshulme

LNWR‐CLC

Golborne

LNWR‐GCR

Crowle

LYR/NER‐GCR

Drax

HBR‐NER

Howden

HBR‐NER

Midford

SDJR‐GWR

Bellshill

NBR‐CR

Platt Bridge

LNWR‐GCR

Atherton

LNWR‐LYR

Walkden

LNWR‐LYR

Tipton

LNWR‐GWR

Maesteg

GWR‐Port Talbot

2×2 crossings with different names and no interchange arrangementsnot listed as hubs

Cole‐Bruton

SDJR‐GWR

Little Bytham‐Castle Bytham

GNR‐MGNR

Heck‐Hensall

GNR‐LYR

Ingestre‐Neston

GNR‐NSR

Ash Vale‐North Camp

LSWR‐LSWR

Briton Ferry Road‐Jersey Marine

GWR‐Rhondda and Swansea Bay

Parallel lines with no interchange arrangementsnot listed as hubs

Garth

Port Talbot‐GWR

Bargoed

Rhymney‐GWR

Aylsham

GER‐MGNR

New Mills

GCR/MR‐LNWR

Chapel‐en‐le Frith

MR‐LNWR

Clown

GCR‐MR

Cresswell

GCR‐MR

Woodhouse

GCR‐MR

Willenhall

MR‐LNWR

Chapeltown

GCR‐MR

Ecclesfield

GCR‐MR

Widnes

LNWR‐CLC

Luton

MR‐GNR

Wembley

LNWR‐GCR

Streatham

LBSCR‐LBSCR

Midsomer Norton

GWR‐SDJR

Royston

MR‐GCR

Wath

MR‐GCR

Swinton

MR‐GCR

Kilnhurst

MR‐GCR

Parkgate

MR‐GCR

Woodhouse

MR‐GCR

Eckington

MR‐GCR

Eastwood

MR‐GCR

Lutterworth

MR‐GCR

Ingrow

MR‐GNR

Netherfield

MR‐GNR

Sutton‐in‐Ashfield

GCR‐GNR

Bulwell (×3)

MR‐GCR‐GNR

Hucknall (×3)

MR‐GCR‐GNR

Linby (×3)

MR‐GCR‐GNR

Newstead (×3)

MR‐GCR‐GNR

Bowling

CR‐NBR

Kilpatrick

CR‐NBR

Dalmuir

CR‐NBR

Clydebank

CR‐NBR

Yoker

CR‐NBR

Parkhead

CR‐NBR

Broomhouse

CR‐NBR

Uddingston

CR‐NBR

Pollokshaws

GSWR/CR‐CR

Lynedoch

GSWR‐CR

Greenock

GSWR‐CR

Port Glasgow

GSWR‐CR

Stevenston

GSWR‐CR

Saltcoats

GSWR‐CR

Ardrossan

GSWR‐CR

Bogside

GSWR‐CR

Tavistock

GWR‐LSWR

Penrhiwceiber

Taff Vale‐GWR

Mountain Ash

Taff Vale‐GWR

Aberdare

Taff Vale‐GWR

Pontnewydd

GWR‐GWR

Pontllanfraith

LNWR‐GWR

Hanwood

GWR‐Shropshire and Montgomeryshire

Madeley (Salop)

GWR‐LNWR

Bonnybridge(×3)

CR/NBR‐CR‐NBR

Cleckheaton

LNWR‐LYR

Heckmondwike

LNWR‐LYR

Liversedge

LNWR‐LYR

St. Budeaux

LSWR‐GWR

Treforest

Taff Vale‐Barry

Briton Ferry

GWR‐Rhondda and Swansea Bay

Morriston

GWR‐MR

Two termininot listed as hubs

Uxbridge

GWR‐GWR

Ramsgate

SECR‐SECR

Leith (×4)

NBR‐NBR‐NBR‐CR

Blackpool

LNWR/LYR‐LNWR/LYR

Coleford

GWR/MR‐GWR

Bodmin

GWR‐LSWR

Separate but with a connection creating a double terminus at GWR station

Portishead

GWR‐WLPR

Close

Ramsey

GNR‐GER

Separate

Winsford

LNWR‐CLC

Separate

Blaenavon

GWR‐LNWR

Separate

Ebbw Vale

GWR‐LNWR

Separate

Shared termininot listed as hubs

Bacup

LYR‐LYR

Eastbourne

LBSCR‐LBSCR

Portsmouth

LBSCR‐LSWR

Fowey

GWR‐GWR

Wells‐next‐the‐Sea

GER‐GER

Newquay

GWR‐GWR

Maldon

GER‐GER

Triangle

Lanark

CR‐CR

Triangle

4‐way crossings comprising a through line and a separate double‐terminusnot listed as hubs

St. Albans

MR(through)/LNWR‐GNR(terminus)

Ilkeston

GNR(through)/MR‐MR (terminus)

3‐way crossing comprising a through line and a separate terminusnot listed as hubs

Rickmansworth

GCR/MetR(2)‐LNWR(1)

Coalport

GWR(2)‐LNWR(1)

Cirencester

MSWJR(2)‐GWR(1)

Enfield

GNR(2)‐GER(1)

Brentford

LSWR(2)‐GWR(1)

Marlborough

MSJWR(2)‐GWR(1)

Bothwell

NBR(2)‐CR(1)

Airdrie

NBR(2)‐CR(1)

Renfrew

CR/GSWR(2)‐GSWR(1)

Birstall

LNWR(2)‐LNWR(1)

Pinxton

MR(2)‐GNR(1)

Oldbury

LNWR(2)‐GWR(1)

Aberthaw

Barry(2)‐Taff Vale(1)

Alexandra Palace

GNR(2)‐GNR(1)

(p.469) (p.470) (p.471) into through stations—e.g. at Bristol and York—and surplus dead‐end terminals had been converted to goods depots, as at Bricklayers Arms, London, and Carlisle. Much of this early rationalization was effected as a result of mergers between the companies concerned, although pressure from urban authorities to create a grand joint station was a factor in some cases.