High-latitude rivers and streams
Flowing-water ecosystems occur in the desert oases around the margins of Antarctica, and are common throughout the Arctic. This chapter describes the limnological properties of Antarctic streams by way of examples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Arctic rivers and streams, with emphasis on observation and experiments in northern Alaska. Large rivers are an important feature of the Arctic and discharge globally significant quantities of fresh water, dissolved organic carbon, and other materials into the Arctic Ocean. The rapidly increasing knowledge base on the ecology of these waters and their associated lakes is summarized, including the abundant lakes and ponds over their delta flood-plains, and the large stamukhi lakes that form behind thick sea ice at the river mouths.
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